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Field marshal (United Kingdom)

Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736. A five-star rank with NATO code OF-10, it is equivalent to an Admiral of the Fleet in the Royal Navy or a Marshal of the Royal Air Force in the Royal Air Force (RAF). A Field Marshal's insignia consists of two crossed batons surrounded by yellow leaves below St Edward's Crown. Like Marshals of the RAF and Admirals of the Fleet, Field Marshals traditionally remain officers for life, though on half-pay when not in an appointment.[1][2] The rank has been used sporadically throughout its history and was vacant during parts of the 18th and 19th centuries (when all former holders of the rank were deceased). After the Second World War, it became standard practice to appoint the Chief of the Imperial General Staff (later renamed Chief of the General Staff) to the rank on his last day in the post. Army officers occupying the post of Chief of the Defence Staff, the professional head of all the British Armed Forces, were usually promoted to the rank upon their appointment.[3]

Field marshal
British Army OF-10.svg
The insignia of a field marshal as worn on epaulettes
Country  United Kingdom
Service branch  British Army
Abbreviation FM
Rank Five-star rank
NATO rank OF-10
Non-NATO rank O-11
Formation 1736
Next lower rank General
Equivalent ranks Admiral of the Fleet (RN)
Marshal of the Royal Air Force (RAF)

In total, 141 men have held the rank of field marshal. The majority led careers in the British Army or the British Indian Army, rising through the ranks to eventually become a field marshal. Some members of the British Royal Family—most recently Prince Edward, Duke of Kent, and Charles, Prince of Wales—were promoted to the rank after shorter periods of service. Three British monarchs—George V, Edward VIII, and George VI— assumed the rank on their accessions to the throne, while Edward VII was already a field marshal, and two British consorts—Albert, Prince Consort and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh—were appointed by their respective queens. Other ceremonial appointments were made as diplomatic gestures. Twelve foreign monarchs held the honour, though three (Wilhelm II, German Emperor; Franz Joseph I, Austrian Emperor; and Hirohito, Emperor of Japan) were stripped of it when their countries became enemies of Britain and her allies in the two world wars. Also awarded the rank were two distinguished foreign military officers, honoured for their contributions to World War I and World War II respectively, and one foreign statesman.[3]

A report commissioned by the Ministry of Defence in 1995 made a number of recommendations for financial savings in the armed forces' budget, one of which was the abolition of the five-star ranks. Part of the rationale was that these ranks were disproportionate to the size of the forces commanded by these officers and that none of the United Kingdom's close allies, such as the United States (which reserves the rank of general of the army for officers who have commanded large armies in major wars), used such ranks. The recommendation was not taken up in full, but the practice of promoting service chiefs to five-star ranks was stopped and the ranks are now reserved for special circumstances. Sir Peter Inge was, in 1994, the last active officer to be promoted to the rank. Inge relinquished the post of Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS) in 1997 and his successor, Sir Charles Guthrie, was the first officer not to be promoted upon appointment as CDS.[3]

The most recent promotions to field marshal came in 2012, eighteen years after the moratorium on routine promotions to the rank, when Queen Elizabeth II promoted Prince Charles, her son and heir apparent, to the five-star ranks in all three services, in recognition of support provided for her in her capacity as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces.[4] At the same time, Guthrie, who relinquished the post of CDS and retired from active service in 2001, was promoted to honorary field marshal.[5] In June 2014 former Chief of the Defence Staff Lord Walker of Aldringham was also promoted to honorary field marshal.[6]

Contents

Insignia of rankEdit

 
Field Marshal's uniform and baton (pertaining to the late Sir John Stanier) on display in the Royal Scots Dragoon Guards Museum, Edinburgh Castle.

The rank insignia of a field marshal in the British Army comprises two crossed batons in a wreath of oak leaves, with a crown above. In some other countries, historically under the sphere of British influence, an adapted version of the insignia is used for field marshals, often with the crown being replaced with an alternative cultural or national emblem.

On appointment, British field marshals are awarded a gold-tipped baton which they may carry on formal occasions.

List of field marshalsEdit

 
Four field marshals were also recipients of the Victoria Cross, the UK's highest award for gallantry.

