Uniformed services pay grades of the United States

Pay grades[1] are used by the eight uniformed services of the United States[2] (Army, Marine Corps, Navy, Air Force, Space Force, Coast Guard, Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, and NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps) to determine wages and benefits based on the corresponding military rank of a member of the services. While different ranks may be used among the eight uniformed services, pay grades are uniform and equivalent between the services and can be used to quickly determine seniority among a group of members from different services.[3] They are also essential when determining a member's entitlements such as basic pay and allowances.[4]

StructureEdit

Pay grades are divided into three groups:[1] enlisted (E), warrant officer (W), and officer (O). Enlisted pay grades begin at E-1 and end at E-9; warrant officer pay grades originate at W-1 and terminate at W-5; and officer pay grades start at O-1 and finish at O-10.[a] Not all of the uniformed services use all of the grades; for example, the Coast Guard has authority to use, but does not use the grades of W-1 and W-5,[9][10] the United States Navy formerly did not use the grade of W-1[11] and the Air Force (USAF) discontinued appointing new warrant officers in 1959 (although the last USAF warrant officer did not retire until 1992).[12]

Although authorized to do so, currently, neither the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), nor the Public Health Service (USPHS), use any of the enlisted or warrant officer grades.[6][13][14][15][16][b] Additionally, while not formally established as one of the eight uniformed services, the Maritime Service (which provides officers serving in the Maritime Administration and as administrators and instructors at the U.S. Merchant Marine Academy (USMMA), and the six state-operated maritime academies)[18][19] is also authorized, but does not currently employ, enlisted[20] or warrant officer grades.[21]

Officers in pay grades O-1, O-2, and O-3 with more than four years of prior cumulative service (creditable toward both length of service and retirement) in an enlisted or warrant officer grade are paid "... the special rate of basic pay for pay grade O-1E, O-2E, or O-3E,"[22] respectively.[4] This benefit does not affect their rank and is used simply for reward and incentive purposes in recognition of their prior enlisted (or warrant officer) experience. A cumulative total of 1,440 days of creditable Federal active duty and/or reserve inactive duty for training days is required to qualify.[23][24]

The pay grade of W-1 is normally reserved for officers appointed using a "warrant"[3][25] rather than a "commission"[26][27] by the Secretary of Defense or by each of the service secretaries, using authority delegated from the President,[28] to an intermediate rank between enlisted non-commissioned officers and commissioned officers (starting at W-2).[10] However, appointments to this grade can by made by commission by the service secretaries, defense secretary, or the President,[25] but this is more uncommon. By law, regulation, and traditional customs and courtesies across the military services, warrant officers serving in pay grade W-1 have the same privileges as commissioned officers (with certain exceptions grounded in the distinction required in the Constitution that all "officers of the United States" be commissioned,[29] which affects the command authority and specific standing of W-1's under the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) and the Manual for Courts-Martial).[30][12][31][32][33]

While cadets and midshipmen directly appointed by the President to four of the Federal Service Academies (US Military Academy; US Naval Academy; US Air Force Academy; US Coast Guard Academy) are members of the Regular Component of their Service,[3] serving on active duty, they hold neither a commission nor a warrant of appointment, nor do they hold an enlisted grade or rank.[34] US statutes no longer include any pay grade for cadets or midshipmen;[1] as "inchoate officers"[35][36] appointed using the Appointments Clause of the US Constitution[37] as "inferior officers," they are recognized as having only a precedence below the most junior warrant officer, and above the enlisted grades, and almost entirely lack any authority over any other servicemembers (including other cadets and midshipmen) except for specific internal Academy functions, or very narrowly drawn training purposes while serving with their Service for leadership and skills development.[32]

