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A United States visa issued in 2014
Russian visa issued in 1916
Brazilian multiple entry visa in a United States passport, with immigration stamps from Brazil, France, and the United States

A visa (from the Latin charta visa, meaning "paper which has been seen")[1] is a conditional authorization granted by a country to a foreigner, allowing them to enter, remain within, or to leave that country. Visas typically include limits on the duration of the foreigner's stay, territory within the country they may enter, the dates they may enter, the number of permitted visits or an individual's right to work in the country in question. Visas are associated with the request for permission to enter a country and thus are, in some countries, distinct from actual formal permission for an alien to enter and remain in the country. In each instance, a visa is subject to entry permission by an immigration official at the time of actual entry, and can be revoked at any time.

A visa most commonly takes the form of a sticker endorsed in the applicant's passport or other travel document. The visa, when required, was historically granted by an immigration official on a visitor's arrival at the frontiers of a country, but increasingly today a traveller wishing to enter another country must apply in advance for a visa, sometimes in person at a consular office, by mail or over the internet. The actual visa may still be a sticker or a stamp in the passport, or may take the form of a separate document or an electronic record of the authorization, which the applicant can print before leaving home and produce on entry to the host country. Some countries do not require visas for short visits.

Some countries require that their citizens, as well as foreign travelers, obtain an "exit visa" to be allowed to leave the country.[2] Uniquely, the Norwegian special territory of Svalbard is an entirely visa-free zone under the terms of the Svalbard Treaty.

Some countries—such as those in the Schengen Area—have agreements with other countries allowing each other's citizens to travel between them without visas. The World Tourism Organization announced that the number of tourists requiring a visa before traveling was at its lowest level ever in 2015.[3][4]

Contents

OverviewEdit

A visa generally gives non-citizens clearance to enter a country and to remain there within specified constraints, such as a time frame for entry, a limit on the time spent in the country, and a prohibition against employment. Many countries do not require a visa in some situations; this may be the result of treaties specifying reciprocal arrangements. The possession of a visa is not in itself a guarantee of entry into the country that issued it, and a visa can be revoked at any time.

A visa application in advance of arrival gives the country a chance to consider the applicant's circumstances, such as financial security, reason for travelling, and details of previous visits to the country. A visitor may also be required to undergo and pass security or health checks upon arrival at the border.

HistoryEdit

In Western Europe in the late 19th century and early 20th century, passports and visas were not generally necessary for moving from one country to another. The relatively high speed and large movements of people traveling by train would have caused bottlenecks if regular passport controls had been used.[5] Passports and visas became usually necessary as travel documents only after World War I.

Long before that, in ancient times, passports and visas were usually the same type of travel documents. In the modern world, visas have become separate secondary travel documents, with passports acting as the primary travel documents.

Conditions of issueEdit

Some visas can be granted on arrival or by prior application at the country's embassy or consulate, or through a private visa service specialist who is specialized in the issuance of international travel documents. These agencies are authorized by the foreign authority, embassy, or consulate to represent international travelers who are unable or unwilling to travel to the embassy and apply in person. Private visa and passport services collect an additional fee for verifying customer applications, supporting documents, and submitting them to the appropriate authority. If there is no embassy or consulate in one's home country, then one would have to travel to a third country (or apply by post) and try to get a visa issued there. Alternatively, in such cases visas may be pre-arranged for collection on arrival at the border. The need or absence of need of a visa generally depends on the citizenship of the applicant, the intended duration of the stay, and the activities that the applicant may wish to undertake in the country he visits; these may delineate different formal categories of visas, with different issue conditions.

 
  Countries that issue visas or permits on arrival as a general rule for all arriving visitors
  Countries that issue visas or permits on arrival to a selected group of nationalities (more than 10)

The issuing authority, usually a branch of the country's foreign ministry or department (e.g. U.S. State Department), and typically consular affairs officers, may request appropriate documentation from the applicant. This may include proof that the applicant is able to support himself in the host country (lodging, food), proof that the person hosting the applicant in his or her home really exists and has sufficient room for hosting the applicant, proof that the applicant has obtained health and evacuation insurance, etc. Some countries ask for proof of health status, especially for long-term visas; some countries deny such visas to persons with certain illnesses, such as AIDS. The exact conditions depend on the country and category of visa. Notable examples of countries requiring HIV tests of long-term residents are Russia[6] and Uzbekistan.[7] However, in Uzbekistan, the HIV test requirement is sometimes not strictly enforced.[7] Other countries require a medical test that includes an HIV test, even for a short-term tourism visa. For example, Cuban citizens and international exchange students require such a test approved by a medical authority to enter Chilean territory.