The vast majority of officers to hold the rank of field marshal were professional soldiers in the British Army, though eleven served as officers in the British Indian Army. At least fifty-seven field marshals were wounded in battle earlier in their careers, of whom 24 were wounded more than once, and eight had been prisoners of war. Fifteen future field marshals were present at the Battle of Vitoria, where the Duke of Wellington earned the rank, and ten others served under Wellington at the Battle of Waterloo. However, only thirty-eight held independent commands in the field, and just twelve served as Commander-in-Chief of the Forces (the pre-1904 professional head of the army) or Chief of the Imperial General Staff during a major war.[3]

Four field marshals—Sir Evelyn Wood, Sir George White, Earl Roberts, and Lord Gort—had previously received the Victoria Cross (VC), the United Kingdom's highest and most prestigious award for gallantry "in the face of the enemy". Wood, a famously injury-prone officer, was awarded the VC for two actions in 1858 in which he first attacked a group of rebels in India and later rescued an informant from another group of rebels. White, a cavalry officer, led two charges on enemy guns in Afghanistan in 1879, while Gort, of the Grenadier Guards, commanded a series of attacks while severely wounded during the First World War in 1918. Roberts received his VC for actions during the Indian Mutiny.[7][8][9][10][11]

Wellington, 44 at the time of his promotion, was the youngest non-royal officer to earn the rank of field marshal. Charles Moore, 1st Marquess of Drogheda was the oldest, promoted at the age of 91, while a further twenty-three officers were promoted to field marshal in their eighties. Wellington was also the only field marshal to become Prime Minister of the United Kingdom,[3] though several others served as cabinet ministers.

No officer whose career was spent in the British Army has ever reached the rank of field marshal without having served in the cavalry, infantry, Royal Armoured Corps, Royal Artillery or Royal Engineers.[3] Two non-British officers have been appointed field marshals in the British Army—Ferdinand Foch of France and Sir Thomas Blamey of Australia, in recognition of their contributions in the First and Second World Wars respectively—while only one, Sir William Robertson, held every rank in the British Army, from private soldier to field marshal.[3][12][13][14]

