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Admiral of the Fleet (Royal Navy)

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Admiral of the Fleet is a five-star naval officer rank and the highest rank of the Royal Navy formally established in 1688.[2] The five-star NATO rank code is OF-10, equivalent to a field marshal in the British Army or a marshal of the Royal Air Force. Other than honorary appointments no new admirals of the fleet have been named since 1995.

Admiral of the Fleet
Flag of the United Kingdom.svg
The flag of an admiral of the Fleet is the Union Flag, and is in 1:2 rather than the 2:3 of other admirals' flags.[1]
British Royal Navy OF-10-collected.svg
Insignia shoulder board and Sleeve lace for Admiral of the Fleet
Country United Kingdom
Service branch Royal Navy
RankFive-star
NATO rankOF-10
Non-NATO rankO-11
Formation1688
Next lower rankAdmiral
Equivalent ranks
Navies Armies Air forces
Commissioned officers
Admiral of
the fleet
Field marshal or
General of the army
Marshal of
the air force
Admiral General Air chief marshal
Vice admiral Lieutenant general Air marshal
Rear admiral Major general Air vice-marshal
Commodore Brigadier or
brigadier general
Air commodore
Captain Colonel Group captain
Commander Lieutenant colonel Wing commander
Lieutenant
commander
Major or
commandant
Squadron leader
Lieutenant Captain Flight lieutenant
Lieutenant
junior grade
or
sub-lieutenant
Lieutenant or
first lieutenant
Flying officer
Ensign or
midshipman
Second lieutenant Pilot officer
Officer cadet Officer cadet Flight cadet
Enlisted grades
Warrant officer or
chief petty officer
Warrant officer or
sergeant major
Warrant officer
Petty officer Sergeant Flight sergeant
Leading seaman Corporal or
bombardier
Corporal
Seaman Private or
gunner or
trooper
Aircraftman or
airman
Talk·View

HistoryEdit

 
King George VI and Admiral Bruce Fraser aboard HMS Duke of York at Scapa Flow, August 1943

The origins of the rank can be traced back to Sir John de Beauchamp, 1st Baron Beauchamp de Warwick, who was appointed 'Admiral of the King's Southern, Northern and Western Fleets' on 18 July 1360.[3] The appointment gave the command of the English navy to one person for the first time; the post evolved into the post of Admiral of the Fleet.[4] In the days sailing ships the admiral distinctions then used by the Royal Navy when the fleet was divided into three divisions – red, white, or blue. Each division was assigned an admiral, who in turn commanded a vice-admiral and a rear admiral. The rank of Admiral of the Fleet was formally established in 1688: prior to this date the Admiral of the White was pre-eminent and regarded informally as the admiral of the fleet.[5] In the 18th century, the original nine ranks began to be filled by more than one person at any one time. The admiral of the red was pre-eminent and became known as the admiral of the fleet.

In November 1805, a new rank of Admiral of the Red immediately junior to that of Admiral of the Fleet was created, the announcement on page 1373 of issue 15859 of the London Gazette stating "His Majesty having been pleased to order the Rank of Admirals of the Red to be restored[6] in His Majesty's Navy..." and promoting 22 men then serving as Admirals to that rank.[7]

The organisation of the British fleet into coloured squadrons was abandoned in 1864, although the Royal Navy kept the White Ensign. When the professional head of the Royal Navy was given the title of First Naval Lord in 1828 (renamed First Sea Lord in 1904), the rank of admiral of the fleet became an honorary promotion for retiring First Naval Lords allowing more than one admiral of the fleet to exist at one time. It was broadly customary for the senior Admiral on the active list to be made an Admiral of the Fleet (after 1870 Admirals were obliged to retire at 65) whether or not he had served as First Naval Lord. However, there was no Admiral of the Fleet between 1854 and 1857 (the senior Admiral, Thomas Le Marchant Gosselin[8][9] had never actually served since he was a Captain in 1809) and on the death of Provo Wallis in 1892 the promotion went to John Edmund Commerell rather than the senior Algernon Frederick Rous de Horsey. In 1914 the criteria were revised and in 1940 the Admirals of the Fleet were exempted from compulsory retirement.[10]

Since 1811 five members of the British Royal family, other than the monarch, and four members of foreign royal families have been appointed admirals of the fleet. Of the British royalty granted the rank, only one, the Prince of Wales (later King Edward VII) had not seen service in the Royal Navy.

