List of ethnic riots

  (Redirected from Race riot)

This is a list of ethnic riots by country, and includes riots based on ethnic, sectarian, xenophobic, and racial conflict. Some of these riots can also be classified as pogroms.

AfricaEdit

Country Riot Notes References
Burundi 1972 Ikiza
1993 ethnic violence in Burundi
Côte d'Ivoire 2004 French–Ivorian clashes [1][2]
Egypt 1945 Anti-Jewish riots in Egypt
Ghana see: Ethnic conflict in Ghana
Kenya

(see: Ethnic conflicts in Kenya)

Somali–Kenyan conflict
2012 Baragoi clashes
2012–13 Tana River District clashes
Lesotho 2007 Anti-Chinese riot in Maseru [3]
Libya 1945 Anti-Jewish riots in Tripolitania
1948 Anti-Jewish riots in Tripolitania
Mauritania 1989 race riots in Mauritania Riots took place during Mauritania–Senegal Border War [4]
Mauritius 1906 Pagoda riots
1911 Curepipe riots
1937 Uba riots
1943 Belle Vue Harel Massacre
1965 Mauritius race riots
1968 Mauritian riots
1999 Mauritian riots
1999 L'Amicale riots
Nigeria 1966 anti-Igbo pogrom
Rhodesia 1925 Kananga riot[citation needed]
South Africa 1949 Anti-Indian riots in Durban These riots, taking place between 13–14 January 1949, were a pogrom in which Indians were targeted, predominantly by Zulus. In total 142 Asians died and another 1,087 people were injured; the riot resulted in the massacre of mostly poor Indians. It also led to the destruction of 58 shops, 247 dwellings, and one factory. [5]
1976 Soweto uprising
1985 Anti-Indian riot in Durban This riot came as Zulu youth spilled into Asian suburbs of Durban (including Inanda) during the night. While this event was less severe in its intensity and of much shorter duration than the 1949 riots, this riot also saw hundreds of South-African Indians families fleeing their neighbourhoods in order to escape Zulu rioters who looted and torched their homes on the night of 7 August 1985. [6][7][8]
2007 Anti-Somali riot in Port Elizabeth [9]
2020 riot in Senekal Protests in response to the killing of Brendin Horner turned violent. Rioters, largely Boers, stormed the courthouse where the two perpetrators were being held. Gunfire was exchanged, and a police van outside was turned over and set alight. [10]
Tanzania 1964 Zanzibar Revolution Took place on 12 January 1964. [11][12]

AmericasEdit

Country Riot Notes References
Brazil 1823 Anti-Portuguese riots in Rio de Janeiro [13]
1831 Anti-Portuguese riots in Salvador
Canada 1784 Shelburne riots in Nova Scotia These riots took place in July 1784 by landless white Loyalist veterans of the American War of Independence against Black Loyalists and government officials in the Nova Scotian town of Shelburne, and the nearby village of Birchtown.

They are considered the first race riots in Canada, and are one of the earliest recorded race riots in North America.

[14]
1835–45 Shiners' War
1875 Jubilee riots in Toronto
1907 Anti-Oriental riots in Vancouver As part of the larger anti-Asian Pacific Coast race riots of 1907, along the west coast of Canada and the US.
1918 Toronto anti-Greek riot
1933 Christie Pits riot in Toronto
1969 Sir George Williams affair
Mexico 1911 Torreón massacre
Peru 1880s anti-Chinese riots Peruvians held the Chinese as responsible for Chile's invasion during the War of the Pacific, due to Chinese support for Chile throughout the war. This would stem a sense of sinophobia among Peruvians, the first of its kind in Latin America.

In the Cañete region, Chinese immigrants were massacred by Afro-Peruvian peasants, led by women during the War of the Pacific. Following the war, Chinese were further targeted and murdered by native Peruvians. In the central Sierra, armed indigenous peasants sacked and occupied the haciendas of landed elite Criollo 'collaborationists', a majority of whom were of ethnic-Chinese descent. In Lima, Indigenous and mestizo Peruvians murdered Chinese shopkeepers. In response, Chinese coolies revolted, some even joining the Chilean Army. It was not until 1890s that anti-Chinese pogroms ended in Peru.