Field Marshals of the British Army
Name and style[a] Regiment[b] Image Born Died Date of promotion[15]
George Hamilton, 1st Earl of Orkney Royal Regiment of Foot   1666 1737 1736-01-1212 January 1736[16]
John Campbell, 2nd Duke of Argyll Earl of Argyll's Regiment of Foot   1680 1743 1736-01-1414 January 1736[17]
Richard Boyle, 2nd Viscount Shannon Horse Guards Regiment   1674 1740 17392 July 1739[18]
François de La Rochefoucauld, Marquis de Montandre   1672 1739 17392 July 1739[19]
John Dalrymple, 2nd Earl of Stair 26th (Cameronian) Regiment of Foot   1673 1747 1742-03-1818 March 1742[20]
Richard Temple, 1st Viscount Cobham 6th Regiment of Foot   1669 1749 1742-12-1414 December 1742[21]
George Wade Earl of Bath's Regiment   1673 1748 1742-12-1414 December 1742[22]
Sir Robert Rich, 4th Baronet Grenadier Guards (1st Foot Guards)   1685 1768 1757-11-2828 November 1757[23]
Richard Molesworth, 3rd Viscount Molesworth Royal Scots   1680 1758 1757-11-2929 November 1757[24]
John Ligonier, 1st Earl Ligonier 10th Regiment of Foot   1680 1770 1757-11-3030 November 1757[25]
James O'Hara, 2nd Baron Tyrawley 39th (Dorsetshire) Regiment of Foot   1690 1773 17631 June 1763[26]
Henry Seymour Conway 5th Royal Irish Lancers   1721 1794 1793-10-1212 October 1793[27]
Prince William Henry, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh 13th Regiment of Foot   1743 1805 1793-10-1212 October 1793[28]
Sir George Howard 24th Regiment of Foot   1720 1796 1793-10-1212 October 1793[29]
Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany Grenadier Guards   1763 1827 1795-02-1010 February 1795[30]
John Campbell, 5th Duke of Argyll Royal Scots Fusiliers   1723 1806 1796-07-3030 July 1796[31]
Jeffery Amherst, 1st Baron Amherst Grenadier Guards   1717 1797 1796-07-3030 July 1796[32]
John Griffin, 4th Baron Howard de Walden Scots Guards   1719 1797 1796-07-3030 July 1796[33]
Studholme Hodgson Grenadier Guards   1708 1798 1796-07-3030 July 1796[34]
George Townshend, 1st Marquess Townshend 7th Queen's Own Hussars   1724 1807 1796-07-3030 July 1796[35]
Lord Frederick Cavendish Coldstream Guards 1729 1803 1796-07-3030 July 1796[36]
Charles Lennox, 3rd Duke of Richmond Coldstream Guards   1735 1806 1796-07-3030 July 1796[37]
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent and Strathearn Royal Fusiliers   1767 1820 18055 September 1805[38]
Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington 33rd Regiment of Foot   1769 1852 1813-06-2121 June 1813[39]
Prince Ernest Augustus, Duke of Cumberland and Teviotdale — (Royal Family; afterwards King of Hanover)   1771 1851 18136 November 1813[40]
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge Hanoverian Guards   1774 1850 1813-11-2626 November 1813[41]
Prince William Frederick, Duke of Gloucester and Edinburgh Scots Guards   1776 1834 181624 May 1816[42]
Prince Leopold of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha — (Royal Family; afterwards King of the Belgians)   1790 1865 181624 May 1816[43]
Charles Moore, 1st Marquess of Drogheda 12th Dragoons   1730 1821 1821-07-1919 July 1821[44]
William Harcourt, 3rd Earl Harcourt Grenadier Guards   1743 1830 1821-07-1919 July 1821[16]
Sir Alured Clarke 50th (Queen's Own) Regiment of Foot   1745 1832 1830-07-2222 July 1830[45]
Sir Samuel Hulse Grenadier Guards   1747 or 1748 1837 1830-07-2222 July 1830[46]
Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha — (Royal Family)   1819 1861 18408 February 1840[47]
William II — (King of the Netherlands)   1792 1847 184528 July 1845[48]
Sir George Nugent, 1st Baronet 39th (Dorsetshire) Regiment of Foot   1757 1849 1846-11-099 November 1846[49]
Thomas Grosvenor Grenadier Guards   1764 1851 1846-11-099 November 1846[50]
Henry Paget, 1st Marquess of Anglesey 80th Regiment of Foot (Staffordshire Volunteers)   1768 1854 1846-11-099 November 1846[51]
FitzRoy Somerset, 1st Baron Raglan 4th Light Dragoons   1788 1855 18545 November 1854[52]
Stapleton Cotton, 1st Viscount Combermere 23rd Regiment of Foot   1773 1865 1855-10-022 October 1855[53]
John Byng, 1st Earl of Strafford 33rd Regiment of Foot   1772 1860 1855-10-022 October 1855[54]
Henry Hardinge, 1st Viscount Hardinge Queen's Rangers   1785 1856 1855-10-022 October 1855[55]
John Colborne, 1st Baron Seaton East Devonshire Regiment   1779 1863 18601 April 1860[56]
Sir Edward Blakeney 99th Regiment of Foot   1778 1868 18629 November 1862[57]