Those appointed to attend the US Merchant Marine Academy (the fifth Federal Service Academy), by the Administrator of the Maritime Administration (within the Department of Transportation),[38][39] will also be appointed by the Secretary of the Navy directly as Midshipmen, US Navy Reserve, without enlistment.[40] Additionally, the Service Secretaries will appoint the cadets or midshipmen of the Senior Reserve Officers Training Corps (ROTC),[41][42] but unlike the cadets and midshipmen of each Federal Service Academy, ROTC cadets and midshipmen are first enlisted into the reserve component of their respective service.[43][44][45][3][46][47] Cadets and midshipmen from both the USMMA and ROTC are appointed as "inchoate officers"[35][36] without a commission or warrant,[35] but unlike the other four Federal service academies, they are also appointed under Article II as "inferior officers" in their respective reserve component,[37] and only serve on active duty during authorized training events (typically the "Sea Year" for USMMA midshipmen,[20] or for ROTC during the summers between years of college).[4][47][44] They share the ill-defined precedence, and lack of statutory pay grade, of cadets and midshipmen of the Academies, and have even less apparent authority (since they are generally not in any official duty status) beyond their internal USMMA and ROTC requirements, although they—like the cadets and midshipmen serving in the Regular Component at the Federal Service Academies—have the innate potential to command troops in emergencies, and otherwise perform duties far beyond their academic environment, as required by competent authorities.[20][32][33][34][35][36][43]

For both types of cadet/midshipman (Academy and non-active duty ROTC), their basic pay rate is $1,217.10, effective 1 January 2022, which is "the monthly rate equal to 35 percent of the basic pay of a commissioned officer in the pay grade O–1 with less than two years of service."[48][23][47]

For pay tables and information on specific pay grade wages and entitlements for members of the uniformed services, see United States military pay.

NATO equivalentsEdit

The enlisted grades correspond with the NATO rank codes,[49] with E-1 being equivalent to OR-1, E-2 equivalent to OR-2, and so on. The officer grades are all one higher than their NATO equivalent (except O-1) as the O-1 and O-2 grades are both equivalent to the NATO code of OF-1. Hence O-3 is equivalent to OF-2, O-4 is equivalent to OF-3, and so on. U.S. warrant officer grades (W-1 through W-5) are depicted in the NATO system as WO-1 through WO-5. The United States is the only nation that has officers in this category.

EnlistedEdit

Rank by Branch of Service[1][7]
Uniformed services pay grade E-9 E-8 E-7 E-6 E-5 E-4 E-3 E-2 E-1
  United States Army[50]
                          No insignia
Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman Sergeant Major of the Army Command sergeant major Sergeant major First sergeant Master sergeant Sergeant first class Staff sergeant Sergeant Corporal Specialist Private first class Private Private


  United States Marine Corps[51]
                        No insignia
Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps Sergeant major Master gunnery sergeant First sergeant Master sergeant Gunnery sergeant Staff sergeant Sergeant Corporal Lance corporal Private first class Private


  United States Navy[52]
Insignia pending                         No insignia
Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy Fleet/force master chief petty officer Command master chief petty officer Master chief petty officer Command senior chief petty officer Senior chief petty officer Chief petty officer Petty officer first class Petty officer second class Petty officer third class Seaman Seaman apprentice Seaman recruit


Uniformed services pay grade E-9 E-8 E-7 E-6 E-5 E-4 E-3 E-2 E-1
  United States Air Force[53]
                              No insignia
Senior enlisted advisor to the Chairman Chief master sergeant of the Air Force Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau Command chief master sergeant First sergeant Chief master sergeant First sergeant Senior master sergeant First sergeant Master sergeant Technical sergeant Staff sergeant Senior airman Airman first class Airman Airman basic


  United States Space Force[54]
Insignia pending                    
Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman Chief Master Sergeant of the Space Force Chief master sergeant Senior master sergeant Master sergeant Technical sergeant Sergeant Specialist 4 Specialist 3 Specialist 2 Specialist 1


  U.S. Coast Guard
                       
Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard Reserve Command master chief petty officer Master chief petty officer Senior chief petty officer Chief petty officer Petty officer first class Petty officer second class Petty officer third class Seaman Seaman apprentice Seaman recruit


Uniformed services pay grade E-9 E-8 E-7 E-6 E-5 E-4 E-3 E-2 E-1

Note: The Public Health Service Commissioned Corps and NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps consist entirely of commissioned officers and do not use any of the enlisted (or warrant officer) pay grades.