[15][16][17][18]
1880s Indigenous uprising against White Peruvians [19]

United StatesEdit

Nativist Period: 1700s–1860Edit

Civil War Period: 1861–1865Edit

Reconstruction Period: 1865–1877Edit

Jim Crow Period: 1878–1914Edit

War and interwar period: 1914–1945Edit

Postwar era: 1946–1954Edit

Civil Rights and Black Power Movement's Period: 1955–1977Edit

1978 to todayEdit

  • 1978: Houston, TX — Moody Park Riot (on the first anniversary of Joe Campos Torres' death).
  • 1979: Worcester, MA — Great Brook Valley Projects Riots (Puerto Ricans rioted)
  • 1980: Miami, FL — Miami riots (riots in reaction to the acquittal of four Miami-Dade Police officers in the death of Arthur McDuffie).
  • 1980: Chattanooga, TN — Chattanooga riot[citation needed]
  • 1984: Lawrence, MA — Lawrence race riot (a small scale riot centered at the intersection of Haverhill and railroad streets between working class whites and Hispanics; several buildings were destroyed by Molotov cocktails; August 8, 1984).[37]
  • 1989: Miami, FL — Overtown riot (two nights of rioting by residents after a black motorcyclist was shot by a Hispanic police officer in the predominantly black community of Overtown. The officer was later convicted of manslaughter).
  • 1990: Miami, FL — Wynwood riot (Puerto Ricans rioted after a jury acquitted six officers accused of beating a Puerto Rican drug dealer to death)
  • 1991: Brooklyn, New York, NY — Crown Heights riot (black anti-Jewish mob killed 2, injured 190).
  • 1992: Los Angeles, CA — Los Angeles riots (riots in reaction to the acquittal of all four LAPD officers involved in the videotaped beating of Rodney King, in addition to the Korean involved in the murder of Latasha Harlins; riots broke out mainly involving black and Latino youths in the black neighborhoods of South Central LA and in the neighborhood of Koreatown before spreading to the rest of the city)
  • 1996: St. Petersburg, FL — St. Petersburg riots (2-day riots that broke out after 18-year-old Tyron Lewis was fatally shot by Officer Jim Knight, who stopped Lewis for speeding and claimed to have accidentally fire his weapon).
  • 2001: Cincinnati, OH — Cincinnati riots (riots in a reaction to the fatal shooting of an unarmed young black male, Timothy Thomas by Cincinnati police officer Steven Roach).
  • 2003: Benton Harbor, MI — Benton Harbor riots
  • 2005: Toledo, OH — 2005 Toledo riot (a race riot that broke out after a planned Neo-Nazi protest march through a black neighborhood).
  • 2006: Fontana, CA — Fontana High School riot (riot involving about 500 Latino and black students)[38]
  • 2006: California — Prison race riots (a series of riots across California set off by a war between Latino and black prison gangs)[39][40]
  • 2008: Los Angeles, CA — Locke High School riot[41]
  • 2009: Oakland, CA — 2009 Oakland riots (peaceful protests turned into rioting after the fatal shooting of Oscar Grant, an unarmed black man, by a BART transit policeman).
  • 2014–2015: Ferguson, MO — The Ferguson unrest (a series of riots that broke out over the shooting of Michael Brown).
    • 2014 August: riots for two weeks after the initial shooting of Brown.
    • 2014 November – December: riots for one week after the police officer who shot Brown was not indicted.
    • 2015 August: riots for two days during the anniversary of Brown's shooting.
  • 2015: Baltimore, MD — 2015 Baltimore riots (protests-turned-riots following the death of Freddie Gray, an incident in which a suspect died in police custody)
  • 2016: Salt Lake City, UT — Riots sparked by the shooting of Abdullahi Omar Mohamed.
  • 2020: Nationwide — 2020 riots (protests-turned-riots that broke out across the US following the murder of George Floyd).

AsiaEdit

Country Riot Notes References
Azerbaijan

(incl. Soviet Azerbaijan)

1988 Sumgait pogrom Anti-Armenian pogrom riots in Azerbaijan SSR during February 1988
1988 Kirovabad pogrom Anti-Armenian pogrom
1990 Baku pogrom Anti-Armenian pogrom
Bahrain 1947 Manama riots
Bangladesh

(including East Pakistan)

1946 Noakhali riots
1950 Barisal riots
1964 East-Pakistan riots
1990 Bangladesh anti-Hindu violence
2012 Hathazari violence
2012 Ramu violence
2013 Bangladesh anti-Hindu violence
2014 Bangladesh anti-Hindu violence
Burma (Myanmar)

(see also: Rohingya conflict)