The issuing authority may also require applicants to attest that they have had no criminal convictions, or that they do not partake in certain activities (like prostitution or drug trafficking). Some countries will deny visas if the travelers' passports show evidence of citizenship of, or travel to, a country which is considered hostile by that country. For example, some Arabic-oriented countries will not issue visas to nationals of Israel and those whose passports bear evidence of visiting Israel.

Many countries frequently demand strong evidence of intent to return to the home country, if the visa is for a temporary stay, due to potential unwanted illegal immigration.

TypesEdit

 
Tourist entry visa to the People's Republic of China.
 
Transit visa, issued by Japanese Consul Chiune Sugihara in Lithuania to Susan Bluman in World War II.

Each country typically has a multitude of categories of visas with various names. The most common types and names of visas include:

By purposeEdit

Transit visasEdit

For passing through the country of issue to a destination outside that country. Validity of transit visas are usually limited by short terms such as several hours to ten days depending on the size of the country or the circumstances of a particular transit itinerary.

  • Airside transit visa, required by some countries for passing through their airports even without going through passport control.
  • Crew member, steward or driver visa, issued to persons employed or trained on aircraft, vessels, trains, trucks, buses and any other means of international transportation, or ships fishing in international waters.

Short-stay or visitor visasEdit

For short visits to the visited country. Many countries differentiate between different reasons for these visits, such as:

  • Private visa, for private visits by invitation from residents of the visited country.
  • Tourist visa, for a limited period of leisure travel, no business activities allowed.
  • Visa for medical reasons, for undertaking diagnostics or a course of treatment in the visited country's hospitals or other medical facilities.
  • Business visa, for engaging in commerce in the country. These visas generally preclude permanent employment, for which a work visa would be required.
  • Working holiday visa, for individuals traveling between nations offering a working holiday program, allowing young people to undertake temporary work while traveling.
  • Athletic or artistic visa, issued to athletes and performing artists (and their supporting staff) performing at competitions, concerts, shows and other events.
    • Cultural exchange visa, usually issued to athletes and performing artists participating in a cultural exchange program.
  • Refugee visa, issued to persons fleeing the dangers of persecution, a war or a natural disaster.
  • Pilgrimage visa: this type of visa is mainly issued to those intending to visit religious destinations, as for example in Saudi Arabia or Iran, and to take part in particular religious ceremonies. Such visas can usually be obtained relatively quickly and at low cost; however, those using them are usually permitted to travel only as a group. The best example is Hajj visas for Saudi Arabia.[8]

Long-stay visasEdit

Visas valid for longer but still finite stays:

  • Student visa (F-1 in the U.S.), which allows its holder to study at an institution of higher learning in the issuing country. The F-2 visa allows the student's dependents to accompany them in the U.S.
    • Research visa, for students doing fieldwork in the host country.
  • Temporary worker visa, for approved employment in the host country. These are generally more difficult to obtain but valid for longer periods of time than a business visa. Examples of these are the United States' H-1B and L-1 visas. Depending on a particular country, the status of temporary worker may or may not evolve into the status of permanent resident or to naturalization.
  • Residence visa, granted to people obtaining long-term residence in the host country. In some countries, such as New Zealand, long-term residence is a necessary step to obtain the status of a permanent resident.
  • Asylum visa, issued to people who have suffered or reasonably fear persecution in their own country due to their political activities or opinion, or features, or association with a social group; or were exiled from their own country.