Schedule 8 - Pay of the Uniformed Services Part I--Monthly Basic Pay ($) (as of 1 January 2022)[55][48][23]
Pay
Grade
Years of service (computed under 37 U.S.C. 205)
2 or less Over 2 Over 3 Over 4 Over 6 Over 8 Over 10 Over 12 Over 14 Over 16 Over 18
E-1[i] 1,695
.00
E-1[ii] 1,833
.30 1,833
.30 1,833
.30 1,833
.30 1,833
.30 1,833
.30 1,833
.30 1,833
.30 1,833
.30 1,833
.30 1,833
.30
E-2 2,054
.70 2,054
.70 2,054
.70 2,054
.70 2,054
.70 2,054
.70 2,054
.70 2,054
.70 2,054
.70 2,054
.70 2,054
.70
E-3 2,160
.60 2,296
.50 2,435
.70 2,435
.70 2,435
.70 2,435
.70 2,435
.70 2,435
.70 2,435
.70 2,435
.70 2,435
.70
E-4 2,393
.40 2,515
.80 2,652
.00 2,786
.70 2,905
.50 2,905
.50 2,905
.50 2,905
.50 2,905
.50 2,905
.50 2,905
.50
E-5 2,610
.30 2,786
.10 2,920
.80 3,058
.50 3,273
.30 3,497
.70 3,682
.20 3,704
.40 3,704
.40 3,704
.40 3,704
.40
E-6 2,849
.40 3,135
.60 3,274
.20 3,408
.60 3,548
.70 3,864
.30 3,987
.60 4,225
.50 4,298
.40 4,351
.20 4,413
.30
E-7 3,294
.30 3,595
.50 3,733
.50 3,915
.30 4,058
.10 4,302
.60 4,440
.60 4,685
.10 4,888
.50 5,027
.40 5,175
.30
E-8 4,739
.10 4,948
.80 5,078
.40 5,233
.80 5,402
.40 5,706
.30
E-9[iii] 5,789
.10 5,920
.50 6,085
.80 6,279
.90 6,477
.00
  1. ^ Applies to personnel who have served less than 4 months on active duty.
  2. ^ Applies to personnel who have served 4 months or more on active duty.
  3. ^ For noncommissioned officers serving as Sergeant Major of the Army, Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy or Coast Guard, Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force, Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, Senior Enlisted Advisor of the Space Force, Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, or Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chief of the National Guard Bureau, basic pay for this grade is $9,355.50 per month, as of 1 January 2022, regardless of cumulative years of service under 37 U.S.C. 205.[48][56]

Warrant officerEdit

Rank by Branch of Service[1][7]
Uniformed services pay grade W-5 W-4 W-3 W-2 W-1
  United States Army
         
Chief warrant officer 5 Chief warrant officer 4 Chief warrant officer 3 Chief warrant officer 2 Warrant officer 1


  United States Marine Corps
         
Chief warrant officer 5 Chief warrant officer 4 Chief warrant officer 3 Chief warrant officer 2 Warrant Officer 1


  United States Navy
         
Chief warrant officer 5 Chief warrant officer 4 Chief warrant officer 3 Chief warrant officer 2 Warrant officer 1