Hugh Gough, 1st Viscount Gough Seaforth Highlanders   1779 1869 18629 November 1862[58]
Prince George, Duke of Cambridge 12th Royal Lancers   1819 1904 18629 November 1862[59]
Colin Campbell, 1st Baron Clyde 9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot   1792 1863 18629 November 1862[60]
Sir Alexander Woodford 9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot   1782 1870 18681 January 1868[61]
Sir William Gomm 9th (East Norfolk) Regiment of Foot   1784 1875 18681 January 1868[62]
Sir Hew Ross Royal Artillery   1779 1868 18681 January 1868[63]
Sir John Burgoyne Royal Engineers   1782 1871 18681 January 1868[64]
Sir George Pollock, 1st Baronet Bengal Artillery   1786 1872 187024 May 1870[65]
Sir John FitzGerald — (Retired) 1785 1877 1875-05-2929 May 1875[66]
George Hay, 8th Marquess of Tweeddale Grenadier Guards   1787 1876 1875-05-2929 May 1875[67]
Edward VII — (Royal Family)   1841 1910 187529 May 1875[68]
Sir William Rowan 52nd (Oxfordshire) Regiment of Foot   1789 1879 1877-06-022 June 1877[69]
Sir Charles Yorke 35th (Royal Sussex) Regiment of Foot   1790 1880 1877-06-022 June 1877[70]
Hugh Rose, 1st Baron Strathnairn 93rd (Sutherland Highlanders) Regiment of Foot   1801 1885 1877-06-022 June 1877[71]
Robert Napier, 1st Baron Napier of Magdala Bengal Engineer Group   1810 1890 1883-01-011 January 1883[72]
Sir Patrick Grant 11th Bengal Native Infantry   1804 1895 1883-06-2424 June 1883[73]
Sir John Michel 64th (2nd Staffordshire) Regiment of Foot   1804 1886 1886-03-2727 March 1886[74]
Sir Richard Dacres Royal Artillery   1799 1886 1886-03-2727 March 1886[75]
Lord William Paulet 85th Regiment of Foot (Bucks Volunteers)   1804 1893 1886-07-1010 July 1886[76]
George Bingham, 3rd Earl of Lucan 6th Regiment of Foot   1800 1888 188721 June 1887[77]
Sir Lintorn Simmons Royal Engineers   1821 1903 1890-05-2121 May 1890[78]
Sir Frederick Haines 4th Regiment of Foot   1818 1909 1890-05-2121 May 1890[79]
Sir Donald Stewart, 1st Baronet 9th Bengal Native Infantry   1824 1900 1894-05-2426 May 1894[80]
Garnet Wolseley, 1st Viscount Wolseley 12th Regiment of Foot   1833 1913 1894-05-2426 May 1894[81]
Frederick Roberts, 1st Earl Roberts, VC Bengal Artillery   1832 1914 189525 May 1895[82]
Prince Edward of Saxe-Weimar 67th (South Hampshire) Regiment of Foot   1823 1902 189722 June 1897[83]
Sir Neville Bowles Chamberlain 55th Bengal Native Infantry   1820 1902 190025 April 1900[84]
Wilhelm II, German Emperor — (German Emperor)   1859 1941 190127 January 1901[85]
Sir Henry Norman 1st Bengal Native Infantry   1826 1904 1902-06-2626 June 1902[86]
Prince Arthur, Duke of Connaught and Strathearn Royal Engineers   1850 1942 1902-06-2626 June 1902[87]
Sir Evelyn Wood, VC 13th Light Dragoons   1838 1919 1903-04-088 April 1903[88]
Sir George White, VC 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot   1835 1912 1903-04-088 April 1903[89]
Franz Joseph I of Austria — (Emperor of Austria; King of Hungary)   1830 1916 19031 September 1903[90]
Francis Grenfell, 1st Baron Grenfell King's Royal Rifle Corps   1841 1925 1908-04-1111 April 1908[91]
Sir Charles Brownlow 51st Sikhs (Frontier Force)   1831 1916 1908-06-2020 June 1908[92]
Herbert Kitchener, 1st Earl Kitchener Royal Engineers   1850 1916 190910 September 1909[93]
George V — (Royal Family)   1865 1936 19107 May 1910[94]
Paul Methuen, 3rd Baron Methuen Scots Guards   1845 1932 1911-06-1919 June 1911[95]
William Nicholson, 1st Baron Nicholson Royal Engineers   1845 1918 1911-06-1919 June 1911[96]
John French, 1st Earl of Ypres 8th King's Royal Irish Hussars   1852 1925 19133 June 1913[97]
Nicholas II of Russia — (Emperor of Russia)   1868 1918 19161 January 1916[98]
Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig 7th Queen's Own Hussars   1861 1928 1917-01-011 January 1917[99]
Sir Charles Egerton 31st (Huntingdonshire) Regiment of Foot   1848 1921 1917-03-1616 March 1917[100]
Emperor Taishō (Yoshihito) — (Emperor of Japan)   1879 1926 19181 January 1918[101]
Ferdinand Foch — (French Army)   1851 1929 191919 July 1919[13]
Herbert Plumer, 1st Viscount Plumer York and Lancaster Regiment   1857 1932 1919-07-3131 July 1919[102]
Edmund Allenby, 1st Viscount Allenby 6th (Inniskilling) Dragoons   1861 1936 1919-07-3131 July 1919[103]
Sir Henry Wilson, 1st Baronet Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own)   1864 1922 1919-07-3131 July 1919[104]
Sir William Robertson, 1st Baronet 3rd Dragoon Guards   1860 1933 192029 March 1920[105]