Immigrant visasEdit

Granted for those intending to immigrate to the issuing country (obtain the status of a permanent resident with a prospect of possible naturalization in the future):

  • Spouse visa or partner visa, granted to the spouse, civil partner or de facto partner of a resident or citizen of a given country to enable the couple to settle in that country.
  • Marriage visa, granted for a limited period before intended marriage or civil partnership based on a proven relationship with a citizen of the destination country. For example, a German woman wishing to marry an American man would obtain a Fiancée Visa (also known as a K-1 visa) to allow her to enter the United States. A K1 Fiancée Visa is valid for four months from the date of its approval.[9]
  • Pensioner visa (also known as retiree visa or retirement visa), issued by a limited number of countries (Australia, Argentina, Thailand, Panama, etc.), to those who can demonstrate a foreign source of income and who do not intend to work in the issuing country. Age limits apply in some cases.

Official visasEdit

These are granted to officials doing jobs for their governments, or otherwise representing their countries in the host country, such as the personnel of diplomatic missions.

  • Diplomatic visas are normally only available to bearers of diplomatic passports.
  • Courtesy visas are issued to representatives of foreign governments or international organizations who do not qualify for diplomatic status but do merit expedited, courteous treatment - an example of this is Australia's Special purpose visa.

By method of issueEdit

Normally visa applications are made at and collected from a consulate, embassy or other diplomatic mission.

On-arrival visasEdit

(Also known as Visa On Arrival, VOA), granted at a port of entry. This is distinct from not requiring a visa at all, as the visitor must still obtain the visa before they can even try to pass through immigration.

  • Almost all countries will consider issuing a visa (or another document to the same effect) on arrival to a visitor arriving in unforeseen exceptional circumstances, for example:
  • Some countries issue visas on arrival to special categories of travelers, such as seafarers or air crew.
  • Some countries issue them to regular visitors; however, there often are restrictions, for example:
    • Belarus issues visas on arrival in Minsk international airport only to nationals of countries where there is no consular representation of Belarus.
    • Thailand only issues visas on arrival at certain border checkpoints. The most notable crossing where visas on arrival are not issued is the Padang Besar checkpoint for passenger trains between Malaysia and Thailand.
    • Russia issues visas on arrival for short visits to its Western exclave, Kaliningrad Oblast.

Electronic visasEdit

An electronic visa (e-Visa or eVisa) is stored in a computer and is linked to the passport number; no label, sticker or stamp is placed in the passport before travel. The application is done over the internet.

  • Antigua and Barbuda issues Electronic Entry Visa (EEV) online to nationals of countries that require a visa.[10]
  • Armenia issues electronic visas to certain eligible countries.[11]
  • Australia pioneered electronic visa issuance with the Electronic Travel Authority for tourists, and is also issuing the eVisitor for European tourists and businessmen. Recent changes in immigration law mean that almost all visas (including those for permanent residency) are issued electronically by default unless a label is required (for example to board an aircraft). New Zealand citizens however can enter Australia under the Trans Tasman agreement.
  • Azerbaijan issues electronic visas to nationals of 81 countries and stateless persons through its ASAN visa system.[12]
  • Bahrain issues electronic visas to nationals of certain eligible countries.[13]
  • Cambodia issues electronic visas to most visitors through their eVisa system.[14]
  • Canada issues electronic visas to former visa-free visitors through their Electronic Travel Authorization (eTA) system.[15]
  • Ethiopia issues electronic visas to nationals of countries that are eligible for visa on arrival.[16]
  • Georgia issues electronic visas to nationals of eligible countries.[17]
  • India now issues electronic visas (called e-Tourist Visas) to nationals of certain eligible countries.
  • Ivory Coast allows visitors to apply online for an electronic visa that if approved can be picked up at the Port Bouet Airport in Abidjan.[18]
  • Kenya issues electronic visas to nationals of countries that are eligible for visa on arrival.[19]
  • Kuwait issues electronic visas to nationals of 52 countries via its online portal. Other nationalities may apply for an eVisa if they possess a valid GCC residency and work in select professions.[20]
  • Myanmar issues electronic visas to nationals of eligible countries.[21]
  • New Zealand is now also issuing some visas electronically.
  • Rwanda issues electronic visas.[22]
  • Saint Kitts and Nevis issues electronic visas to visitors from countries that require a visa for Saint Kitts and Nevis.[23]
  • São Tomé and Príncipe issues electronic visas to all passengers through the eVisaST system.
  • Singapore issues electronic visas to certain eligible countries.[24]
  • Sri Lanka issues electronic visas through the Electronic Travel Authorization system to certain eligible countries.[25]
  • Turkey issues electronic visas as of April 2013 (certain African countries are eligible only if using Turkish Airlines) through the Republic of Turkey Electronic Visa Application System.[26][27]
  • Uganda issues electronic visas to nationals of countries that are eligible for visa on arrival.[28]
  • Vietnam issues electronic visas to nationals of 40 eligible countries.[17]