During the two World Wars a number of serving officers held active commissions as admirals of the fleet, as well as the First Sea Lord. Following the creation of the Chief of the Defence Staff in 1959, the five naval officers appointed to that position became admirals of the fleet. Recognizing the reduced post–Cold War size of the British Armed Forces, no further appointments were made to the rank after 1995 when Sir Benjamin Bathurst was appointed admiral of the fleet on his retirement as First Sea Lord. The rank was not abolished and in 2012 the Prince of Wales became an honorary admiral of the fleet (as well as field marshal and marshal of the Royal Air Force), in recognition of his support to Queen Elizabeth II in her role of as Commander-in-Chief of the British Armed Forces. In 2014, Lord Boyce, a former First Sea Lord and Chief of the Defence Staff, was also appointed an honorary admiral of the fleet.[11]

Admirals of the FleetEdit

Appointed
Image
Name
Born
Died
Notes
Reference
1688   George Legge
(later Earl of Dartmouth)
1647 1691 [12]
1690   Edward Russell
(later Earl of Orford)
1652 1727 [13]
1696   Sir George Rooke 1650 1709 circa [14]
13 January 1705   Sir Cloudesley Shovell 1650 1707 [15]
8 January 1708   Leake JohnSir John Leake 1656 1720 [16]
21 December 1708   Fairborne StaffordSir Stafford Fairborne 1666 1742 circa [17]
12 November 1709   Aylmer MatthewSir Matthew Aylmer 1650 1720 [18]
14 March 1718   Byng GeorgeSir George Byng
(later Viscount Torrington)
1663 1733 [19]
20 February 1734   Norris JohnSir John Norris 1670 1749 [20]
1 July 1749   Ogle ChallonerSir Chaloner Ogle 1681 1750 [21]
22 November 1751   Steuart JamesJames Steuart 1690 1757 [22]
March 1757   Clinton GeorgeThe Hon. George Clinton 1686 1761 [23]
30 July 1761   AnsonThe Lord Anson 1697 1762 [24]
17 December 1762   Rowley WilliamSir William Rowley 1690 1768 circa [25]
15 January 1768   Hawke EdwardSir Edward Hawke
(later Lord Hawke)
1705 1781 [26]
24 October 1781   Luke O'KeefeThe Hon. John Forbes 1714 1796 [27]
12 March 1796   HoweThe Earl Howe 1726 1799 [28]
16 September 1799   Parker PeterSir Peter Parker 1721 1811 [29]
24 December 1811   Clarence and Saint AndrewsHRH The Duke of Clarence and St Andrews
(later HM King William IV)
1765 1837 [30]
19 July 1821   Saint VincentThe Earl of St Vincent 1735 1823 acting from May 1814 [31]
28 June 1830   Williams-Freeman WilliamWilliam Williams-Freeman 1742 1832 [32]
22 July 1830   GambierThe Lord Gambier 1756 1833 [33]
22 July 1830   Pole CharlesSir Charles Pole 1757 1830 [33]
24 April 1833   Nugent CharlesSir Charles Nugent 1759 1844 [34]
8 January 1844   Hawkins-Whitshed JamesSir James Hawkins-Whitshed 1762 1849 [35]
9 November 1846   Martin GeorgeSir George Martin 1764 1847 [36]
13 October 1849   Martin ThomasSir Thomas Byam Martin 1773 1854 [37]
1 July 1851   Cockburn GeorgeSir George Cockburn 1772 1853 [38]
8 December 1857   Ogle CharlesSir Charles Ogle 1775 1858 [39]
25 June 1858   West JohnSir John West 1774 1862 [40]
20 May 1862   Gage WilliamSir William Gage 1777 1864 [41]
10 November 1862   Hamond GrahamSir Graham Hamond 1779 1862 [42]
27 April 1863   Austen FrancisSir Francis Austen 1774 1865 [43]
27 April 1863   Parker WilliamSir William Parker 1781 1866 [44]
11 January 1864   Curtis LuciusSir Lucius Curtis 1786 1869 [45]
12 September 1865   Cochrane ThomasSir Thomas Cochrane 1789 1872 [46]
30 November 1866   Seymour GeorgeSir George Seymour 1787 1870 [47]