1930 Rangoon riots Anti-Indian riots
1997 Mandalay riots Anti-Muslim riots
2001 Taungoo riots Anti-Muslim riots
2012 Rakhine State riots
2013 Myanmar anti-Muslim riots
2017 Tula Toli massacre
China

(including Tibet)

1988 Nanjing anti-African protests
1997 Ghulja incident [42]
2002 Yizhou riots
2008 Tibetan unrest
2008 Uyghur unrest
2009 Shaoguan incident
July 2009 Ürümqi riots
India (incl. British Raj)

(see also: Violence against Muslims in India)

1882 Salem riots
1895 Kalugumalai riots
1899 Sivakasi riots
1918 Kamuthi looting
1984 anti-Sikh riots Includes also the Hondh-Chillar massacre
1997–98 Kuki–Paite ethnic clash
2012 Assam riots
2016 Dhulagarh riots
2019 Tabrez Ansari lynching
Ethnic conflict in Nagaland
Indonesia (incl. Dutch East Indies) 1740 Batavia massacre Pogrom in which Dutch East Indies soldiers and natives killed ethnic Chinese residents of Batavia.
1918 Kudus riot Anti-Chinese riot in Kudus
1965 riots in Sumatra and Kalimantan Anti-Chinese riots [43]
1998 Jakarta riots Anti-Chinese riots [44]
1999 Sambas riots
2001 Sampit conflict
Israel

(excl. Mandatory Palestine, see below)

1947 Jerusalem riots
1936 Tulkarm shooting retaliation in Tel Aviv
1959 Wadi Salib riots
1988–92 First Intifada
2008 riots in Acre Sectarian violence erupted on 8 October 2008 turning into 5 days of violence after an Arab-Israeli citizen drove through a predominantly Jewish neighbourhood during Yom Kippur. [45][46][47]
2012 race riots in Tel Aviv Race riots by Jewish Israelis against black-African immigrants took place in May 2012 after the rape of an elderly woman and an underage Israeli girl by 3 Eritrean men. [48][49][50][51]
2015 riots in Tel Aviv After an Ethiopian-born IDF officer was beaten by an Israeli police officer and police volunteer, protests in Tel Aviv against racism and police brutality turned violent, with injuries among protesters and police. [52]
Kazakhstan

(see: Ethnic conflicts in Kazakhstan)

1951 anti-Chechen pogrom in Eastern Kazakhstan
2020 Dungan–Kazakh ethnic clashes
Kyrgyzstan (incl.Kyrgyz SSR) 1990 Osh riots An ethnic conflict between ethnic Kyrgyz and Uzbeks that took place in June 1990 in the Kyrgyz SSR
2010 South Kyrgyzstan ethnic clashes
Malaysia 1969 May 13 incident Sectarian violence in Kuala Lumpur
2001 Kampung Medan riots
Pakistan see: Sectarian violence in Pakistan
Palestine (British Mandate)

(see also: Timeline of intercommunal conflict in Mandatory Palestine)

1920 Nebi Musa riots Anti-Jewish riots by Arabs in Jerusalem
1921 Jaffa riots Anti-Jewish riots by Arabs in Jaffa
1929 Palestine riots Anti-Jewish riots by Arabs in Hebron, Safed, Jerusalem, and Jaffa
1933 Palestine riots Anti-Jewish riots due to Jewish immigration
1938 Tiberias massacre
1947 Jerusalem riots Anti-Jewish riots by Arabs in Jerusalem
Philippines see: Ethnic issues in the Philippines
Singapore 1950 Maria Hertogh riots
1964 race riots in Singapore
1969 race riots of Singapore
2013 Little India riot
Sri Lanka (Ceylon)

(see: Riots and pogroms in Sri Lanka)

1958 anti-Tamil pogrom
1977 anti-Tamil pogrom
Black July Another anti-Tamil riot
1915 Sinhalese-Muslim riots Nationwide riot
1956 anti-Tamil pogrom Riots in Gal Oya
1981 Burning of Jaffna Public Library
1983 Black July
2000 Bindunuwewe riots
2006 Trincomalee massacre
2014 anti-Muslim riots in Sri Lanka
2018 anti-Muslim riots in Sri Lanka
2019 anti-Muslim riots in Sri Lanka
Syria 1947 anti-Jewish riots in Aleppo
Uzbekistan (incl. Uzbek SSR) 1989 Fergana massacre After bloody riots against the Meskhetian Turks in Central Asia's Fergana Valley, nearly 90,000 Meskhetian Turks left Uzbekistan [53]
Tajikistan (incl. Tajik SSR) 1990 Dushanbe riots anti-Armenian unrest in Dushanbe, the capital of the Tajik SSR, from February 12–14, 1990.