  U.S. Coast Guard
     
Chief warrant officer 4 Chief warrant officer 3 Chief warrant officer 2


Uniformed services pay grade W-5 W-4 W-3 W-2 W-1
Pay
grade
Rank by branch of service[1][7]
Army Marine Corps Navy Air Force Space Force Coast Guard Public Health Service
Commissioned Corps
NOAA Commissioned
Officer Corps
W-1 Warrant Officer 1 Warrant Officer 1 Warrant Officer 1 not used not used not used not used none
W-2 Chief Warrant Officer 2 Chief Warrant Officer 2 Chief Warrant Officer 2 not used not used Chief Warrant Officer 2 not used none
W-3 Chief Warrant Officer 3 Chief Warrant Officer 3 Chief Warrant Officer 3 not used not used Chief Warrant Officer 3 not used none
W-4 Chief Warrant Officer 4 Chief Warrant Officer 4 Chief Warrant Officer 4 not used not used Chief Warrant Officer 4 not used none
W-5 Chief Warrant Officer 5 Chief Warrant Officer 5 Chief Warrant Officer 5 not used not used not used none none
Schedule 8 - Pay of the Uniformed Services Part I--Monthly Basic Pay ($) (as of 1 January 2022)[48][23][55]
Pay
Grade[1]
Years of service (computed under 37 U.S.C. 205)
2 or less Over 2 Over 3 Over 4 Over 6 Over 8 Over 10 Over 12 Over 14 Over 16 Over 18
W-1 3,398
.70 3,765
.00 3,863
.10 4,071
.00 4,316
.40 4,678
.80 4,847
.70 5,084
.70 5,317
.20 5,500
.20 5,668
.50
W-2 3,872
.10 4,238
.40 4,350
.90 4,428
.60 4,679
.40 5,069
.70 5,263
.50 5,453
.70 5,686
.50 5,868
.60 6,033
.30
W-3 4,376
.40 4,558
.20 4,745
.70 4,806
.60 5,002
.20 5,388
.00 5,789
.40 5,978
.70 6,197
.70 6,422
.70 6,828
.30
W-4 4,791
.90 5,154
.30 5,302
.20 5,447
.70 5,698
.50 5,946
.60 6,198
.00 6,575
.40 6,906
.60 7,221
.90 7,480
.20
W-5

OfficerEdit

Rank by Branch of Service[1][7]
Uniformed services pay grade Special grade O-10 O-9 O-8 O-7 O-6 O-5 O-4 O-3 O-2 O-1 Officer candidate
  United States Army[50]
                      Various
General of the Army General Lieutenant general Major general Brigadier general Colonel Lieutenant colonel Major Captain First lieutenant Second lieutenant Cadet / Officer candidate


  United States Marine Corps[51]
                     
General Lieutenant general Major general Brigadier general Colonel Lieutenant colonel Major Captain First lieutenant Second lieutenant Midshipman / officer candidate
(Various insignia)


  United States Navy[52]
                       
Fleet admiral Admiral Vice admiral Rear admiral Rear admiral
(lower half)
Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Lieutenant
(junior grade)
Ensign Midshipman / officer candidate
(Various insignia)


  United States Air Force[53]
                       
General of the Air Force General Lieutenant general Major general Brigadier general Colonel Lieutenant colonel Major Captain First lieutenant Second lieutenant Cadet / Officer trainee
(Various insignia)


Uniformed services pay grade Special grade O-10 O-9 O-8 O-7 O-6 O-5 O-4 O-3 O-2 O-1 Officer candidate
  United States Space Force[52]
                     
General Lieutenant general Major general Brigadier general Colonel Lieutenant colonel Major Captain First lieutenant Second lieutenant Cadet / Officer trainee
(Various insignia)


  United States Coast Guard[52]
                    Various
Admiral Vice admiral Rear admiral Rear admiral
(lower half)
Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Lieutenant
(junior grade)
Ensign Cadet / officer candidate


  United States Public Health Service
                   
Admiral Vice admiral Rear admiral Rear admiral
(lower half)
Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Lieutenant
(junior grade)
Ensign


  NOAA
                 
Vice admiral Rear admiral Rear admiral
(lower half)
Captain Commander Lieutenant commander Lieutenant Lieutenant
(junior grade)
Ensign


