Lawrence B. "Larry" Wilkerson (born June 15, 1945) is a retired United States Army Colonel and former chief of staff to United States Secretary of State Colin Powell. Since the end of his military career, Wilkerson has publicly criticized many aspects of the Iraq War, including his own preparation of Powell's presentation to the UN, as well as other aspects of American policy in the Middle East.
Wilkerson in 2016
|Born||June 15, 1945|
Gaffney, South Carolina, U.S.
|Allegiance||United States of America|
|Branch/service||United States Army|
|Years of service||1966–1997|
- 1 Education and military service
- 2 Post-government statements
- 2.1 Criticism of U.S. foreign policy
- 2.2 Treatment of detainees in Iraq
- 2.3 Iraq war intelligence was "a hoax"
- 2.4 An Iranian overture, 2003
- 2.5 Lack of congressional oversight
- 2.6 Commentary on the documentary Why We Fight
- 2.7 Guantanamo continues to hold innocent men
- 2.8 Iran's democracy
- 2.9 Trump administration foreign policy
- 3 Politics and personal life
- 4 References
- 5 External links
Education and military serviceEdit
Wilkerson was born in Gaffney, South Carolina. After three years of studying philosophy and English literature at Bucknell University, Wilkerson dropped out in 1966 and volunteered to serve in the Vietnam War. He told the Washington Post: "I felt an obligation because my dad had fought, and I thought that was kind of your duty."
Wilkerson arrived as an Army officer piloting an OH-6A Cayuse observation helicopter and logged about 1100 combat hours over a year. He flew low and slow through Vietnam, and was involved in one incident in which he says he prevented a war crime by purposely placing his helicopter between a position that was full of civilians, and another helicopter that wanted to launch an attack on the position. He also had many vocal disagreements with his superiors and his own gunner crew over free-fire zones, including an incident in which one of his crew shot a wagon that wound up having a little girl inside it. He went on to Airborne School and Ranger School before receiving his Bachelor of Arts degree in English literature and graduate degrees in international relations and national security. He attended the Naval War College in Newport, Rhode Island, and later returned there to teach. He later served as deputy director of the Marine Corps War College at Quantico.
Wilkerson spent some years in the United States Navy's Pacific Command in South Korea, Japan and Hawaii, where he was well regarded by his superiors. These recommendations led in early 1989 to a successful interview to become the assistant to Colin Powell, who was then finishing his stint as National Security Advisor in the Reagan administration and moving to a position in the United States Army Forces Command at Fort McPherson. He continued this supporting role as Powell became Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff through the Gulf War, following Powell into civilian life and then back into public service when President George W. Bush appointed Powell Secretary of State.
Wilkerson was responsible for a review of information from the Central Intelligence Agency that was used to prepare Powell for his February 2003 presentation to the United Nations Security Council. His failure to realize that the evidence was faulty has been attributed to the limited time (only one week) that he had to review the data. The subsequent developments led Wilkerson to become disillusioned: "Combine the detainee abuse issue with the ineptitude of post-invasion planning for Iraq, wrap both in this blanket of secretive decision-making...and you get the overall reason for my speaking out."
Since his retirement from the public sector Wilkerson has on several occasions spoken out against what he perceives as the poor planning and execution of the Iraq War as well as the global politics leading up to and following it. In particular he has denounced the decision-making process of the Bush Administration and Vice President Dick Cheney's and Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld's parts in it.
Criticism of U.S. foreign policyEdit
On April 2018, Wilkerson explained in an interview with Sharmini Peries of the Real News Network, why he (Wilkerson) believes the U.S. president "can do anything he pleases with regard to the armed forces of the United States anytime he pleases." That reason, says Wilkerson, "is because the American people are apathetic" and "their representatives in the Congress are… cowards" who, but for "few exceptions like Mike Lee and Bernie Sanders and some of the others," will not do anything to restrain such exercise of presidential power. He also goes on to state that commercial interests related to oil and gas is why the U.S. would intervene in various places overseas including the Middle East and Afghanistan; and that other reasons for justifying U.S. intervention "is just lying to the American people" and that the U.S. has a long history of lying to justify intervention, giving the examples of the Vietnam, Iraq, and Afghanistan wars.
In September 2018, Wilkerson further said that the neoconservative agenda regarding war on Syria and Iran also threatens conflict between the U.S. and Russia and the long-term bogging down of U.S. military forces in major conflict. Wilkerson states, "My serious concern is about the way U.S. National Security Advisor John Bolton and others in their positions of power now are orchestrating a scenario whereby Donald Trump, for political reasons or whatever, can use force in a significant way against Assad and ultimately Iran, because Iran's forces are there, and ultimately against Russia, because their forces are there in Syria, and this is most disquieting.” The neoconservatives' military plan, argues Wilkerson, is "a recipe for" the U.S. military being in the region for "the next generation" with significant force "mired even deeper in this morass" and with the "day after day" attrition of dollars and lives.[non-primary source needed]
Treatment of detainees in IraqEdit
Wilkerson made comments in a radio interview in November 2005 that the Vice President had decided that the Third Geneva Convention (regarding treatment of POWs) would not apply to "al-Qaeda and al-Qaeda look-alike detainees" and that the February 2002 White House memorandum regarding the "Humane Treatment of Taliban and al Qaeda Detainees" contained a loophole designed to avoid applying the Geneva convention to the detainees. According to Wilkerson, the phrase "the detainees (should) be treated humanely and, to the extent appropriate and consistent with military necessity, in a manner consistent with the principles of Geneva" was a way to appear to play by the rules while in reality, the "military necessities" would always overrule concerns about the plight of the detainees. Wilkerson said that this was result of Cheney and Rumsfeld working in collaboration to undermine the standard decision-making process of the White House (which included his superior, Colin Powell).