These lists are not exhaustive. Some countries may have more detailed classifications of some of these categories reflecting the nuances of their respective geographies, social conditions, economies, international treaties, etc. Others, on the contrary, may combine some types into broader categories.

Electronic travel authorizationsEdit

A visa is an advance permission to visit a country, introduced for security reasons. Some countries demand an advance authorization obtained over the internet, which are not defined as visas. See also Electronic Travel Authorization.

Entry and duration periodEdit

Visas can also be single-entry which means the visa is canceled as soon as the holder leaves the country; double-entry, or multiple-entry which permits double or multiple entries into the country with the same visa. Countries may also issue re-entry permits that allow temporarily leaving the country without invalidating the visa. Even a business visa will normally not allow the holder to work in the host country without an additional work permit.

Once issued, a visa will typically have to be used within a certain period of time.

With some countries, the validity of a visa is not the same as the authorized period of stay. The visa validity then indicates the time period when entry is permitted into the country. For example, if a visa has been issued to begin on January 1 and to expire on March 30, and the typical authorized period of stay in a country is 90 days, then the 90-day authorized stay starts on the day the passenger enters the country (entrance has to be between January 1 and March 30). Thus, the latest day the traveler could conceivably stay in the issuing country is July 1 (if the traveler entered on March 30). This interpretation of visas is common in the Americas.

With other countries, a person may not stay beyond the period of validity of their visa, which is usually set within the period of validity of their passport. The visa may also limit the total number of days the visitor may spend in the applicable territory within the period of validity. This interpretation of visa periods is common in Europe.

Once in the country, the validity period of a visa or authorized stay can often be extended for a fee at the discretion of immigration authorities. Overstaying a period of authorized stay given by the immigration officers is considered illegal immigration even if the visa validity period isn't over (i.e., for multiple entry visas) and a form of being "out of status" and the offender may be fined, prosecuted, deported, or even blacklisted from entering the country again.

Entering a country without a valid visa or visa exemption may result in detention and removal (deportation or exclusion) from the country. Undertaking activities that are not authorized by the status of entry (for example, working while possessing a non-worker tourist status) can result in the individual being deemed deportable—commonly referred to as an illegal alien. Such violation is not a violation of a visa, despite the common misuse of the phrase, but a violation of status; hence the term "out of status".

Even having a visa does not guarantee entry to the host country. The border crossing authorities make the final determination to allow entry, and may even cancel a visa at the border if the alien cannot demonstrate to their satisfaction that they will abide by the status their visa grants them.

Some countries which do not require visas for short stays may require a long-stay visa for those who intend to apply for a residence permit. For example, the EU does not require a visa of citizens of many countries for stays under 90 days, but its member states require a long-stay visa of such citizens for longer stays.

Visa extensionsEdit

Many countries have a mechanism to allow the holder of a visa to apply to extend a visa. In Denmark, a visa holder can apply to the Danish Immigration Service for a Residence Permit after they have arrived in the country. In the United Kingdom, applications can be made to UK Visas and Immigration.

In certain circumstances, it is not possible for the holder of the visa to do this, either because the country does not have a mechanism to prolong visas or, most likely, because the holder of the visa is using a short stay visa to live in a country.

Visa runEdit

 
Visa run example

Some foreign visitors sometimes engage in what is known as a visa run: leaving a country—usually to a neighboring country—for a short period just before the permitted length of stay expires, then return to the first country to get a new entry stamp in order to extend their stay ("reset the clock"). Despite the name, a visa run is usually done with a passport that can be used for an entry without a visa.