30 January 1868   Gordon JamesSir James Gordon 1782 1869 on the Retired List [48]
15 January 1869   Bowles WilliamSir William Bowles 1780 1869 [49]
2 July 1869   Sartorious GeorgeSir George Sartorius 1790 1885 [50]
21 January 1870   Moresby FairfaxSir Fairfax Moresby 1786 1877 [51]
20 October 1872   Stewart HoustonSir Houston Stewart 1791 1875 [52]
11 December 1875   Wallis ProvoSir Provo Wallis 1791 1892 [53]
22 January 1877   Codrington HenrySir Henry Codrington 1808 1877 [54]
5 August 1877   Keppel HenrySir Henry Keppel 1809 1904 [55]
27 December 1877   LauderdaleThe Earl of Lauderdale 1803 1878 [56]
27 December 1877   Mundy RodneySir Rodney Mundy 1805 1884 [56]
15 June 1879   Hope JamesSir James Hope 1808 1881 [57]
15 June 1879   Symonds ThomasSir Thomas Symonds 1813 1894 [57]
10 June 1881   Milne AlexanderSir Alexander Milne, Bt. 1806 1896 on the Retired List [58]
1 December 1881   Elliot CharlesSir Charles Elliot 1818 1895 [59]
29 April 1885   Ryder AlfredSir Alfred Ryder 1820 1888 [60]
18 July 1887   WalesHRH The Prince of Wales
(later HM King Edward VII)
1841 1910 honorary to non-Navy royalty [61]
1 May 1888   Hornby GeoffreySir Geoffrey Hornby 1825 1895 [62]
8 December 1888   Hay JohnLord John Hay 1827 1916 First Sea Lord 1886 [63]
2 August 1889   William IIHIM German Emperor William II 1859 1941 honorary, to foreign royalty [64]
13 February 1892   Commerell JohnSir John Commerell 1829 1901 [65]
3 June 1893   EdinburghHRH The Duke of Edinburgh
(later Duke Alfred of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha)
1844 1900 [66]
20 February 1895   ClanwilliamThe Earl of Clanwilliam 1832 1907 [67]
23 August 1897   Lyons AlgernonSir Algernon Lyons 1833 1908 [68]
29 November 1898   Richards FrederickSir Frederick Richards 1833 1912 First Sea Lord 1893–1899 [69]
13 January 1899   Salmon NowellSir Nowell Salmon 1835 1912 [70]
3 October 1902   Erskine JamesSir James Erskine 1838 1911 [71]
30 August 1903   Hotham CharlesSir Charles Hotham 1843 1925 [72]
16 June 1904   Kerr WalterLord Walter Kerr 1839 1927 First Sea Lord 1899–1904 [73]
20 February 1905   Seymour EdwardSir Edward Seymour 1840 1929 [74]
5 December 1905   Fisher JohnSir John Fisher
(later Lord Fisher)
1841 1920 First Sea Lord 1905–1910 and 1914–1915 [75]
1 March 1907   Wilson ArthurSir Arthur Wilson 1842 1921 First Sea Lord 1910–1911 [76]
11 June 1908   Nicholas IIHIM Tsar Nicholas II of Russia 1868 1918 honorary, to foreign royalty [77]
2 December 1908   Noel GerardSir Gerard Noel 1845 1918 [78]
27 January 1910   Heinrich of PrussiaHRH Prince Henry of Prussia 1862 1929 honorary, to foreign royalty [79]
30 April 1910   Fanshawe ArthurSir Arthur Fanshawe 1847 1936 [80]
6 May 1910   George V HM King George V 1865 1936 [81]
20 March 1913   May WilliamSir William May 1849 1930 [82]
5 March 1915   Meux HedworthThe Honourable Sir Hedworth Meux 1856 1929 [83]
2 April 1917   Callaghan GeorgeSir George Callaghan 1852 1920 [84]
3 April 1919   JellicoeThe Viscount Jellicoe
(later Earl Jellicoe)
1859 1935 First Sea Lord 1916–1918 [85]
3 April 1919   Beatty DavidSir David Beatty
(later Earl Beatty)
1871 1936 First Sea Lord 1919–1927 [86]
31 July 1919   Jackson HenrySir Henry Jackson 1855 1929 First Sea Lord 1915–1916 [87]
1 November 1919   Wemyss RosslynSir Rosslyn Wemyss
(later Lord Wester Wemyss)
1864 1933 First Sea Lord 1918–1919 [88]
24 November 1920   Burney CecilSir Cecil Burney, Bt. 1858 1929 [89]
5 July 1921   Sturdee DovetonSir Doveton Sturdee, Bt. 1859 1925 [90]
