United States Public Health Service
The United States Public Health Service (PHS) is a division of the Department of Health and Human Services concerned with public health. It contains eight out of the department's eleven operating divisions. The Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) oversees the PHS. The Public Health Service Commissioned Corps is the federal uniformed service of the PHS, and is one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
Logo of the United States Public Health Service
Flag of the U.S. Public Health Service
|Formed||1798 (reorganized/renamed: 1871/1889/1902/1912)|
|Jurisdiction||Federal government of the United States|
Hubert H. Humphrey Building|
|Parent agency||Department of Health and Human Services|
|"Public Health Service March"|
The mission of the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps is to protect, promote, and advance the health and safety of the people of the United States. According to the PHSCC, this mission is achieved through rapid and effective response to public health needs, leadership and excellence in public health practices, and advancement of public health science.
Its origins can be traced to the establishment of 1798 of a system of marine hospitals, which were in 1870 consolidated into the Marine Hospital Service. As the system's scope grew, it renamed the Public Health Service in 1912. The Public Health Service Act of 1944 consolidated and revised previous laws. It became the primary division of the Department of Health, Education and Welfare, established in 1953, which later became the Department of Health and Human Services in 1979.
Eight out of the eleven operating divisions of the Department of Health and Human Services are designated as part of the Public Health service:
- Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry
- Food and Drug Administration
- Health Resources and Services Administration
- Indian Health Service
- National Institutes of Health
- Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration
The three other divisions are designated human services agencies and are not part of the Public Health Service. These are the Administration for Children and Families, Administration for Community Living, and Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services.
- National Vaccine Program Office (NVPO)
- Office of Adolescent Health (OAH)
- Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP)
- Office of HIV/AIDS and Infectious Disease Policy (OHAIDP)
- Office for Human Research Protections (OHRP)
- Office of Minority Health (OMH)
- Office of Population Affairs (OPA)
- Office of Research Integrity (ORI)
- Office of the Surgeon General (OSG)
- Public Health Service Commissioned Corps
- Office on Women's Health (OWH)
- President's Council on Sports, Fitness & Nutrition (PCSFN)
United States Public Health Service Commissioned CorpsEdit
The United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC) employs more than 6,000 uniformed public health professionals for the purpose of delivering public health promotion and disease prevention programs and advancing public health science. Members of the Commissioned Corps often serve on the frontlines in the fight against disease and poor health conditions.
As one of the United States seven uniformed services, the PHS Commissioned Corps fills public health leadership and service roles within federal government agencies and programs. The PHS Commissioned Corps includes officers drawn from many professions, including environmental and occupational health, medicine, nursing, dentistry, pharmacy, psychology, social work, hospital administration, health record administration, nutrition, engineering, science, veterinary, health information technology, and other health-related occupations.
Officers of the Corps wear uniforms similar to those of the United States Navy with special PHSCC insignia, and the Corps uses the same commissioned officer ranks as the U.S. Navy, the U.S. Coast Guard, and the NOAA Commissioned Officer Corps from ensign to admiral, uniformed services pay grades O-1 through O-10 respectively.
According to 5 U.S.C. § 8331, service in the PHSCC after June 30, 1960 is considered military service for retirement purposes. Under 42 U.S.C. § 213, active service in the PHSCC is considered active military service for the purposes of most veterans' benefits and for antidiscrimination laws.
The origins of the Public Health Service can be traced to the passage, by the 5th Congress of the United States, of "An Act for the Relief of Sick and Disabled Seamen" in 1798. This act created Marine Hospitals to care for sick seamen. They were initially located along the East Coast, at the harbors of the major port cities, with Boston being the site of the first such facility, followed later by others including in the Baltimore vicinity at Curtis Bay.
At the time this act was passed the east coast was the only shore with harbors. As the boundaries of the United States expanded, and harbors were built on other coasts, so too were marine hospitals. In the 1830s and 1840s they were built along inland waterways, the Great Lakes, and the Gulf of Mexico. After the acquisition of the Oregon Territory (1846) and California (1848) hospitals were built in 1850s at Pacific Coast harbors.