Visa runs are frowned upon by immigration authorities, as such acts may signify that the foreigner wishes to reside permanently and might also work in that country, purposes that visitors are prohibited from engaging in and usually require an immigrant visa or a work visa. Immigration officers may deny re-entry to visitors suspected of engaging in prohibited activities, especially when they have done repeated visa runs and have no evidence of spending reasonable time in their home countries or countries where they have the right to reside and work.

To combat visa run, some countries have limits as to how long visitors can spend in the country without a visa, as well as how much time they may have to stay out before "resetting the clock". For example, Schengen countries impose a maximum limit for visitors of 90 days in a 180-day window. Some countries do not "reset the clock" when a visitor comes back after visiting a neighboring country. For example, the United States does not give visitors a new period of stay when they come back from visiting Canada, Mexico or the Caribbean; instead they are readmitted to the United States for the remaining days granted on their initial entry. Some other countries, e.g. Thailand, allow visitors who arrive by land from neighbouring countries a shorter length of stay than those who arrive by air.

In some cases, a visa run is necessary to activate new visas or change immigration status of a person, for example, leaving a country and back immediately to activate a newly issued work visa before a person can legally work in that country.

Visa refusalEdit

In general, an applicant may be refused a visa if he or she does not meet the requirements for admission or entry under that country's immigration laws. More specifically, a visa may be denied or refused when the applicant:

  • has committed fraud, deception or misrepresentation in his or her current application as well as in a previous application
  • has obtained a criminal record, has been arrested, or has criminal charges pending
  • is considered to be a threat to national security
  • does not have a good moral character
  • has previous visa/immigration violations (even if the violations didn't happen in the country the applicant is seeking a visa for)
  • had their previous visa application(s) or application for immigration benefits refused and cannot prove that the reasons for the previous refusals no longer exist or are not applicable any more (even if the refusals didn't previously happen in the country the applicant is seeking a visa for)
  • cannot prove to have strong ties to their current country of nationality or residence (for those who are applying for temporary or non-immigrant visas)
  • intends to reside or work permanently in the country she/he will visit if not applying for an immigrant or work visa respectively
  • fails to demonstrate intent to return (for non-immigrants)
  • fails to provide sufficient evidence/documents to prove eligibility for the visa sought after
  • does not have a legitimate reason for the journey
  • has no visible means of sustenance
  • does not have travel arrangements (i.e. transport and lodging) in the destination country
  • does not have health/travel insurance valid for the destination and the duration of stay
  • has a sexually transmitted disease
  • is applying on excessively short notice without an exceptionally justifiable reason
  • is a citizen of a country to which the destination country is hostile
  • has previously visited, or intends to visit, a country to which the destination country is hostile
  • has a communicable disease, such as tuberculosis
  • has a passport that expires too soon
  • didn't use a previously issued visa at all without a valid reason (e.g., a trip cancellation due to a family emergency)

Even if a traveler does not need a visa, the aforementioned criteria can also be used by border police to refuse the traveler entry into the country in question.

Visa policiesEdit

The main reasons states impose visa restrictions on foreign nationals are to curb illegal immigration, security concerns, and reciprocity for visa restrictions imposed on their own nationals. Typically, nations impose visa restrictions on citizens of poorer countries, along with politically unstable and undemocratic ones, as it is likelier that people from these countries will seek to illegally immigrate. Visa restrictions may also be imposed when nationals of another country are perceived as likelier to be terrorists or criminals, or by autocratic regimes that perceive foreign influence to be a threat to their rule.[29][30] According to Professor Eric Neumayer of the London School of Economics:

"The poorer, the less democratic and the more exposed to armed political conflict the target country is, the more likely that visa restrictions are in place against its passport holders. The same is true for countries whose nationals have been major perpetrators of terrorist acts in the past".[29]

Some countries apply the principle of reciprocity in their visa policy. A country's visa policy is called 'reciprocal' if it imposes visa requirement against citizens of all the countries which impose visa requirements against its own citizens. The opposite is rarely true: a country rarely lifts visa requirements against citizens of all the countries which also lift visa requirements against its own citizens, unless a prior bilateral agreement has been made.

