General of the Army (United States)
General of the Army (abbreviated as GA) is a five-star general officer and the second highest possible rank in the United States Army. A General of the Army ranks immediately above a general and is equivalent to a Fleet Admiral and a General of the Air Force. There is no established equivalent five-star rank in the other federal uniformed services (Marine Corps, Coast Guard, United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps). Often called a "five-star general", the rank of General of the Army has historically been reserved for wartime use and is not currently active in the U.S. military. The General of the Army insignia consisted of five 3/8th inch stars in a pentagonal pattern, with points touching. The insignia was paired with the gold and enameled United States Coat of Arms on service coat shoulder loops. The silver colored five-star metal insignia alone would be worn for use as a collar insignia of grade and on the garrison cap. Soft shoulder epaulettes with five 7/16th inch stars in silver thread and gold-threaded United States Coat of Arms on green cloth were worn with shirts and sweaters.
|General of the Army|
Army service uniform shoulder strap with the rank of General of the Army.
Rank flag of a General of the Army.
|Country||United States of America|
|Service branch||United States Army|
|Formation||July 25, 1866|
|Next higher rank||General of the Armies|
|Next lower rank||General|
The rank of "General of the Army" has had two incarnations. The rank was introduced in 1866, the year after the American Civil War. It was reserved for the single senior officer of the U.S. Army, was a four-star rank, and was held by three different individuals from 1866 to 1888. The rank was revived as the modern five-star rank during World War II, and may be awarded to more than one serving officer at a time. It was held by five different individuals from 1944 to 1981. A special rank of General of the Armies, which ranks above General of the Army, exists but has been conferred only twice, a four-star rank with unique gold (rather than silver) stars to World War I's John J. Pershing, and posthumously to George Washington, by proclamation 177 years after his death, with no specific star insignia designated.
Post–American Civil War eraEdit
On 25 July 1866, the U.S. Congress established the rank of "General of the Army of the United States" for General Ulysses S. Grant. His pay was "four hundred dollars per month, and his allowance for fuel and quarters", except "when his headquarters are in Washington, shall be at the rate of three hundred dollars per month." (His combined monthly pay and allowance of seven hundred dollars in 1866 is equivalent to $12,000 in 2018). When appointed General of the Army, Grant wore the rank insignia of four stars and coat buttons arranged in three groups of four.
Unlike the World War II rank with a similar title, the 1866 rank of General of the Army was a four-star rank. This rank held all the authority and power of a 1799 proposal for a rank of "General of the Armies", even though Grant was never called by this title.
In contrast to the modern four-star rank of general, only one officer at a time could hold the 1866–1888 rank of General of the Army. For a few months in 1885, as he was dying, Grant was accorded a special honor and his rank was restored by Congressional legislation.
After Grant became U.S. president, he was succeeded as General of the Army by William T. Sherman, effective 4 March 1869. In 1872, Sherman ordered the insignia changed to two stars, with the coat of arms of the United States in between.
By an Act of Congress on 1 June 1888, the grade was conferred upon Philip Sheridan, who by then was in failing health. The rank of General of the Army ceased to exist with Sheridan's death on 5 August 1888.
World War II and Korean War eraEdit
As the logistics and military leadership requirements of World War II escalated after the June 1944 Normandy Landings, the United States government created a new version of General of the Army. The five-star rank and authority of General of the Army and equivalent naval Fleet Admiral was created by an Act of Congress on a temporary basis when Pub.L. 78–482 was passed on 14 December 1944, which provided only 75% of pay and allowances to the grade for those on the retired list. The rank was temporary, subject to reversion to permanent rank six months after the end of the war. The temporary rank was then declared permanent on 23 March 1946 by Pub.L. 79–333, which also awarded full pay and allowances in the grade to those on the retired list. It was created to give the most senior American commanders parity of rank with their British counterparts holding the ranks of field marshal and admiral of the fleet. This second General of the Army rank is not the same as the post-Civil War era version because of its purpose and five stars.
The insignia for the 1944 General of the Army rank consists of five stars in a pentagonal pattern, with points touching. The five officers who have held the 1944 version of General of the Army and the date of each's appointment are as follows:
|•||George Marshall||16 December 1944|
|•||Douglas MacArthur||18 December 1944|
|•||Dwight D. Eisenhower||20 December 1944|
|•||Henry H. Arnold||21 December 1944|
|•||Omar Bradley||22 September 1950|
|•||William D. Leahy||15 December 1944|
|•||Ernest J. King||17 December 1944|
|•||Chester W. Nimitz||19 December 1944|
This was to establish both an order of seniority among the generals and a near-equivalence between the services. The final naval appointment of a five-star rank was that of William Halsey, Jr. on 11 December 1945.