A reorganization in 1870 converted the loose network of locally controlled marine hospitals into a centrally controlled Marine Hospital Service, with its headquarters in Washington, D.C. The position of Supervising Surgeon (later titled the Surgeon General) was created to administer the Service, and John Maynard Woodworth, (1837-1879), was appointed as the first incumbent in 1871. He moved quickly to reform the system and adopted a military model for his medical staff; putting his physicians in uniforms, and instituting examinations for applicants. Woodworth created a cadre of mobile, career service physicians, who could be assigned as needed to the various Marine Hospitals. The commissioned officer corps was established by legislation in 1889, and signed by 22nd/24th President Grover Cleveland. At first open only to physicians, over the course of the 20th Century, the Corps expanded to include veterinarians, dentists, physician assistants, sanitary engineers, pharmacists, nurses, environmental health officers, scientists, and other types of health professionals. It is now known as the Commissioned Corps of the U.S. Public Health Service.
The scope of activities of the Marine Hospital Service also began to expand well beyond the care of merchant seamen in the closing decades of the nineteenth century, beginning with the control of infectious disease. Starting in the mid-14th century, ships entering harbors were quarantined when any of the crew was sick. This practice was normal procedure at United States harbors, with quarantine originally a function of the individual states, rather than of the Federal Government. The National Quarantine Act of 1878 vested quarantine authority to the Marine Hospital Service. and the National Board of Health. The National Board was not reauthorized by Congress in 1883 and its powers reverted to the Marine Hospital Service. Over the next half a century, the Marine Hospital Service increasingly took over quarantine functions from individual state authorities.
As immigration increased dramatically in the late 19th Century, the Federal Government also took over the processing of immigrants from the individual states, beginning in 1891. The Marine Hospital Service was assigned the responsibility for the medical inspection of arriving immigrants at sites such as Ellis Island in New York Harbor. Commissioned officers played a major role in fulfilling the Service's commitment to prevent disease from entering the country.
Because of the broadening responsibilities of the Service, its name was changed in 1902 to the "Public Health and Marine Hospital Service". As the emphasis of its responsibilities shifted from sailors to general public health and with the decommissioning of various old marine hospitals the name was changed again, in 1912, to just the "Public Health Service" (PHS). The Service continued to expand its public health activities as the Nation entered the 20th Century, with the PHS's Commissioned Corps leading the way. As the century progressed, commissioned officers of the PHS served their country by controlling the spread of contagious diseases such as smallpox and yellow fever, conducting important biomedical research, regulating the food and drug supply, providing health care to underserved groups, supplying medical assistance in the aftermath of disasters, and in numerous other ways.
In the area of environmental protection and public health, a Public Health Service 1969 community water survey that looked at more than a thousand drinking water systems across the United States drew two important conclusions that supported a growing demand for stronger protections that were adopted in the 1974 Safe Drinking Water Act. The survey concluded, first, that the state supervision programs were very uneven and often lax, and, second, that the bacteriological quality of the water, particularly among small systems, was of concern.
Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro MaleEdit
In 1932, the Public Health Service, working with the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama, began a study to record the natural history of syphilis in hopes of justifying treatment programs for blacks. It was titled the Tuskegee Study of Untreated Syphilis in the Negro Male.
The study initially involved 600 black men—399 with syphilis, 201 who did not have the disease. The study was conducted without the benefit of patients' informed consent. Researchers told the men they were being treated for "bad blood," a local term referring to several ailments, including syphilis, anemia, and fatigue. In truth, they did not receive the proper treatment needed to cure their illness. In exchange for taking part in the study, the men received free medical exams, free meals, and burial insurance. Although originally projected to last 6 months, the study actually went on for 40 years. Penicillin - which can be used to treat syphilis—was discovered in the 1940s. However, the study continued and treatment was never given to the subjects. Because of this, it has been called "arguably the most 'infamous' biomedical research study in U.S. history".
Syphilis studies in GuatemalaEdit
A USPHS physician who took part in the 1932–1972 Tuskegee program, John Charles Cutler, was in charge of the U.S. government's syphilis experiments in Guatemala, in which in the Central American Republic of Guatemala, Guatemalan prisoners, soldiers, orphaned children, and others were deliberately infected with syphilis and other sexually-transmitted diseases from 1946 to 1948, in order to scientifically study the disease, in a project funded by a grant from the National Institutes of Health of the United States in Bethesda, Maryland.