A fee may be charged for issuing a visa; these are often also reciprocal—hence, if country A charges country B's citizens US$50 for a visa, country B will often also charge the same amount for country A's visitors. The fee charged may also be at the discretion of each embassy. A similar reciprocity often applies to the duration of the visa (the period in which one is permitted to request entry of the country) and the number of entries one can attempt with the visa. Other restrictions, such as requiring fingerprints and photographs, may also be reciprocated. Expedited processing of the visa application for some countries will generally incur additional charges.

Government authorities usually impose administrative entry restrictions on foreign citizens in three ways - countries whose nationals may enter without a visa, countries whose nationals may obtain a visa on arrival and countries whose nationals require a visa in advance. Nationals who require a visa in advance are usually advised to obtain them at a diplomatic mission of their destination country. Several countries allow nationals of countries that require a visa to obtain them online.

The following table lists visa policies of all countries by the number of foreign nationalities that may enter that country for tourism without a visa or by obtaining a visa on arrival with normal passport. It also notes countries that issue electronic visas to certain nationalities. Symbol "+" indicates a country that limits the visa-free regime negatively by only listing nationals who require a visa, thus the number represents the number of UN member states reduced by the number of nationals who require a visa and "+" stands for all possible non-UN member state nationals that might also not require a visa. "N/A" indicates countries that have contradictory information on its official websites or information supplied by the Government to IATA. Some countries that allow visa on arrival do so only at a limited number of entry points. Some countries such as the European Union member states have a qualitatively different visa regime between each other as it also includes freedom of movement.