Sir Arthur Barrett 44th (East Essex) Regiment of Foot   1857 1926 192112 April 1921[106]
Albert I of Belgium — (King of Belgium)   1875 1934 19214 July 1921[107]
William Birdwood, 1st Baron Birdwood Royal Scots Fusiliers   1865 1951 192520 March 1925[108]
Sir Claud Jacob Worcestershire Regiment   1863 1948 192630 November 1926[109]
George Milne, 1st Baron Milne Royal Artillery   1866 1948 192830 January 1928[110]
Alfonso XIII of Spain — (King of Spain)   1886 1941 1928-06-033 June 1928[111]
Hirohito (Emperor Shōwa) — (Emperor of Japan)   1901 1989 1928-06-2626 June 1928[112]
Julian Byng, 1st Viscount Byng of Vimy King's Royal Rifle Corps   1861 1935 1932-07-1717 July 1932[113]
Rudolph Lambart, 10th Earl of Cavan Grenadier Guards   1865 1946 1932-10-3131 October 1932[114]
Philip Chetwode, 1st Baron Chetwode Oxfordshire and Buckinghamshire Light Infantry   1869 1950 193313 February 1933[115]
Sir Archibald Montgomery-Massingberd Royal Artillery   1871 1947 19357 June 1935[116]
Edward VIII — (Royal Family)   1894 1972 1936-01-2121 January 1936[117]
Sir Cyril Deverell West Yorkshire Regiment   1874 1947 193615 May 1936[118]
George VI — (Royal Family)   1895 1952 1936-12-1212 December 1936[119]
Edmund Ironside, 1st Baron Ironside Royal Artillery   1880 1959 194020 July 1940[120]
Smuts, JanJan Smuts — (South African Army)   1870 1950 1941-05-2424 May 1941[121]
Sir John Dill Prince of Wales's Leinster Regiment   1881 1944 194118 November 1941[122]
John Vereker, 6th Viscount Gort, VC Grenadier Guards   1886 1946 1943-01-011 January 1943[123]
Archibald Wavell, 1st Earl Wavell Black Watch   1883 1950 1943-01-011 January 1943[124]
Alan Brooke, 1st Viscount Alanbrooke Royal Artillery   1883 1963 1944-01-011 January 1944[125]
Harold Alexander, 1st Earl Alexander of Tunis Irish Guards   1891 1969 1944-06-044 June 1944[126]
Bernard Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein Royal Warwickshire Regiment   1887 1976 1944-09-011 September 1944[127]
Henry Maitland Wilson, 1st Baron Wilson Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own)   1881 1964 1944-12-3929 December 1944[128]
Sir Claude Auchinleck 62nd Punjabis (Indian Army)   1884 1981 19461 June 1946[129]
William "Bill" Slim, 1st Viscount Slim Royal Warwickshire Regiment   1891 1970 19484 January 1948[130]
Sir Thomas Blamey — (Australian Army)   1884 1951 1950-06-088 June 1950[131]
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Royal Navy — (Royal Family)   1921 Living 195315 January 1953[132]
John Harding, 1st Baron Harding of Petherton Somerset Light Infantry   1896 1989 195321 July 1953[133]
Prince Henry, Duke of Gloucester King's Royal Rifle Corps   1900 1974 195531 March 1955[134]
Sir Gerald Templer Royal Irish Fusiliers   1898 1979 195627 November 1956[135]
Sir Francis Festing Rifle Brigade (Prince Consort's Own)   1902 1976 19601 September 1960[136]
Mahendra of Nepal — (King of Nepal)   1921 1974 196217 October 1962[137]
Haile Selassie I — (Emperor of Ethiopia)   1892 1975 196520 January 1965[138]
Sir Richard Hull 17th/21st Lancers   1907 1989 19658 February 1965[139]
Sir James Cassels Seaforth Highlanders   1907 1996 196829 February 1968[140]
Sir Geoffrey Baker Royal Artillery   1912 1980 197131 January 1971[141]
Michael Carver, Baron Carver Royal Tank Corps   1915 2001[142] 197318 July 1973[143]
Sir Roland Gibbs King's Royal Rifle Corps 1921 2004[144] 197913 July 1979[145]
Birendra of Nepal — (King of Nepal)   1945 2001[146] 198018 November 1980[147]
Edwin Bramall, Baron Bramall King's Royal Rifle Corps   1923 Living 19821 January 1982[148]
Sir John Stanier 7th Queen's Own Hussars 1925 2007[149] 1985-07-1010 July 1985[150]
Sir Nigel Bagnall Green Howards 1927 2002[151] 19889 September 1988[152]
Richard Vincent, Baron Vincent of Coleshill Royal Artillery 1931 Living 19912 April 1991[153]
Sir John Chapple 2nd King Edward VII's Own Gurkha Rifles (The Sirmoor Rifles) 1931 Living 199214 February 1992[154]
Prince Edward, Duke of Kent Royal Scots Greys — (Royal Family)   1935 Living 199311 June 1993[155]
Peter Inge, Baron Inge Green Howards   1935 Living 199415 March 1994[156]
Charles, Prince of Wales Royal Navy and Royal Air Force — (Royal Family)   1948 Living 201216 June 2012[5]
Charles Guthrie, Baron Guthrie of Craigiebank Welsh Guards   1938 Living 201216 June 2012[5]
Michael Walker, Baron Walker of Aldringham Royal Anglian Regiment   1944 Living 201413 June 2014[6]