Emergency response since 1999Edit
Commissioned Corps emergency response teams are managed by the Office of the Surgeon General. They are trained and equipped to respond to public health crises and national emergencies, such as natural disasters, disease outbreaks, or terrorist attacks. The teams are multidisciplinary and are capable of responding to domestic and international humanitarian missions. Officers have responded to many such emergencies in the past, including:
- 1999: Hospital center at Fort Dix, New Jersey, for Kosovo Refugees
- 2001: September 11 attacks
- 2001: 2001 anthrax attacks
- 2004: 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami
- 2005: Hurricane Katrina
- 2005: Hurricane Rita
- 2006: 2006 Kiholo Bay earthquake
- 2007: Medicine Contamination in Panama
- 2008: Hurricane Gustav
- 2008: Hurricane Ike
- 2009: 2009 Samoa earthquake and tsunami
- 2010: 2010 Haiti earthquake
- 2010: Deepwater Horizon oil spill
- 2011: 2011 Japan tsunami and earthquake
- 2012: Hurricane Sandy—New York/New Jersey coastal areas
- 2013: 2014 American immigration crisis
- 2014: Ebola virus epidemic in Liberia—Ebola field hospital for health workers at Harbel near Monrovia
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- Organizational Chart of Health & Human Services, 2007
- US Department of Health and Human Services. Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH)
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- "Title 42 - The Public Health and Welfare" (PDF). US Government Printing Office.
- Gostin, Lawrence O. (2008). "Box 8: The Federal Presence in Public Health". Public Health Law: Power, Duty, Restraint, Revised and Expanded (2nd ed.). University of California Press. p. 156. ISBN 0520253760. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
- Ungar, Rick (January 17, 2011). "Congress Passes Socialized Medicine and Mandates Health Insurance -In 1798". Forbes.com. Retrieved 2012-11-08.
- Smillie, W. G. "The National Board of Health, 1879-1883" American Journal of Public Health and The Nation's Health (1943) 33(8):925-930.
- EPA Alumni Association: Senior EPA officials discuss early implementation of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974, Video, Transcript (see p4).
- Katz RV, Kegeles SS, Kressin NR, et al. (November 2006). "The Tuskegee Legacy Project: willingness of minorities to participate in biomedical research". J Health Care Poor Underserved. 17 (4): 698–715. doi:10.1353/hpu.2006.0126. PMC 1780164. PMID 17242525.
- McNeil, Donald G., Jr. (2010-10-01). "Syphilis Experiment Is Revealed, Prompting U.S. Apology to Guatemala". The New York Times.
- US Department of Health and Human Services. Emergency Response at Commissioned Corps Archived 2010-11-30 at the Wayback Machine.
- "FACT SHEET: Unaccompanied Children from Central America". 20 June 2014.
- "Treating Those Treating Ebola in Liberia" article by Sheri Fink in The New York Times, November 5, 2014
- Blue, Rupert (September 1917). "Conserving The Nation's Man Power: How The Government Is Sanitating The Civil Zones Around Cantonment Areas. A Nationwide Campaign For Health". National Geographic Magazine. XXXII (3): 255–278.
- Hendrick, Burton J. (April 1916). "The Mastery of Pellagra: How the Doctors of the United States Public Health Service Have Found a Way of Curing and Preventing It". The World's Work: A History of Our Time. XXXI: 633–639. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
- Leupp, Constance D. (August 1914). "Removing The Blinding Curse of the Mountains: How Dr. McMullen, of the Public Health Service Is Organizing ahe War against Trachoma in the Appalachians". "The World's Work: A History of Our Time". XLIV (2): 426–430. Retrieved 2009-08-04.
- Annual Report of the Surgeon General of the Public Health. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to United States Public Health Service.|
- Office of the Assistant Secretary for Health
- Public Health Service in the Federal Register
- Office of the Surgeon General
- Office of the Public Health Service Historian (part of the National Institutes for Health
- PHS history and WWII women's uniforms in color – World War II US women's service organizations (WAC, WAVES, ANC, NNC, USMCWR, PHS, SPARS, ARC and WASP)
- The V.D. Radio Project at The WNYC Archives
- Works by United States Public Health Service at Project Gutenberg
- Works by or about United States Public Health Service at Internet Archive
This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the United States Department of Health and Human Services.