EuropeEdit

Country Riot Notes References
Belgium 1941 Antwerp pogrom
2006 Brussels riots
Bulgaria 2007 Anti-Romani riots in Sofia [54]
2019 Anti-Romani riots in Gabrovo A mob of approximately 1000 Bulgarians rioted for four nights following the assault of a Bulgarian shop worker by Romani youths. Property destruction of the Romani area ensued. [55]
Denmark 1873 St. Croix labor riot St. Croix Agricultural labor rioted against landlords and labor laws.
1820–1822 Jewish skirmishes[citation needed] Riots in various Danish and German cities and towns.
France 2005 Perpignan riots Riots in Perpignan between Maghrebi and Romani communities after a man of Maghrebi descent was shot dead. [56]
2009 riots in Avignon[citation needed] Riots in September 2009 between Turkish and Moroccan youths (one youth of African descent was dead)
2015 Corsican protests Conflict between locals and immigrants in December 2015 in Ajaccio.
2020 Dijon riots These riots between members of the Chechen diaspora and the resident Arab community occurred due to an assault on a Chechen teenager by Arab drug dealers. [57]
Germany 1819 Hep-Hep riots
1938 Kristallnacht Anti-Jewish riots that would precipitate the Holocaust
Neo-Nazi marches in Dresden These marches have sparked many riots as recently as August 2015.[58]
1991 Hoyerswerda riots
1992 Rostock-Lichtenhagen riots
Greece 1990 Komotini events
Kosovo 2000 riots in Kosovo
2004 pogrom in Kosovo
Italy 2007 Chinese riot in Milan [59][60]
2010 African-immigrant riots in Rosarno [61]
2011 African-immigrant riots in Bari [62][63]
2011 African-immigrant riots in Lampedusa Riots involving mostly Tunisians [64]
2015 riots in Sassari Riots as result of refugees refusing to reside in provided buildings [65]
2016 anti-Arab riots in Sesto Fiorentino Chinese-Italian riots against Arab immigrants and refugees [66][67][68]
2018 Italian-Senegalese riots in Florence Senegal community riot the city of Florence [69]
North Macedonia 2001 insurgency in Macedonia
2012 Republic of Macedonia inter-ethnic violence
2017 storming of Macedonian Parliament
Norway 2008–2009 Oslo riots
Poland 1936 Przytyk pogrom anti-Jewish riots in Przytyk, on March 9, 1936
1945 Kraków pogrom anti-Jewish riots that occurred on August 11, 1945, in the city of Kraków
1946 Kielce pogrom an outbreak of violence against the Jewish community of Kielce, Poland on July 4, 1946
1991 Mława pogrom a series of violent incidents in June 1991, when a crowd attacked Roma residents of the Polish town of Mława
2017 Ełk riots During the New Year's Eve, a Polish man was stabbed to death by a Tunisian man - incident sparked the riots.
Romania 1990 ethnic clashes of Târgu Mureș
1993 Hădăreni riots
Russia

(see also: Ethnic conflicts in the Soviet Union)

Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire
2006 ethnic tensions in Kondopoga Anti-immigrant riots in Kondopoga, Karelia
2010 Manezhnaya Square riot trials Anti-immigrant riots on Moscow's Manezhnaya Square following the murder of Egor Sviridov
2013 Biryulyovo riots Anti-immigrant riots in Biryulyovo District, Moscow
Spain 2000 race riot in Almería [70]
2007 riots in Madrid [71]
2008 immigrant riots in Roquetas de Mar Riot between Senegalese and Roma (Gypsy) families [72]
2015 African riot in Salou [73]
Sweden 2010 Rinkeby riots
2013 December Stockholm riots
2013 May Stockholm riots
2016 riots in Sweden
2017 Rinkeby riots
2020 Sweden riots
Turkey 1934 Thrace pogroms Anti-Jewish pogrom in Eastern Thrace
1955 Istanbul pogroms
1980 Çorum massacre
Ukraine 1821 Odessa pogrom
1881 Kiev pogrom
1905 Odessa pogrom
1905 Chernihiv pogrom
1905 Kiev pogrom
1914 Lwów pogrom
1918 Lwów pogrom
1919 Kiev pogroms
1941 Lviv pogroms
2014 Odessa clashes Part of the larger pro-Russian unrest, these riots culminated in the 2 May city clashes, pro-Ukrainian rioters burned the House of Trade Unions where pro-Russian rioters barricaded themselves. [74]
2016 anti-Romani riot in Odessa Local villagers attack Romani settlement in Odessa after the body of a 9 year old girl was discovered. [75]
United Kingdom 1919 riot in South Shields February 1919
1919 riots in Cardiff June 1919
1919 riot in Liverpool June 1919
1919 riots in London In Stepney in April; on St Anne Street in May; and on Cable Street and Poplar in June
1921 Bloody Sunday
1947 anti-Jewish riots in Birkenhead
1948 riot in Liverpool August 1948
1958 riot in Nottingham August 1958
1958 Notting Hill race riots
1975 Chapeltown riot
1976 Notting Hill race riots
1979 Southall race riot London, 23 April 1979
1980 St. Pauls riot In Bristol
1981 Brixton riot London, April 1981
1981 Toxteth riots Liverpool, July 1981
1981 Handsworth riots Birmingham July 1981
1981 Chapeltown Caribbean riot
1981 Moss Side riot
1985 Peckham riot
1985 Handsworth riots Birmingham July 1985
1985 Brixton riot London, September 1985
1985 Broadwater Farm riot London, October 1985
1987 Chapeltown riot
1989 Dewsbury riot
1991 Meadow Well riots
2001 Oldham riots Oldham, May 2001
2001 riots in Burnley Burnley, June 2001
2001 Bradford riots Bradford, July 2001
2001 riots in Stoke-on-Trent
2005 Birmingham riots
2011 London riots
2021 Northern Ireland riots Riots by Loyalist youths due to post-Brexit trading arrangements and the refusal of the PSNI to prosecute a Sinn Fein member's attendance of an illegal funeral. Eventually escalated when Loyalists threw petrol bombs into a nationalist area. [76]

OceaniaEdit

Country Riot Notes References
Australia

(see: Racial violence in Australia)