And so what I'm saying is, under the vice-president's protection, the secretary of defense moved out to do what they wanted to do in the first place even though the president had made a decision that was clearly a compromise.— Lawrence Wilkerson, BBC Radio 4, November 25, 2005
Iraq war intelligence was "a hoax"Edit
During an October 19, 2005 speech at the New America Foundation, Wilkerson criticized the intelligence community which compiled the Iraq War intelligence.
I can't tell you why the French, the Germans, the Brits and us thought that most of the material, if not all of it, that we presented at the U.N. on 5 February 2003 was the truth— Lawrence Wilkerson, New America Foundation, October 19, 2005
Vice versa, both British and German intelligence officers claim they had in fact warned the Americans that their source was not reliable.
In a 2006 interview Wilkerson said that the speech Powell made before the United Nations on February 5, 2003—which laid out a case for war with Iraq—included falsehoods of which Powell had never been made aware. He said, "My participation in that presentation at the UN constitutes the lowest point in my professional life. I participated in a hoax on the American people, the international community and the United Nations Security Council." Wilkerson said in 2011 that his preparing of the presentation was "probably the biggest mistake of my life", he regrets it, and that he regrets not resigning over it.
He stated in the 2006 interview that neither CIA Director George Tenet nor the CIA analysts that gave Powell information on mobile biological laboratories explained that there were disputes about the reliability of the informants who had supplied the information—information which was used in the speech.
Wilkerson also agreed with the interviewer that Cheney's frequent trips to the CIA would have brought "undue influence" on the agency. When asked if Cheney was "the kind of guy who could lean on somebody" he responded, "Absolutely. And be just as quiet and taciturn about it as-- he-- as he leaned on 'em. As he leaned on the Congress recently-- in the-- torture issue."
Wilkerson stood by his earlier description of Cheney and Rumsfeld as having formed a cabal to hijack the decision-making process: "I'm worried and I would rather have the discussion and debate in the process we've designed than I would a diktat from a dumb strongman... I'd prefer to see the squabble of democracy to the efficiency of dictators."
An Iranian overture, 2003Edit
Wilkerson said in an interview on BBC Newsnight, January 17, 2007, that an Iranian offer to help stabilise Iraq after the American invasion, was positively received at the State Department, yet turned down by Dick Cheney. The reported offer consisted of help in stabilizing Iraq, cutting ties with Hezbollah and greater transparency in its nuclear program in return for lifting sanctions and dismantling the Mujahedeen-e Khalq, an organisation working to overthrow the Iranian government.
Lack of congressional oversightEdit
Wilkerson is one of the people interviewed in the 2007 documentary film No End in Sight, a film that is very critical of the way the occupation of Iraq was handled in the spring of 2003.
Commentary on the documentary Why We FightEdit
In April 2007, Wilkerson was featured in VPRO's Tegenlicht Dutch documentary The Israel Lobby. He said that the American Israel Public Affairs Committee (AIPAC) was highly influential in the Bush Administration's decision to go to war in Iraq. He also cited, as to the extent of their influence, an occasion in which he was threatened with censure when he criticized Israel in a lecture he was giving.
Guantanamo continues to hold innocent menEdit
The Associated Press reports that on March 16, 2009, Wilkerson wrote on The Washington Note that he knew from briefings as a Bush administration official that it was soon recognized that some of the captives were innocent. According to the Associated Press summary, Wilkerson said the Bush administration was willing to continue to detain innocent men who might nevertheless be aware of useful information about the Afghanistan "mosaic":
- It did not matter if a detainee were innocent. Indeed, because he lived in Afghanistan and was captured on or near the battle area, he must know something of importance.
- ...sufficient information about a village, a region, or a group of individuals, that dots could be connected and terrorists or their plots could be identified.
Wilkerson stated in 2009 that Guantanamo Bay military prison continues to hold innocent men. Wilkerson said that he felt compelled to come forward after hearing former Vice President Dick Cheney state that President Barack Obama's plans to close Guantanamo made the public less safe.
Commander Jeffrey Gordon, a Guantanamo spokesman, declined to comment on Wilkerson's specific observations. According to an Associated Press paraphrase of Gordon's statement, he said that, "dealing with foreign fighters from a wide variety of countries in a wartime setting was a complex process."