Uniformed services pay grade Special grade O-10 O-9 O-8 O-7 O-6 O-5 O-4 O-3 O-2 O-1 Officer candidate
Schedule 8 - Pay of the Uniformed Services Part I--Monthly Basic Pay ($) (as of 1 January 2022)[48][23][55]
Pay
Grade
Years of service (computed under 37 U.S.C. 205)
2 or less Over 2 Over 3 Over 4 Over 6 Over 8 Over 10 Over 12 Over 14 Over 16 Over 18
O-1[i] 3,477
.30 3,619
.50 4,375
.50 4,375
.50 4,375
.50 4,375
.50 4,375
.50 4,375
.50 4,375
.50 4,375
.50 4,375
.50
O-2[i] 4,006
.50 4,562
.70 5,255
.10 5,432
.70 5,544
.30 5,544
.30 5,544
.30 5,544
.30 5,544
.30 5,544
.30 5,544
.30
O-3[i] 4,636
.50 5,256
.00 5,672
.40 6,185
.40 6,482
.10 6,807
.30 7,017
.30 7,362
.90 7,543
.50 7,543
.50 7,543
.50
O-4 5,273
.70 6,104
.40 6,512
.40 6,602
.70 6,980
.70 7,386
.30 7,891
.80 8,284
.50 8,557
.50 8,714
.70 8,805
.30
O-5 6,112
.20 6,885
.30 7,361
.70 7,451
.40 7,749
.30 7,926
.90 8,318
.10 8,605
.80 8,976
.90 9,543
.90 9,813
.90
O-6[ii] 7,332
.00 8,054
.70 8,583
.30 8,583
.30 8,616
.30 8,985
.30 9,034
.50 9,034
.50 9,547
.80 10,455
.30 10,988
.10
O-7 9,668
.40 10,117
.50 10,325
.40 10,490
.70 10,789
.80 11,085
.30 11,427
.00 11,767
.50 12,109
.50 13,183
.20 14,089
.80
O-8 11,635
.50 12,017
.10 12,270
.00 12,340
.50 12,656
.10 13,183
.20 13,306
.20 13,806
.60 13,950
.90 14,382
.00 15,006
.30
O-9[iii]
O-10[iii][iv]
  1. ^ a b c Does not apply to commissioned officers who have been credited with over 4 years of cumulative creditable Federal active and inactive duty service as an enlisted member or warrant officer.[1][22][23][24]
  2. ^ Basic pay for O-6 and below is limited by Level V of the Executive Schedule in effect during Calendar Year 2022 which is $13,775.10.[23][48]
  3. ^ a b Basic pay for an O-7 to O-10 is limited by Level II of the Executive Schedule in effect during Calendar Year 2022 which is $16,974.90. This includes officers serving as Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), Chief of Staff of the Army, Chief of Naval Operations, Chief of Staff of the Air Force, Commandant of the Marine Corps, Chief of Space Operations, Commandant of the Coast Guard, Chief of the National Guard Bureau, or commander of a unified or specified combatant command (as defined in 10 U.S.C. 161(c)).[23][48]
  4. ^ For officers serving as Chairman or Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Chief of Staff of the Army, Chief of Naval Operations, Chief of Staff of the Air Force, Commandant of the Marine Corps, Chief of Space Operations, Commandant of the Coast Guard, Chief of the National Guard Bureau, or commander of a unified or specified combatant command (as defined in 10 U.S.C. 161(c)), basic pay for this grade (as of 2016, the latest year for which this information could be found [1]) was calculated to be $21,147.30 per month, regardless of cumulative years of service computed under 37 U.S.C. 205. Nevertheless, actual basic pay for these officers is limited to the rate of basic pay for level II of the Executive Schedule in effect during calendar year 2022, which is $16,974.90 per month.[23][48]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Before the death of General of the Army Omar Bradley in 1981, the pay grade of O-11 was authorized.[5] Currently, O-10 is the highest authorized pay grade and pay grade O-11 appears nowhere in Title 10 of the US Code pertaining to authorized distribution of general/flag officers,[6] nor within various documents establishing rates of pay[7][1][8]
  2. ^ However, in October 2004, the USPHS initiated "a program to establish a cadre of Warrant Officers to support the long-established Commissioned Corps of the PHS." As of 1 February 2014 the program was still in development.[17]

ReferencesEdit

  This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Government.