19 August 1921   Milford HavenThe Marquess of Milford Haven 1854 1921 First Sea Lord 1912–1914. On the Retired List [91]
31 July 1924   Madden CharlesSir Charles Madden, Bt. 1862 1935 First Sea Lord 1927–1930 [92]
8 May 1925   Calthorpe SomersetThe Honourable Sir Somerset Gough-Calthorpe 1864 1937 [93]
24 November 1925   de Robeck JohnSir John de Robeck, Bt. 1862 1928 [94]
21 January 1928   Oliver HenrySir Henry Oliver 1865 1965 [95]
31 July 1929   Brock OsmondSir Osmond Brock 1869 1947 [96]
8 May 1930   Keyes RogerSir Roger Keyes, Bt.
(later Lord Keyes)
1872 1945 [97]
21 January 1933   Field FrederickSir Frederick Field 1871 1945 First Sea Lord 1930–1933 [98]
31 July 1934   Tyrwhitt ReginaldSir Reginald Tyrwhitt, Bt. 1870 1951 [99]
8 May 1935   Chatfield ErnleSir Ernle Chatfield
(later Lord Chatfield)
1873 1967 First Sea Lord 1933–1938 [100]
21 January 1936   Edward VIIIHM King Edward VIII 1894 1972 [101]
12 July 1936 Kelly JohnSir John Kelly 1871 1936 [102]
11 December 1936   George VIHM King George VI 1895 1952 [103]
21 January 1938   CorkThe Earl of Cork and Orrery 1873 1967 [104]
7 July 1939   Backhouse RogerSir Roger Backhouse 1878 1939 First Sea Lord 1938–1939 [105]
31 July 1939   Pound DudleySir Dudley Pound 1877 1943 First Sea Lord 1939–1943 [106]
8 May 1940   Forbes CharlesSir Charles Forbes 1880 1960 [107]
21 January 1943   Cunningham AndrewSir Andrew Cunningham
(later Viscount Cunningham of Hyndhope)
1883 1963 First Sea Lord 1943–1946 [108]
22 October 1943   Tovey JohnSir John Tovey
(later Lord Tovey)
1885 1971 [109]
8 May 1945   Somerville JohnSir James Somerville 1882 1949 [110]
21 January 1948   Cunningham JohnSir John Cunningham 1885 1965 First Sea Lord 1946–1948 [111]
22 October 1948   Fraser of North CapeThe Lord Fraser of North Cape 1888 1981 First Sea Lord 1948–1951 [112]
20 March 1949 Willis AlgernonSir Algernon Willis 1889 1976 [113]
22 April 1952   Power ArthurSir Arthur Power 1889 1960 [114]
1 June 1952   Vian PhilipSir Philip Vian 1894 1968 [115]
15 January 1953   EdinburghHRH The Duke of Edinburgh 1921 Lord High Admiral of the United Kingdom 2011–present [116]
1 May 1953   McGrigor RhoderickSir Rhoderick McGrigor 1893 1959 First Sea Lord 1951–1955 [117]
22 April 1955   Creasy GeorgeSir George Creasy 1895 1972 [118]
22 October 1956   Mountbatten of BurmaThe Earl Mountbatten of Burma 1900 1979 First Sea Lord 1955–1959 Chief of the Defence Staff 1959–1965 [119]
10 May 1960 Lambe CharlesSir Charles Lambe 1900 1960 First Sea Lord 1959–1960 [120]
23 May 1962 John CasparSir Caspar John 1903 1984 First Sea Lord 1960–1963 [121]
12 August 1968 Begg VarylSir Varyl Begg 1908 1995 First Sea Lord 1966–1968 [122]
30 June 1970 Le Fanu MichaelSir Michael Le Fanu 1913 1970 First Sea Lord 1968–1970 [123]
12 March 1971 Hill-Norton PeterSir Peter Hill-Norton
(later Lord Hill-Norton)
1915 2004 First Sea Lord 1970–1971 Chief of the Defence Staff 1971–73 [124]
1 March 1974 Pollock MichaelSir Michael Pollock 1916 2006 First Sea Lord 1971–1974 [125]
9 February 1977 Ashmore EdwardSir Edward Ashmore 1919 2016 First Sea Lord 1977-1977 Chief of the Defence Staff 1977 [126]
6 July 1979 Lewin TerenceSir Terence Lewin
(later Lord Lewin)
1920 1999 First Sea Lord 1977–1979 Chief of the Defence Staff 1979–1982 [127]
1 December 1982 Leach HenrySir Henry Leach 1923 2011 First Sea Lord 1979–1982 [128]
2 August 1985 Fieldhouse JohnSir John Fieldhouse
(later Lord Fieldhouse)
1928 1992 First Sea Lord 1982–1985 Chief of the Defence Staff 1985–1988 [129]