Although briefly considered, the U.S. Army did not introduce a rank of Field Marshal. In the United States, the term "Marshal" has traditionally been used for civilian law enforcement officers, particularly the U.S. Marshals, as well as formerly for state and local police chiefs. In addition, giving the rank the name "marshal" would have resulted in George Marshall being designated as "Field Marshal Marshall", which was considered undignified.
Eisenhower resigned his army commission on 31 May 1952 to run for the U.S. presidency. After Eisenhower was elected and served two terms, President John F. Kennedy signed Pub.L. 87–3 on 22 March 1961, which authorized reappointing Eisenhower "to the active list of the Regular Army in his former grade, of General of the Army with his former date of rank in such grade". This rank is today commemorated on the signs denoting Interstate Highways as part of the Eisenhower Interstate System, which display five silver stars on a light blue background.
Arnold, a general in the Army, was the Commanding General of the Army Air Forces when he was promoted to the rank of General of the Army. After the United States Air Force became a separate service on 18 September 1947, Arnold's rank was carried over to the Air Force, just as all Army Air Force personnel, equipment, etc. also carried over. Arnold was the first and, to date, only General of the Air Force. He is also the only person to have ever held a five-star rank in two branches of the U.S. Armed Forces.
These officers who held the rank of General of the Army remained officers of the United States Army for life, with an annual $20,000 in pay and allowances, equivalent to $285,000 in 2018. They were entitled to an office maintained by the Army along with an aide (of the rank of colonel), a secretary, and an orderly.
No officers have been appointed to the rank of General of the Army since Omar Bradley. The rank of General of the Army is still maintained as a rank of the U.S. military, and could again be bestowed, most likely during a time of major war, pending approval of the United States Senate. United States military policy since the creation of a fifth star in World War II has been to award it only when a commander of U.S. forces must be equal to or of higher rank than commanders of armies from another nation under his control. However, the President, with consent from the Senate, may award a fifth star at any time he or she sees fit.
Although the first Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS), Omar Bradley, was eventually awarded a fifth star, such a promotion does not come with that office; Bradley's elevation was a political move so that he would not be outranked by his subordinate, Douglas MacArthur.
After the conclusion of the Persian Gulf War, but before his tenure as Secretary of State, there was talk of awarding a fifth star to General Colin Powell, who had served as CJCS during the conflict. But even in the face of public and Congressional pressure to do so, Clinton presidential transition team staffers decided against it for political reasons, fearing that a fifth star may have assisted Powell had he decided to run for office. An effort was also made to promote General Norman Schwarzkopf Jr. to General of the Army, although it was not carried out.
As recently as the late 2000s, some commentators proposed that the military leader in the Global War on Terrorism be promoted to a five-star rank. In January 2011, the founders of the Vets for Freedom political advocacy group published an op-ed in the Wall Street Journal calling for David Petraeus to be awarded a fifth star in recognition of his work and the importance of his mission. Earlier, in July 2010, D.B. Grady wrote an article in The Atlantic supporting the same promotion.
General of the ArmiesEdit
The rank of General of the Armies is senior to General of the Army, and this rank has been bestowed on only two officers in U.S. history. In 1919, John J. Pershing was promoted to General of the Armies for his services in World War I. In 1976, George Washington was posthumously promoted to this rank for his service as the first commanding general of the United States Army. In 1903, retroactive to 1899, George Dewey was promoted to Admiral of the Navy, a rank equivalent to General of the Armies.
When the five-star rank of General of the Army was introduced, it was decided that General Pershing, who was still living, would be superior in rank to all the newly appointed Generals of the Army. Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson was asked whether Pershing was therefore a five-star general (at that time the highest rank was a four-star general). Stimson stated:
It appears the intent of the Army was to make the General of the Armies senior in grade to the General of the Army. I have advised Congress that the War Department concurs in such proposed action.
Section 7 of Public Law 78-482 read: "Nothing in this Act shall affect the provisions of the Act of September 3, 1919 (41 Stat. 283: 10 U.S.C. 671a), or any other law relating to the office of General of the Armies of the United States."