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Titles and styles are those held by the field marshal when they died, or those currently held in the case of living field marshals; in most cases, these are not the same as the titles and styles held by an officer upon their promotion to the rank, nor (in the case of operational field marshals) those held when the officer retired from active service. All post-nominal letters, with the exception of "VC" (denoting the Victoria Cross) are omitted.
  2. ^ The regiment given is the regiment into which the field marshal was commissioned. This is not necessarily the regiment the officer first joined, nor is it necessarily the regiment in which the officer spent most of his career. A "—" indicates either that the officer did not lead a career in the British Army or that the officer was not initially commissioned into a formal regiment.

ReferencesEdit

Footnotes

  1. ^ Brewer's Dictionary.
  2. ^ The Daily Telegraph 12 April 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g Heathcote, Introduction.
  4. ^ The Prince of Wales The Queen appoints The Prince of Wales to Honorary Five-Star rank 16 June 2012
  5. ^ a b c BBC News 16 June 2012.
  6. ^ a b Ministry of Defence 13 June 2014.
  7. ^ Ashcroft, pp. 79–81.
  8. ^ London Gazette 4 September 1860.
  9. ^ London Gazette 3 June 1881.
  10. ^ London Gazette 26 November 1918.
  11. ^ London Gazette 24 December 1858.
  12. ^ Woodward, David R. (May 2006) [September 2004]. "Robertson, Sir William Robert, first baronet (1860–1933)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/35786. Retrieved 2007-12-07. (Subscription required (help)). 
  13. ^ a b Heathcote, pp. 122–125.
  14. ^ Heathcote, pp. 47–52.
  15. ^ Heathcote, pp. 320–326, Table 1.
  16. ^ a b Heathcote, pp. 166–167.
  17. ^ Heathcote, pp. 71–73.
  18. ^ Heathcote, pp. 52–53.
  19. ^ Heathcote, pp. 99–101.
  20. ^ Heathcote, pp. 97–99.
  21. ^ Heathcote, pp. 272–273.
  22. ^ Heathcote, pp. 285–287.
  23. ^ Heathcote, pp. 245–246.
  24. ^ Heathcote, pp. 211–212.
  25. ^ Heathcote, pp. 202–204.
  26. ^ Heathcote, pp. 234–235.
  27. ^ Heathcote, pp. 92–94.
  28. ^ Heathcote, pp. 302–303.
  29. ^ Heathcote, pp. 179–180.
  30. ^ Heathcote, pp. 127–130.
  31. ^ Heathcote, pp. 73–75.
  32. ^ Heathcote, pp. 23–26.
  33. ^ Heathcote, pp. 153–154.
  34. ^ Heathcote, pp. 178–179.
  35. ^ Heathcote, pp. 277–279.
  36. ^ Heathcote, pp. 82–83.
  37. ^ Heathcote, pp. 199–200.
  38. ^ Heathcote, pp. 112–113.
  39. ^ Heathcote, pp. 291–295.
  40. ^ Heathcote, pp. 116–118.
  41. ^ Heathcote, pp. 9–10.
  42. ^ Heathcote, pp. 301–302.
  43. ^ Heathcote, pp. 200–202.
  44. ^ Heathcote, pp. 222–223.
  45. ^ Heathcote, pp. 89–90.
  46. ^ Heathcote, pp. 182–183.
  47. ^ Heathcote, pp. 12–13.
  48. ^ Heathcote, pp. 297–299.
