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A foreign minister or minister of foreign affairs (less commonly for foreign affairs) is generally a cabinet minister in charge of a state's foreign policy and relations.[1]

Contents

Difference in titlesEdit

In some nations, such as India, the Foreign Minister is referred to as the "Minister for External Affairs"; or, as in the case of Brazil, "Minister of Foreign Affairs"; or, still others, such as states created from the former Soviet Union, call the position the "Minister of External Relations". In the United States, the equivalent to the foreign ministry is called the "Department of State", and the equivalent position is known as the "Secretary of State". Other common titles may include "Minister of Foreign Relations". In many Spanish and Portuguese-speaking countries in Latin America, the foreign minister is colloquially called "Canciller".

Diplomats themselves and historians often refer to the foreign ministry by its local address, a type of metonymy: for example, the Ballhausplatz in Vienna housed the Foreign Ministry of Austria-Hungary; the Quai d'Orsay in Paris for France's Ministry of Europe and Foreign Affairs; the Itamaraty Palace in Brasília is the headquarters of the Ministry of External Relations in Brazil; the Wilhelmstraße, in Berlin, was the location of the German Foreign Office; and Foggy Bottom, a neighborhood of Washington, D.C., houses the Department of State. During the Russian Empire, which lasted until 1917, the metonym used was the Choristers’ Bridge in Saint Petersburg. In contrast, the Italian ministry was called "the Consulta."[2]

Powers of positionEdit

A foreign minister's powers can vary from government to government. In a classic parliamentary system, a foreign minister can potentially exert significant influence in forming foreign policy but when the government is dominated by a strong prime minister the foreign minister may be limited to playing a more marginal or subsidiary role in determining policy. Similarly, the political powers invested in the foreign minister are often more limited in presidential governments with a strong executive branch. Since the end of World War II, it has been common for both the foreign minister and defense minister to be part of an inner cabinet (commonly known as a national security council) in order to coordinate defense and diplomatic policy. Although the 19th and early 20th centuries saw many heads of government assume the foreign ministry, this practice has since become uncommon in most developed nations.

ResponsibilitiesEdit

Along with their political roles, foreign ministers are also traditionally responsible for many diplomatic duties, such as hosting foreign world leaders and going on state visits to other countries. The foreign minister is generally the most well-traveled member of any cabinet.

Although it is very rare for there to be any sub-national foreign minister post, although sometimes there is a minor external relations position, it can exist supranationally. The European Union has dealt with external relations in certain areas since its inception (see EU Trade Commissioner) and has a High Representative as its chief diplomat. However her duties are primarily to implement EU Foreign Policy, rather than formulate it.

ListEdit

By yearEdit

Country and territory-related articles and listsEdit

Country, territory, partially recognised country or other entity Name of office Head of the office
  Afghanistan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Albania Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Algeria Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Andorra Ministry of External Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs and Institutional Relations
  Angola Ministry of External Relations Minister of External Relations
  Antigua and Barbuda Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Argentina Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Worship Ministers of Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Worship
  Armenia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Australia Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Austria Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs Federal Minister for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs
  Azerbaijan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Bahamas Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs and Immigration
  Bahrain Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Bangladesh Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Barbados Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and International Business Minister for Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade
  Belarus Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Belgium Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs, External Trade and European Affairs
  Belize Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade
  Benin Ministry of Foreign Affairs and African Integration Minister of Foreign Affairs, African Integration, La Francophonie, and Beninese Abroad
  Bhutan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Bolivia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Chancellor
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Botswana Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
  Brazil Ministry of External Relations Minister of External Relations
  Brunei Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade
  Bulgaria Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Burkina Faso Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Regional Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and Regional Cooperation
  Burundi Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
  Cambodia Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
  Cameroon Ministry of External Relations Minister of External Relations
  Canada Department of Global Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Cape Verde Ministry of External Affairs Minister of External Affairs
  Central African Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs, African Integration, La Francophonie Affairs, and Central Africans Abroad Minister of Foreign Affairs, African Integration, La Francophonie Affairs, and Central Africans Abroad
  Chad Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs and African Integration
  Chile Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  China Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Hong Kong Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Commerce and Economic Development Bureau

Constitutional and Mainland Affairs Bureau

Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region

Secretary for Commerce and Economic Development

Secretary for Constitutional and Mainland Affairs

  Macau Office of the Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in the Macao Special Administrative Region

Secretariat for Economy and Finance

Secretariat for Social Affairs and Culture

Commissioner of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China in the Macao Special Administrative Region