George Washington was posthumously promoted to the rank of General of the Armies on 15 March 1978 by Secretary of the Army Clifford Alexander. In relation to America's bicentennial celebration, Congress passed legislation on 19 January 1976 urging Washington's promotion and President Gerald Ford approved it in October 1976, but historians found that Congressional and Presidential actions were not enough, that the Army had to issue orders to make the promotion official. According to Public Law 94-479, General of the Armies of the United States is established as having "rank and precedence over all other grades of the Army, past or present", clearly making it superior in grade to General of the Army. Thus, Washington will always be the most senior general of the United States. During his lifetime, Washington was appointed a general in the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War, and a three-star lieutenant general in the Regular Army during the Quasi-War with France.
The rank of General of the Army is equivalent to the U.S. Air Force's rank of General of the Air Force and the U.S. Navy's rank of Fleet Admiral. The other uniformed services of the United States (U.S. Marine Corps, U.S. Coast Guard, and the commissioned corps of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and of the U.S. Public Health Service) do not have an equivalent rank.
In foreign militaries, the equivalent rank is typically Marshal or Field Marshal. In the British Army, Field Marshal was traditionally the highest rank a general officer could be promoted to, but is now a ceremonial rank. Russia uses the rank of Marshal of the Russian Federation.
- "Army Regutation 600-20, see table 1-1" (PDF): 3.
- "Army Regutation 600-20, see table 1-2 on page 5" (PDF).
- "U.S. Army Five Star Generals – Frequently Asked Questions". history.army.mil. U.S. Army Center of Military History. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- "Public Law 94-479" (PDF). gpo.gov. United States Government Printing Office. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- Ulysses S. Grant, General of the Army, General Orders No. 52, http://www.ulyssessgrant.org/p/general-of-army.html
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- "Public Law 78-482" (PDF). legisworks.org. Legis Works. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- "Public Law 333, 79th Congress". Naval Historical Center. April 11, 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-10-13. Retrieved 2007-10-22. The retirement provisions were also applied to the World War II Commandant of the Marine Corps and the Commandant of the Coast Guard, both of whom held four-star rank.
- "Public Law 79-333" (PDF). legisworks.org. Legis Works. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- Leonard Mosley, Marshall, hero for our times (1982), 270, available at Google Books
- Sydney Louis Mayer, The biography of General of the Army, Douglas MacArthur (1984), 70, available at Google Books
- Eric Larrabee, Commander in chief: Franklin Delano Roosevelt, his lieutenants, and their war (2004), 200, available at Google Books
- Stuart H. Loory, Defeated; inside America's military machine (1973), 78, available at Google Books
- "John F. Kennedy: Letter to President Eisenhower Upon Signing Bill Restoring His Military Rank". www.presidency.ucsb.edu.
- "Public Law 87-3" (PDF). gpo.gov. United States Government Printing Office. Retrieved 19 October 2015.
- Jean Edward Smith (2012). Eisenhower in War and Peace. Random House. pp. 761–2. ISBN 978-1-4000-6693-3.
- "Eisenhower Military Ranks". Eisenhower Presidential Center. Archived from the original on 2007-06-12. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
- "Eisenhower Resigned as General". Eisenhower Presidential Center. Archived from the original on June 12, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-22.
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- James 1985, pp. 661–662.
- Uldrich, Jack (2005). Soldier, statesman, peacemaker: leadership lessons from George C. Marshall. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-8144-0857-5. Retrieved February 21, 2011.
- Taylor, E. Kelly (2009). America's Army and the Language of Grunts: Understanding the Army Lingo Legacy. AuthorHouse. p. 283. ISBN 978-1-4389-6250-4. Retrieved February 25, 2011.
The rank was created during World War II because of the enormity of the war, and the fact that several American commanders found themselves in the awkward position of commanding Allied officers of higher rank
- "U.S. Sen. Kasten Pushing Effort To Award Powell With Historic Fifth Star". Jet. 79 (23). March 1991. ISSN 0021-5996. Retrieved February 21, 2011.
...there is a movement afoot in the U.S. Senate to award an historic fifth star to the nation's first Black Joint Chiefs of Staff Chairman Gen. Colin L. Powell for his military proficiency.
- Stephanopoulos, George (1999). All Too Human: A Political Education. Thorndike Press. pp. 330–331. ISBN 978-0-7862-2016-8. Retrieved February 21, 2011.