12 April 1988   HM King Olav V of Norway 1903 1991 honorary, to foreign royalty [130]
25 May 1989 Staveley WilliamSir William Staveley 1928 1997 First Sea Lord 1985–1989 [131]
2 March 1992 Oswald JulianSir Julian Oswald 1933 2011 First Sea Lord 1989–1993 [132]
10 July 1995   Bathhurst BenjaminSir Benjamin Bathurst 1936 First Sea Lord 1993–1995 [133]
16 June 2012   WalesHRH The Prince of Wales 1948 Honorary rank [134]
13 June 2014   Boyce MichaelThe Lord Boyce 1943 Chief of the Defence Staff 2001–2003. Honorary rank [135]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Prothero, David (3 December 2002). "United Kingdom: Royal Navy rank flags". Flags of the World. Archived from the original on 28 June 2006. Retrieved 28 July 2006.
  2. ^ "Information sheet no 055: Squadron Colours" (PDF). nmrn-portsmouth.org.uk. The National Museum Royal Navy. 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  3. ^ 1, St. George Tucker. Vol. (1996). Blackstone's commentaries: with notes of reference to the constitution and laws, of the federal government of the United States, and of the Commonwealth of Virginia; with an appendix to each volume, containing short tracts upon such subjects as appeared necessary to form a connected view of the laws of Virginia as a member of the federal union (Originally published: Philadelphia : William Young Birch, and Abraham Small, 1803. ed.). Union, NJ: Lawbook Exchange. p. xxxiii. ISBN 9781886363168.
  4. ^ "Trafalgar Ancestors, Glossary". nationalarchives.gov.uk. National Archives, 2017. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
  5. ^ "Information sheet no 055: Squadron Colours" (PDF). nmrn-portsmouth.org.uk. The National Museum Royal Navy. 2014. Retrieved 13 February 2019.
  6. ^ The Dictionary of National Biography (Volume 20, page 394) says of James Gambier, 1st Baron Gambier that he "seems to have been as ignorant of naval history as careless of naval prestige, and must be considered one of the chief of the perpetrators of the official blunder which, in the warrant of 9 Nov. 1805 appointing admirals of the red, spoke of the rank as restored to the navy, whereas, in point of fact, it had never previously existed."
  7. ^ "No. 15859". The London Gazette. 5 November 1805. p. 1373.
  8. ^ O'Byrne, William Richard (1849). "Gosselin, Thomas Le Marchant" . A Naval Biographical Dictionary. John Murray – via Wikisource.
  9. ^ Stephen, Leslie; Lee, Sidney, eds. (1890). "Gosselin, Thomas le Marchant" . Dictionary of National Biography. 22. London: Smith, Elder & Co.
  10. ^ Dreadnought Project overview
  11. ^ "2014 Birthday Honours for service personnel and defence civilians". Ministry of Defence. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 28 June 2014.
  12. ^ "Naval Ranks NMRN Portsmouth". www.nmrn-portsmouth.org.uk. The National Museum Royal Navy, Portsmouth. 2019. Retrieved 8 February 2019.
  13. ^ "Russell, Edward, Earl of Orford". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  14. ^ "Rooke, Sir George". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  15. ^ "Shovell, Sir Cloudesley". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  16. ^ "Leake, Sir John". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  17. ^ "Fairborne, Stafford". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  18. ^ "Aylmer, Matthew". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  19. ^ "Byng, George, first Viscount Torrington". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  20. ^ Heathcote, p. 197