  49. ^ Heathcote, pp. 232–234.
  50. ^ Heathcote, pp. 154–155.
  51. ^ Heathcote, pp. 235–237.
  52. ^ Heathcote, pp. 267–269.
  53. ^ Heathcote, pp. 94–96.
  54. ^ Heathcote, pp. 63–64.
  55. ^ Heathcote, pp. 171–173.
  56. ^ Heathcote, pp. 90–92.
  57. ^ Heathcote, pp. 46–47.
  58. ^ Heathcote, pp. 148–150.
  59. ^ Heathcote, pp. 141–144.
  60. ^ Heathcote, pp. 69–71.
  61. ^ Heathcote, pp. 316–318.
  62. ^ Heathcote, pp. 146–148.
  63. ^ Heathcote, pp. 255–256.
  64. ^ Heathcote, pp. 60–63.
  65. ^ Heathcote, pp. 243–245.
  66. ^ Heathcote, pp. 121–122.
  67. ^ Heathcote, pp. 173–174.
  68. ^ Heathcote, pp. 105–108.
  69. ^ Heathcote, pp. 256–257.
  70. ^ Heathcote, pp. 318–319.
  71. ^ Heathcote, pp. 253–255.
  72. ^ Heathcote, pp. 223–225.
  73. ^ Heathcote, pp. 150–151.
  74. ^ Heathcote, pp. 207–208.
  75. ^ Heathcote, pp. 96–97.
  76. ^ Heathcote, pp. 237–238.
  77. ^ Heathcote, pp. 41–43.
  78. ^ Heathcote, pp. 257–259.
  79. ^ Heathcote, pp. 163–165.
  80. ^ Heathcote, pp. 270–272.
  81. ^ Heathcote, pp. 311–314.
  82. ^ Heathcote, pp. 246–250.
  83. ^ Heathcote, pp. 114–115.
  84. ^ Heathcote, pp. 83–85.
  85. ^ Heathcote, pp. 299–301.
  86. ^ Heathcote, pp. 230–232.
  87. ^ Heathcote, pp. 26–28.
  88. ^ Heathcote, pp. 314–316.
  89. ^ Heathcote, pp. 295–297.
  90. ^ Heathcote, pp. 125–127.
  91. ^ Heathcote, pp. 151–153.
  92. ^ Heathcote, pp. 59–60.
  93. ^ Heathcote, pp. 191–197.
  94. ^ Heathcote, pp. 135–137.
  95. ^ Heathcote, pp. 205–207.
  96. ^ Heathcote, pp. 228–230.
  97. ^ Heathcote, pp. 130–135.
  98. ^ Heathcote, pp. 225–228.
  99. ^ Heathcote, pp. 155–160.
  100. ^ Heathcote, pp. 115–116.
  101. ^ Heathcote, pp. 319–320.
  102. ^ Heathcote, pp. 240–243.
  103. ^ Heathcote, pp. 19–23.
  104. ^ Heathcote, pp. 303–308.
  105. ^ Heathcote, pp. 250–253.
  106. ^ Heathcote, pp. 39–41.
  107. ^ Heathcote, pp. 10–12.
  108. ^ Heathcote, pp. 43–45.
  109. ^ Heathcote, pp. 190–191.
  110. ^ Heathcote, pp. 208–211.
  111. ^ Heathcote, pp. 17–19.
  112. ^ Heathcote, pp. 176–178.
  113. ^ Heathcote, pp. 64–69.
  114. ^ Heathcote, pp. 197–199.
  115. ^ Heathcote, pp. 86–89.
  116. ^ Heathcote, pp. 219–222.
  117. ^ Heathcote, pp. 108–112.
  118. ^ Heathcote, pp. 101–102.
  119. ^ Heathcote, pp. 137–141.
  120. ^ Heathcote, pp. 185–190.
  121. ^ Heathcote, pp. 264–267.
  122. ^ Heathcote, pp. 102–105.
  123. ^ Heathcote, pp. 279–283.
  124. ^ Heathcote, pp. 287–291.
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  148. ^ Heathcote, pp. 53–56.
  149. ^ The Times 13 November 2007.
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  151. ^ The Independent 11 April 2002.
  152. ^ Heathcote, pp. 35–37.
  153. ^ Heathcote, pp. 283–285.
  154. ^ Heathcote, pp. 85–86.
  155. ^ Heathcote, pp. 113–114.
  156. ^ Heathcote, pp. 183–185.

General

Specific