In a March 20, 2015 CNN interview, Wilkerson said,
I would say very, very candidly that Iran is probably the most democratic country in the Persian gulf region right now. My Republican colleagues will boil their eyes at that, but it is the most democratic country. It's a theocracy, no question about it. But it is possessed of the democratic tendencies that far outweigh those of, say, Bahrain or Saudi Arabia or even Egypt.
Trump administration foreign policyEdit
Politics and personal lifeEdit
In a September 2006 conference call, Wilkerson expressed support for Wesley Clark and Anthony Zinni. He also endorsed Jim Webb against incumbent George Allen in the 2006 U.S. Senate election in Virginia.
- "Lawrence Wilkerson".
- "Breaking Ranks", Washington Post, 19 January 2006
- Deborah Nelson, “THE WAR BEHIND ME: Vietnam Veterans Confront the Truth About U.S. War Crimes”, Basic Books, ISBN 978-0-465-00527-7, October 28, 2008
- "To What Extent Are Trump Administration Policies Making the World a More Dangerous Place? An interview with Col. Lawrence Wilkerson". WMNF. 2018-01-25. Retrieved 2019-02-21.
- Dick, Adam (2018-09-14). "Lawrence Wilkerson on the Neocons Plan: War in Syria, Then Iran". Antiwar.com Blog. Retrieved 2019-02-21.
- "Lawrence Wilkerson On The Neocons Plan: War In Syria, Then Iran". The Iranian. 2018-09-16. Retrieved 2019-02-21.
- "Transcript of Wilkerson interview". BBC. 25 November 2005. Retrieved 2007-01-20.
- The White House (7 February 2002). "Memorandum: "Humane Treatment of Taliban and al Qaeda Detainees"" (PDF). The White House. Retrieved 2007-01-20.
- "Col. Lawrence Wilkerson on the Bush Administration's National Security Decision Making Process". New America Foundation. October 19, 2005. Retrieved 2007-01-20.
- "Interview on the PBS show NOW with Col. Lawrence Wilkerson about pre-war intelligence". Public Affairs Television. February 3, 2006. Retrieved 2007-08-08.
- "Ex-Bush Official Col. Lawrence Wilkerson: 'I am Willing to Testify' If Dick Cheney is Put on Trial". Democracy Now!. August 30, 2011. Retrieved August 30, 2011.
- "Washington 'snubbed Iran offer'". BBC News. 18 January 2007. Retrieved 10 December 2010.
- "Report: Cheney Rejected Iran Concessions". London: Guardian Unlimited. 18 January 2007. Retrieved 2007-01-20.[dead link]
- "Internet Movie Database (IMDb) entry for Why We Fight". Internet Movie Database Inc. January 2005. Retrieved 2007-08-06.
- Andrew O. Selsky (2009-03-18). "Ex-Bush admin official: Many at Gitmo are innocent". Associated Press. Retrieved 2009-03-18.[permanent dead link]
- Lawrence Wilkerson (2009-03-16). "Guest Post by Lawrence Wilkerson: Some Truths About Guantanamo Bay". The Washington Note. Archived from the original on 2009-03-20. Retrieved 2009-03-18.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- "Most Guantanamo detainees are innocent: ex-Bush official". CBC News. 2009-03-18. Retrieved 2009-03-18.
- "Lawrence Wilkerson interview transcript". CNN. 2015-03-20. Retrieved 2019-05-10.
- on YouTube MSNBC Published on Mar 18, 2017
- Mate, Aaron (2017-10-17). "On Iran, Trump Follows the Neocons". The Real News. Retrieved 2017-10-20.
- "Trump Iran war". The NYTimes. February 5, 2018. Retrieved February 5, 2018.
- "Generals endorse Jim Webb for Senate". Richmond Times-Dispatch. 26 September 2006. Retrieved 2007-01-20.[permanent dead link]
- Rowley, Coleen (19 October 2009). "Colonel Larry Wilkerson to Receive 2009 Sam Adams Truthtelling Award". Huffington Post.
- "Foundation Voices". Military Religious Freedom Foundation. Retrieved 18 December 2014.
- Profile at SourceWatch
- "Colonel Finally Saw Whites of Their Eyes", Dana Milbank, The Washington Post, 20 October 2005
- Transcript of Wilkerson's speech at the New America Foundation, Washington Note Archives, October 19, 2005.
- Lawrence Wilkerson. "The White House Cabal", Los Angeles Times, October 25, 2005.
- Transcript of Wilkerson interview, BBC Today program, 29 November 2005
- Interview with Lawrence Wilkerson: "A Leaderless, Directionless Superpower", Der Spiegel, December 6, 2005
- Transcript of Wilkerson Interview, PBS NOW (series), "Iraq Pre-War Intelligence," February 3, 2006. "... I'd prefer to see the squabble of democracy to the efficiency of dictators."
- "They Have Stolen My Party and I Want it Back", blog piece, The Washington Note, 22 March 2006
- Interview where Colonel Wilkerson gives examples of Cheney and Rumsfeld's influence., National Public Radio, November 3, 2005.
- Sworn Testimony over prisoners held in Guantanamo
- Stopping America’s Endless Wars Could ‘Sink The Ship Of State,’ Fmr. Bush Official Warns. MintPress News. February 9, 2016.