  21. ^ "No. 8864". The London Gazette. 4 July 1749. p. 6.
  22. ^ Heathcote p. 236
  23. ^ Heathcote, p. 45
  24. ^ "No. 10126". The London Gazette. 28 July 1761. p. 2.
  25. ^ "No. 10275". The London Gazette. 1 January 1763. p. 1.
  26. ^ Heathcote, p. 109
  27. ^ Heathcote, p. 87
  28. ^ "No. 13875". The London Gazette. 15 March 1796. p. 258.
  29. ^ Heathcote, p. 271
  30. ^ "No. 16554". The London Gazette. 21 December 1811. p. 2454.
  31. ^ "No. 17727". The London Gazette. 20 July 1821. p. 1511.
  32. ^ "No. 18701". The London Gazette. 2 July 1830. p. 1369.
  33. ^ a b "No. 18709". The London Gazette. 23 July 1830. p. 1539.
  34. ^ "No. 19042". The London Gazette. 26 April 1833. p. 793.
  35. ^ "No. 20305". The London Gazette. 16 January 1844. p. 146.
  36. ^ "No. 20660". The London Gazette (Supplement). 10 November 1846. p. 3994.
  37. ^ "No. 21037". The London Gazette. 13 November 1849. p. 3387.
  38. ^ "No. 21225". The London Gazette. 8 July 1851. p. 1769.
  39. ^ "No. 22071". The London Gazette. 11 December 1857. p. 4367.
  40. ^ "No. 22157". The London Gazette. 29 June 1858. p. 3090.
  41. ^ "No. 22627". The London Gazette. 20 May 1862. p. 2616.
  42. ^ "No. 22679". The London Gazette. 10 November 1862. p. 5343.
  43. ^ "No. 22730". The London Gazette. 28 April 1863. p. 2246.
  44. ^ "No. 22730". The London Gazette. 28 April 1863. p. 2246.
  45. ^ "No. 22806". The London Gazette. 12 January 1864. p. 157.
  46. ^ "No. 23014". The London Gazette. 15 September 1865. p. 4466.
  47. ^ "No. 23187". The London Gazette. 20 November 1866. p. 6158.
  48. ^ "No. 23349". The London Gazette. 4 February 1868. p. 537.
  49. ^ "No. 23462". The London Gazette. 26 January 1869. p. 407.
  50. ^ "No. 23516". The London Gazette. 13 July 1869. p. 3958.
  51. ^ "No. 23582". The London Gazette. 1 February 1870. p. 598.
  52. ^ "No. 23915". The London Gazette. 1 November 1872. p. 5106.
  53. ^ "No. 24278". The London Gazette. 24 December 1875. p. 6577.
  54. ^ "No. 24411". The London Gazette. 30 January 1877. p. 436.
  55. ^ "No. 24497". The London Gazette. 24 August 1877. p. 4957.
  56. ^ a b "No. 24537". The London Gazette. 1 January 1878. p. 2.
  57. ^ a b "No. 24734". The London Gazette. 17 June 1879. p. 3967.
  58. ^ "No. 24997". The London Gazette. 19 July 1881. p. 3548.
  59. ^ "No. 25044". The London Gazette. 2 December 1881. p. 6470.
  60. ^ "No. 25466". The London Gazette. 1 May 1885. p. 1984.
  61. ^ Heathcote, p. 68
  62. ^ "No. 25816". The London Gazette. 15 May 1888. p. 2766.
  63. ^ "No. 25883". The London Gazette. 14 December 1888. p. 7140.
  64. ^ Heathcote, p. 261
  65. ^ "No. 26262". The London Gazette. 26 February 1892. p. 1108.
  66. ^ Heathcote, p. 10
  67. ^ "No. 26601". The London Gazette. 22 February 1895. p. 1066.
  68. ^ "No. 26885". The London Gazette. 24 August 1897. p. 4726.
  69. ^ "No. 27029". The London Gazette. 2 December 1898. p. 7818.
  70. ^ "No. 27043". The London Gazette. 17 January 1899. p. 298.
  71. ^ "No. 27483". The London Gazette. 17 October 1902. p. 6569.
  72. ^ "No. 27593". The London Gazette. 1 September 1903. p. 5476.
  73. ^ "No. 27692". The London Gazette. 5 July 1904. p. 4259.
  74. ^ "No. 27766". The London Gazette. 21 February 1905. p. 1279.
  75. ^ "No. 27861". The London Gazette. 8 December 1905. p. 8812.
  76. ^ "No. 28001". The London Gazette. 5 March 1907. p. 1574.
  77. ^ Heathcote, p. 192
  78. ^ "No. 28201". The London Gazette. 1 December 1908. p. 9182.