Secretary of Economy and Finance of Macau

Secretary for Social Affairs and Culture of Macau

  Colombia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Comoros Ministry of External Relations, of Cooperation, in Charge of the Diaspora, of la Francophonie and of the Arab World Minister of External Relations, of Cooperation, in Charge of the Diaspora, of la Francophonie and of the Arab World
  Democratic Republic of the Congo Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs, International Cooperation and La Francophonie
  Republic of the Congo Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation
  Cook Islands Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Immigration Minister of Foreign Affairs and Immigration
  Costa Rica Ministry of External Relations Minister of External Relations and Worship
  Côte d'Ivoire Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Croatia Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs Minister of Foreign and European Affairs
  Cuba Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Cyprus Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Czech Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Denmark Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Djibouti Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
  Dominica Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Dominican Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Ecuador Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Integration Minister of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Integration
  Egypt Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  El Salvador Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Equatorial Guinea Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation and La Francophonie
  Eritrea Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Estonia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Ethiopia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  European Union European External Action Service High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy
  Fiji Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Minister for Foreign Affairs, International Cooperation and Civil Aviation
  Finland Ministry for Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  France Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Development
  Gabon Ministry for Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs, International Cooperation, La Francophonie, in charge of NEPAD and Regional Integration
  The Gambia Ministry of Foreign Affairs, International Cooperation and Gambians Abroad Minister for Foreign Affairs, International Cooperation and Gambians Abroad
  Georgia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Germany Foreign Office Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Ghana Ministry for Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs and Regional Integration
  Greece Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Grenada Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Guatemala Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Guernsey Policy Council External Relations Team
  Guinea Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs and Guineans Abroad
  Guinea-Bissau Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
  Guyana Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Haiti Ministry for Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs and Worship
  Honduras Secretariat of Foreign Affairs Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs
  Hungary Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Iceland Ministry for Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  India Ministry of External Affairs Minister of External Affairs
  Indonesia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Iran Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Iraq Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Ireland Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade
  Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Italy Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Jamaica Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade
  Japan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Jersey Ministry of External Relations Minister for External Relations
  Jordan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Kazakhstan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Ministers of Foreign Affairs
  Kenya Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Kiribati Ministry for Foreign Affairs and Immigration Minister for Foreign Affairs and Immigration
  North Korea Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  South Korea Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Kosovo Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Kuwait Ministry of Foreign Affairs Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Kyrgyzstan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Laos Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Latvia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Lebanon Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Emigrants Minister of Foreign Affairs and Emigrants
  Lesotho Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Relations Minister for Foreign Affairs and International Relations
  Liberia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Libya Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
  Liechtenstein Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Lithuania Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Luxembourg Ministry for Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Republic of Macedonia Ministry for Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Madagascar Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Malawi Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
  Malaysia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Maldives Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Mali Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
  Malta Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Marshall Islands Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Mauritania Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation
  Mauritius Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Regional Integration and International Trade Minister of Foreign Affairs, Regional Integration and International Trade
  Mexico Secretariat of Foreign Affairs Secretary of Foreign Affairs
  Federated States of Micronesia Department of Foreign Affairs, Overseas Embassies, Consulates, and Missions Secretary of Foreign Affairs
  Moldova Ministry of the Foreign Affairs and European Integration Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration
  Monaco Department of External Relations Government Counsellor for External Relations
  Mongolia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Montenegro Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs and European Integration
  Morocco Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation
  Mozambique Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation
  Myanmar Ministry of Foreign Affairs Union Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Nagorno-Karabakh Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Namibia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Nauru Department of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs and Trade, Health and Sport
    Nepal Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Home Affairs and Foreign Affairs
  The Netherlands Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Nicaragua Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Niger Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Cooperation and African Integration Minister of Foreign Affairs, Cooperation, African Integration and Nigeriens Abroad
  Nigeria Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Niue Premiers Department Minister of External Affairs
  Norway Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Oman Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of State for Foreign Affairs
  Pakistan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Palau Ministry of State Minister of State for Foreign Affairs
  Palestine Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Panama Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Papua New Guinea Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Immigration Minister for Foreign Affairs, Trade and Immigration
  Paraguay Ministry of Foreign Relations Minister of Foreign Relations
  Peru Ministry of Foreign Relations Minister of Foreign Relations
  Philippines Department of Foreign Affairs Secretary of Foreign Affairs
  Poland Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Portugal Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of State and Foreign Affairs
  Qatar Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Romania Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Russia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Rwanda Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation
  Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Saint Kitts and Nevis Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs, National Security, Labour, Immigration and Social Security
  Saint Lucia Ministry of External Affairs Minister for External Affairs, International Trade and Civil Aviation
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Consumer Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs, Trade and Consumer Affairs
  Samoa Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade
  San Marino Secretariat of State for Foreign and Political Affairs Secretary for Foreign Affairs
  São Tomé and Príncipe Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Cooperation and Communities Minister of Foreign Affairs, Cooperation and Communities
  Saudi Arabia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Senegal Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs and Senegalese Abroad
  Serbia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Seychelles Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Sierra Leone Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Singapore Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  Slovakia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign and European Affairs
  Slovenia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Solomon Islands Ministry of Foreign Affairs and External Trade Minister of Foreign Affairs and External Trade
  Somalia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  South Africa Department of International Relations and Cooperation Minister of International Relations and Cooperation
  South Ossetia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  South Sudan Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
  Spain Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation
  Sri Lanka Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Sudan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Suriname Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Swaziland Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
  Sweden Ministry for Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
   Switzerland Federal Department of Foreign Affairs Head of the Federal Department of Foreign Affairs
  Syria Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Expatriates Minister of Foreign Affairs and Expatriates
  Taiwan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Tajikistan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Tanzania Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation
  Thailand Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Timor-Leste Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Minister of State and of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation
  Togo Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation Minister of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation
  Tonga Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs, Defence, Information and Communication
  Transnistria Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Trinidad and Tobago Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Tunisia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Turkmenistan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Tuvalu Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs, Environment, Trade, Labour and Tourism
  Uganda Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Ukraine Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister for Foreign Affairs
  United Arab Emirates Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  United Kingdom Foreign and Commonwealth Office Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs
  United States Department of State Secretary of State
  Uruguay Ministry of Foreign Relations Minister of Foreign Relations
  Uzbekistan Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Vanuatu Ministry of Foreign Affairs and External Trade Minister of Foreign Affairs and External Trade
   Vatican City Secretariat of State Secretary for Relations with States
  Venezuela Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of the Popular Participation for Foreign Affairs
  Vietnam Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Yemen Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs
  Zambia Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs and Tourism
  Zimbabwe Ministry of Foreign Affairs Minister of Foreign Affairs

Former countriesEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ http://www.thefreedictionary.com/Minister+of+Foreign+Affairs
  2. ^ David Stevenson, "The Diplomats" in Jay Winter, ed. The Cambridge History of the First World War: Volume II: The State (2014) vol 2 p 68.

External linksEdit