Mack asked me to secretly research the procedure for awarding a fifth star to a general. [...] If Powell did challenge Clinton, the fifth star would forestall criticism of the general's military record.
- Abrams, Jim (March 22, 1991). "Higher rank not in the stars for nation's top generals". Associated Press.
Bradley received his fifth star in 1950 when he became chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff so he would not be outranked by MacArthur.
- Tillman, Barrett (2004). Brassey's D-Day encyclopedia: the Normandy invasion A-Z. Brassey's. p. 48. ISBN 978-1-57488-760-0. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
MacArthur, having been army chief of staff before World War II, was senior to everyone on the Joint Chiefs, and some observers felt that Bradley was given his fifth star in order to deal with the vainglorious field commander on an equal footing.
- Organizing for National Security: The Role of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. Institute for Foreign Analysis. January 1986. p. 11. Retrieved February 21, 2011.
There was some discussion of the proposal to grant the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs five-star rank, as a symbol of his status as the most senior officer in the armed forces.
- Jones, Logan (February 2000). "Toward the Valued Idea of Jointness: The Need for Unity of Command in U.S. Armed Forces" (PDF). Naval War College: 2. ADA378445. Retrieved February 21, 2011. Lay summary.
Promoting the Chairman to the five-star rank and ceding to him operational and administrative control of all U.S. Armed Forces would enable him to provide a unifying vision...
- Owsley, Robert Clark (June 1997). "Goldwater-Nichols Almost Got It Right: A Fifth Star for the Chairman" (PDF). Naval War College: 14. ADA328220. Retrieved February 21, 2011. Lay summary.
...Chairman's title be changed to Commander of the Armed Forces and commensurate with the title and authority he be assigned the grade of five stars.
- Italia, Bob (1991). Armed Forces: War in the Gulf. Abdo & Daughters. pp. 44–46. ISBN 978-1-56239-026-6. Retrieved February 21, 2011.
Others want to make him a five-star general. [...] Congress is talking about giving him a fifth silver star, which is very rare.
- Hamilton, Nigel (2007). Bill Clinton: Mastering the Presidency. PublicAffairs. pp. 190, 399. ISBN 978-1-58648-516-0. Retrieved February 21, 2011.
Moreover, for the very reason he admired Colin Powell as the most distinguished living black American, Clinton also feared the general as a potential rival. [...] Bill Clinton had denied Powell his rightful fifth star...
- Halberstam, David (2001). War in a Time of Peace: Bush, Clinton, and the Generals. Scribner. p. 190. ISBN 978-0-7432-0212-1. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
They checked it out and found that the last general to get a fifth star was Omar Bradley forty-three years earlier. Powell, they decided, was not Bradley. Besides, as George Stephanopoulos noted, if they gave him one more star, it might help him one day politically.
- Evans, David (28 March 1991). "No More Stars,Sir WAR IN THE GULF". Baltimore Sun. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
Dazzled by America's blitzkrieg victory over Iraq, Sen. Bob Kasten, R-Wis., has put forth a resolution that the architects of this triumph, Gens. Colin L. Powell and H. Norman Schwarzkopf, be promoted to five-star rank.
"S.J.RES.85". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. 5 March 1991. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
"H.R.1052". Congress.gov. Library of Congress. 28 February 1991. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
Brown, Warren; Wagner, Heather Lehr (1 January 2009). Colin Powell: Soldier and Statesman. Infobase Publishing. p. 78. ISBN 9781438100753. Retrieved 6 September 2014.
The speedy, complete, and relatively bloodless victory for the allies-less than 200 Americans were killed in the Persian Gulf War-turned Powell, Schwarzkopf, and the rest of the U.S. military into national heroes. Congressmen proposed to promote the two men to rank of General of the Army, which would make them the first generals to wear five stars since Omar N. Bradley was accorded that honor in 1950.
- Stringer, Kevin D. (2007). "A Supreme Commander for the War on Terror" (PDF). JFQ. National Defense University Press (44): 23. Archived from the original (PDF) on February 22, 2011. Retrieved February 21, 2011.
The development of a four- or even five- star commander with staff to run the war on terror...
- Hegseth, Pete; Wade Zirkle (January 13, 2011). "A Fifth Star for David Petraeus". Wall Street Journal. News Corporation. Archived from the original on February 22, 2011. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
- D.B. Grady (7 July 2010). "Give Petraeus 5 Stars". The Atlantic. Retrieved 27 August 2012.