  79. ^ Heathcote, p. 113
  80. ^ "No. 28362". The London Gazette. 3 May 1910. p. 3063.
  81. ^ Heathcote, p. 98
  82. ^ "No. 28703". The London Gazette. 21 March 1913. p. 2159.
  83. ^ "No. 29094". The London Gazette. 9 March 1915. p. 2365.
  84. ^ "No. 30008". The London Gazette. 3 April 1917. p. 3206.
  85. ^ "No. 31327". The London Gazette. 6 May 1919. p. 5653.
  86. ^ "No. 31327". The London Gazette. 6 May 1919. p. 5653.
  87. ^ "No. 31489". The London Gazette. 5 August 1919. p. 9961.
  88. ^ "No. 31715". The London Gazette (Supplement). 2 January 1920. p. 57.
  89. ^ "No. 32150". The London Gazette (Supplement). 3 December 1920. p. 11942.
  90. ^ "No. 32394". The London Gazette. 19 July 1921. p. 5733.
  91. ^ Order in Council of 19 August 1921; ADM 196/38
  92. ^ "No. 32962". The London Gazette. 5 August 1924. p. 5889.
  93. ^ "No. 33049". The London Gazette. 22 May 1925. p. 3445.
  94. ^ "No. 33110". The London Gazette. 1 December 1925. p. 7950.
  95. ^ "No. 33354". The London Gazette. 7 February 1928. p. 856.
  96. ^ "No. 33523". The London Gazette. 6 August 1929. p. 5145.
  97. ^ "No. 33604". The London Gazette. 9 May 1930. p. 2867.
  98. ^ "No. 33905". The London Gazette. 24 January 1933. p. 524.
  99. ^ "No. 34076". The London Gazette. 7 August 1934. p. 5054.
  100. ^ "No. 34159". The London Gazette. 10 May 1935. p. 3048.
  101. ^ Heathcote, p. 69
  102. ^ "No. 34308". The London Gazette (Supplement). 24 July 1936. p. 4742.
  103. ^ Heathcote, p. 99
  104. ^ "No. 34476". The London Gazette. 25 January 1938. p. 512.
  105. ^ Heathcote, p. 21
  106. ^ "No. 34651". The London Gazette. 4 August 1939. p. 5393.
  107. ^ "No. 34849". The London Gazette. 14 May 1940. p. 2892.
  108. ^ Heathcote, p. 60
  109. ^ "No. 36255". The London Gazette. 19 November 1943. p. 5088.
  110. ^ Heathcote, p. 233
  111. ^ "No. 38210". The London Gazette. 17 February 1948. p. 1128.
  112. ^ Heathcote, p. 90
  113. ^ "No. 38595". The London Gazette. 26 April 1949. p. 2052.
  114. ^ "No. 39571". The London Gazette. 13 June 1952. p. 3238.
  115. ^ "No. 39606". The London Gazette. 25 July 1952. p. 3999.
  116. ^ Heathcote, p. 210
  117. ^ Heathcote, p. 162
  118. ^ "No. 40487". The London Gazette. 24 May 1955. p. 3011.
  119. ^ "No. 40927". The London Gazette. 16 November 1956. p. 6492.
  120. ^ "No. 42058". The London Gazette (Supplement). 7 June 1960. p. 4037.
  121. ^ "No. 42704". The London Gazette. 15 June 1962. p. 4777.
  122. ^ Heathcote, p. 29
  123. ^ "No. 45138". The London Gazette (Supplement). 26 June 1970. p. 7183.
  124. ^ "No. 45331". The London Gazette (Supplement). 30 March 1971. p. 2937.
  125. ^ "No. 46225". The London Gazette (Supplement). 4 March 1974. p. 2887.
  126. ^ "No. 47160". The London Gazette (Supplement). 1 March 1977. p. 2825.
  127. ^ "No. 47904". The London Gazette (Supplement). 16 July 1979. p. 8998.
  128. ^ "No. 49174". The London Gazette (Supplement). 22 November 1982. p. 15293.
  129. ^ Heathcote, p.78
  130. ^ "No. 51297". The London Gazette (3rd supplement). 12 April 1988. p. 4327.
  131. ^ Heathcote, p. 235
  132. ^ Heathcote, p. 204
  133. ^ Heathcote, p. 23
  134. ^ "No. 60350". The London Gazette. 7 December 2012. p. 23557.
  135. ^ "2014 Birthday Honours for service personnel and defence civilians". Ministry of Defence. 13 June 2014. Retrieved 22 June 2014.

SourcesEdit

  • Heathcote, Tony (2002). The British Admirals of the Fleet 1734–1995. Pen & Sword Ltd. ISBN 0-85052-835-6.

External linksEdit