1857 Buckland riot
1860–61 Lambing Flat riots
Broome riots (1905, 1914, 1920)
1915 anti-Greek riots in Perth[citation needed]
1916 anti-Greek riots in Kalgoorlie[citation needed]
2004 Redfern riots
2004 Palm Island riot
2005 Cronulla riots
Fiji 2000 anti-Indian riots Race riots following the 2000 Fijian coup d'état attempt [77]
New Zealand 1943 Battle of Manners Street Conflict in Wellington involving American servicemen and New Zealand servicemen
Solomon Islands 2006 Anti-Chinese riots in Honiara [78]
Tonga 2006 Anti-Chinese riots in Nukuʻalofa [79]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Rwanda Syndrome on the Ivory Coast". Worldpress.org. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  2. ^ "France's 'Little Iraq'". Archived from the original on October 8, 2013.
  3. ^ "Anti-Chinese resentment flares". IRIN. 24 January 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  4. ^ "Mauritania profile". Bbc.co.uk. 7 August 2017. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
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  6. ^ "VIOLENCE SPREADS IN DURBAN AREA OF SOUTH AFRICA." New York Times. 1985 August 10.
  7. ^ United Press International. 1985 August 8. "19 REPORTED DEAD IN SOUTH AFRICA RIOTING SPREADS TO ASIAN SUBURBS." South Florida Sun-Sentinel.
  8. ^ Hassen, Fakir. 2006 May 23. "Current Africa race riots like 1949 anti-Indian riots: minister." The Indian Star. Archived from the original on 2009-02-03.
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  13. ^ Rebelions in Bahia Archived 2011-11-21 at the Wayback Machine
  14. ^ Robertson, Jesse. 2014 November 19. "The Shelburne Race Riots." The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada (last updated January 20, 2015).
  15. ^ Peloso, Vincent C. 2005. "Racial Conflict and Identity Crisis in Wartime Peru: Revisiting the Cañete Massacre of 1881." Social Identities 11(5):467–88. ‹See Tfd›doi:10.1080/13504630500407919
  16. ^ Kapsoli, Wilfredo. 1979. "El Peru en una coyuntura de crisis, 1879–1883." Pp. 35–36 in La Guerra del Pacífico, vol. 1, edited by W. Reategui, W. Kapsoli, et al. Lima: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. pp. 238 & ff
  17. ^ Taylor, Lewis. Indigenous Peasant Rebellions in Peru during the 1880s
  18. ^ Bonilla, Heraclio. 1978. "The National and Colonial Problem in Peru." Past and Present
  19. ^ de los Rios, Ramon Aranda, and Carmela Sotomayor Roggero. 1979. "Una sublevación negra en Chincha: 1879." In La Guerra del Pacífico, vol. 1, edited by W. Reategui, W. Kapsoli, et al. Lima: Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. pp. 238 & ff
  20. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2011-01-12. Retrieved 2010-11-17.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  21. ^ August 'Snow-Storm' Brought Devastation To D.C.. NPR. July 5, 2012.
  22. ^ Snow-Storm in August: Washington City, Francis Scott Key, and the Forgotten Race Riot of 1835. 2012 book by Jefferson Morley.
  23. ^ No deaths were reported, but all Chinese and most other Asians were expelled from Seattle and Tacoma. Schwantes, Carlos A. "Protest in a Promised Land: Unemployment, Disinheritance, and the Origin of Labor Militancy in the Pacific Northwest, 1885–1886." Western Historical Quarterly. 13:4 (October 1982).
  24. ^ Thirty African Americans died. Robert A. Gibson, The Negro Holocaust: Lynching and Race Riots in the United States, 1880–1950, Yale University, 1979.
  25. ^ a b c Carter, Darnell (1993). "The 1904, 1906, and 1921 Race Riots in Springfield, Ohio and the Hoodlum Theory". Etd.ohiolink.edu. Retrieved 23 April 2016.
  26. ^ Ten African Americans and two Caucasians died. Robert A. Gibson, The Negro Holocaust: Lynching and Race Riots in the United States, 1880–1950, Yale University, 1979.
  27. ^ Two African Americans and four Caucasians died. Robert A. Gibson, The Negro Holocaust: Lynching and Race Riots in the United States, 1880–1950, Yale University, 1979; Roberta Senechal, "Springfield Race Riot of 1908," Illinois History Teacher, Summer/Fall 1996.
  28. ^ According to federal, state and local government investigators, 39 African Americans died. But civilian investigations shortly after the riot indicate that between 100 and 200 African Americans died. The riot was notable for the brutality of white attackers, who used scalping, gouging out of eyes of victims. Some children were seen to kill others. Elliott M. Rudwick, Race Riot at East St. Louis, Southern Illinois University Press, 1964.
  29. ^ Twenty-three African Americans and 15 Caucasians died. Robert A. Gibson, The Negro Holocaust: Lynching and Race Riots in the United States, 1880–1950, Yale University, 1979.
  30. ^ Officially, 39 African Americans died. But more recent estimates are that between 150 and 200 African Americans and 50 Caucasians died, and some sources put the number of black dead at 300. James S. Hirsch, Riot and Remembrance: America's Worst Race Riot and Its Legacy, Mariner Books, 2003. ISBN 0-618-34076-9; Robert A. Gibson, The Negro Holocaust: Lynching and Race Riots in the United States, 1880–1950, Yale University, 1979.
  31. ^ Officially, six African Americans and two Caucasians died. However, there is disagreement about the number of dead, and some estimates place the number of black dead between 40 and 150. Michael D'Orso, Like Judgment Day: The Ruin and Redemption of a Town Called Rosewood, Putnam Books, 1996. ISBN 1-57297-256-4.
  32. ^ a b "IV. Timeline: Asian Americans in Washington State History". Center for the Study of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  33. ^ a b "Racial Riots". Office of Multicultural Student Services. University of Hawaii. Archived from the original on 6 January 2012. Retrieved 5 January 2012.
  34. ^ Twenty-five African Americans and nine Caucasians died. Robert A. Gibson, The Negro Holocaust: Lynching and Race Riots in the United States, 1880–1950, Yale University, 1979.
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  44. ^ Anti-Chinese riots continue in Indonesia, CNN
  45. ^ Acre faces fourth night of riots, Al Jazeera English
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  52. ^ Anti-Police Protest in Israel Turns Violent The New York Times, 3 May 2015
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  67. ^ Staff Reporter (1 July 2016). "Chinese 'White Stags' wage race war against Arab migrants in Tuscany town". Ibtimes.co.uk. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
  68. ^ "Two held for Chinese riot near Florence – English". Ansa.it. 30 June 2016. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
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  72. ^ African immigrants riot in Spain, BBC NEWS
  73. ^ Valentin, Jose. "Riot police quell tension in Salou after street vendor dies in raid". Euroweeklynews.com. Retrieved 17 September 2017.
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