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "37 U.S. Code § 201 - Pay grades: assignment to; general rules". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  2. ^ "5 U.S. Code § 2101 - Civil service; armed forces; uniformed services". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 29 December 2021.
  3. ^ a b c d "37 U.S. Code § 101 - Definitions". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  4. ^ a b c "37 U.S. Code § 204 - Entitlement". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  5. ^ "The Centennial: Omar Nelson Bradley". history.army.mil. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  6. ^ a b "33 U.S. Code § 3004 - Strength and distribution in grade". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d e "U.S.C. Title 37 - PAY AND ALLOWANCES OF THE UNIFORMED SERVICES". www.gpo.gov. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  8. ^ "10 U.S. Code § 601 - Positions of importance and responsibility: generals and lieutenant generals; admirals and vice admirals". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  9. ^ "USCG COMMANDANT INSTRUCTION M1420.1, Appointing Warrant Officers" (PDF). 18 September 2020. p. 1-1. Retrieved 30 December 2021. all warrant officer [sic] in the Coast Guard serve in pay-grades W-2 to W-4.
  10. ^ a b "10 U.S. Code § 571 - Warrant officers: grades". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  11. ^ "Here's what's next for the Navy's new W-1s!". 1 November 2019. Retrieved 30 December 2021.
  12. ^ a b Webmaster, Dave_Welsh. "Warrant Officer Programs of Other Services - WO Historical Foundation". www.warrantofficerhistory.org.
  13. ^ "42 U.S. Code § 207 - Grades, ranks, and titles of commissioned corps". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  14. ^ "Eligibility Requirements | Office of Marine and Aviation Operations". www.omao.noaa.gov. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  15. ^ other(s), Jarminator CMS 3.0 created by Dwayne Jarman, DVM, MPH - page ontent created by. "Dental Professional Advisory Committee". dcp.psc.gov. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
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  21. ^ "46 U.S. Code § 51701 - United States Maritime Service". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
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  24. ^ a b "37 U.S. Code § 205 - Computation: service creditable". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  25. ^ a b "10 U.S. Code § 571. Warrant officers: grades". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 30 December 2020.
  26. ^ LII Staff (12 November 2009). "Article II - Section 3, Commissioning Officers of the United States". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  27. ^ "U.S.C. Title 5 - GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND EMPLOYEES". www.gpo.gov. Retrieved 14 November 2018. §2902. Commission; where recorded
  28. ^ "Department of Defense INSTRUCTION 1310.02, Original Appointment of Officers" (PDF). 26 March 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2018. Enclosure (3)
  29. ^ "U.S.C. Title 5 - GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND EMPLOYEES". www.gpo.gov. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
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  33. ^ a b "Article 137 Briefing, Uniform Code of Military Justice". 11 November 2018. See especially Articles 7,9, 15, 25, 88-92, 133, 138, 139; and the distinctions between W-1 and commissioned officers/cadets/midshipmen concerning amenability to Article 15, Summary and Special Courts-Martial, and the distinctions between "dismissal" of commissioned officers/cadets/midshipmen and "dishonorable discharge" for W-1.
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  36. ^ a b c Davidson, Michael J. (2008). "Court-Martialing Cadets". Capital University Law School. pp. 659–673. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
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  38. ^ "Admission and Training of Midshipmen at the United States Merchant Marine Academy". www.gpo.gov. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  39. ^ "46 CFR 310.52 - General". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  40. ^ "46 U.S. Code § 51311 - Midshipman status in the Navy Reserve". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  41. ^ "10 U.S. Code § 2101 - Definitions". LII / Legal Information Institute. Retrieved 11 November 2018.
  42. ^ "Executive Order 11390 (Jan. 22, 1968)". National Archives. 15 August 2016. Retrieved 14 November 2018.
  43. ^ a b "DoD Instruction 1215.08 (with Change 1, dated 7 March 2018), SENIOR RESERVE OFFICERS' TRAINING CORPS (ROTC) PROGRAMS" (PDF). 19 January 2017. Retrieved 14 November 2018. The military status of a cadet or midshipman is a member of the Individual Ready Reserve or a member of the Selected Reserve in the Simultaneous Membership Program, unless activated for military training at which time a cadet or midshipman is placed on orders.
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