Country Total
(excl. electronic visas)
Visa-free Visa on arrival Electronic visas Notes
  Afghanistan[31] 0
  Albania[32] 78 78
  Algeria[33] 8 8
  Angola[34] 2 1 1
  Antigua and Barbuda[35] 100 100
  Argentina[36] 85 85 0 1
  Armenia[37] 138 56 82
  Australia[38] 1 1 0 36+9+145
  Azerbaijan[39] 24 9 15 93
  Bahamas[40] 120 120
  Bahrain[41] 69 4 65 33
  Bangladesh[42] 174+ 25 All-20 Limited VOA locations.
  Barbados[43] 108 108
  Belarus[44] 101 22+79
  Belize[45] 97 97
  Benin[46] 56 56
  Bhutan[47] 3 3
  Bolivia[48] 174+ 51 124+
  Bosnia and Herzegovina[49] 79 79
  Botswana[50] 103 103
  Brazil[51] 92 92
  Brunei[52] 61 54 7
  Burkina Faso[53] 68 17 51
  Burundi[54] 6 6
  Cambodia[55] 184+ 7 All-10
  Cameroon[56] 4 4
  Canada[57] 51 51
  Cape Verde[58] 193+ 19 193+
  Central African Republic[59] 13 13
  Chad[60] 13 11 2
  Chile[61] 93 92 1
  China[62] 13 13
  Colombia[63] 95 95
  Comoros[64] 194+ 0 All
  Republic of the Congo[65] 13 0 13
  Democratic Republic of the Congo[66] 7 4 3
  Costa Rica[67] 90 90
  Côte d'Ivoire[68] 21 21
  Cuba[69] 18 18
  Djibouti[70] 191+ 0 All-3
  Dominica[71] 192+ All-2
  Dominican Republic[72] 107 8 99
  Ecuador[73] 182+ All-12
  Egypt[74] 8+ 8 N/A
  El Salvador[75] 87 87
  Equatorial Guinea[76] 2 2
  Eritrea[77] 3 2 1
  Ethiopia[78] 42 2 40 Limited VOA locations.
  Fiji[79] 107 107
  Gabon[80] 4 4 191
  Gambia[81] 125 121 4
  Georgia[82] 94 94
  Ghana[83] 54 20 34
  Grenada[84] 117 103 14
  Guatemala[85] 86 86
  Guinea[86] 21 21
  Guinea-Bissau[87] 194+ 14 180+
  Guyana[88] 53 53
  Haiti[89] 191+ All-2
  Honduras[90] 84 84
  Hong Kong[91] 144 144 1
  India[92][93] 3 3 1 150 Limited e-Tourist Visa locations.
  Indonesia[94] 168 168
  Iran[95] 184+ 8 176+
  Iraq[96] 3 1 2
  Ireland[97] 86 55 +31 EU/EEA/CH citizens.
  Israel[98] 99 99
  Jamaica[99] 116 93 23
  Japan[100] 66 66
  Jordan[101] 130 10 120 Limited VOA locations.
  Kazakhstan[102] 61 61
  Kenya[103] 43 43 0 All-16
  Kiribati[104] 68 68
  North Korea[105] 0
  South Korea[106] 117 117
  Kuwait[107] 58 5 53 53
  Kyrgyzstan[108] 81 61 20 133
  Laos[109] 175+ 15 All-30
  Lebanon[110] 86 7 79 Entry is prohibited for holders of any passport regardless of nationality bearing a stamp or visa issued by Israel
  Lesotho[111] 71 71 123+
  Liberia[112] 15 15
  Libya[113] 2 2
  Macau[114] 187+ 81 All-7
  Macedonia[115] 85 85
  Madagascar[116] 194+ 0 All
  Malawi[117] 165 33 131
  Malaysia[118] 162 162 10
  Maldives[119] 194+ 0 All
  Mali[120] 25 25
  Marshall Islands[121] 88 33 55
  Mauritania[122] 194+ 194+
  Mauritius[123] 177 111 66
  Mexico[124] 65 65 3
  Micronesia[125] 194+ 194+
  Moldova[126] 69 69
  Mongolia[127] 22 22
  Montenegro[128] 95 95
  Morocco[129] 70 70
  Mozambique[130] 194+ 8 186+ Limited VOA locations.
  Myanmar[131] 8 8 102
  Namibia[132] 52 52
  Nauru[133] 16 0 16
  Nepal[134] 184+ 1 183+ Limited VOA locations.
  New Zealand[135] 60 60
  Nicaragua[136] 166 92 74
  Niger[137] 19 19
  Nigeria[138] 189 17 1
  Oman[139] 73 5 68
  Pakistan[140] 5 5
  Palau[141] 192+ 34 158+
  Panama[142] 117 117
  Papua New Guinea[143] 70 0 70
  Paraguay[144] 62 57 5
  Peru[145] 98 98
  Philippines[146] 157 157
  Qatar[147] 85 5 80+4 194+ Limited VOA locations.
  Russia[148] 46 46
  Rwanda[149] 65 4 61 194+
  Saint Kitts and Nevis[150] 102 102
  Saint Lucia[151] 149 95 54
  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines[152] 186+ 0 All-8
  Samoa[153] 194+ All
  São Tomé and Príncipe[154] 45 45 0 149+
  Saudi Arabia[155] 5 5
  Schengen area[156][157] 94 62 32 EU/EEA/CH citizens.
  Senegal[158] 125 125
  Serbia[159] 78 78
  Seychelles[160] 194+ 34 160+
  Sierra Leone[161] 15 15
  Singapore[162] 160+ 160+
  Solomon Islands[163] 77 30 47
  Somalia[164] 0
  South Africa[165] 75 75
  South Sudan[166] 6 0 6
  Sri Lanka[167] 3 3 0 191+
  Sudan[168] 34 32 2
  Suriname[169] 78 28 50
  Swaziland[170] 96 96
  Syria[171] 0
  Tajikistan[172] 9 9 81
  Tanzania[173] 170+ 6 All-24
  Thailand[174] 76 57 19
  Timor-Leste[175] 194+ 30 All Limited VOA locations.
  Togo[176] 194+ 14 164+
  Tonga[177] 68 31 37
  Trinidad and Tobago[178] 103 101 2
  Tunisia[179] 96 96 +11 for organized groups.
  Turkey[180] 78 78 0 43 e-Visas can also be obtained on arrival for a higher cost.
  Turkmenistan[181] 0
  Tuvalu[182] 194+ 30 160+
  Uganda[183] 194+ 33 161+
  Ukraine[184] 98 64 34
  United Arab Emirates[185] 55 37 18
  United Kingdom[186] 87 56 4 +31 EU/EEA/CH citizens.
  United States[187] 42 42
  Uruguay[188] 76 76
  Uzbekistan[189] 9 9
  Vanuatu[190] 120 120
  Venezuela[191] 71 71
  Vietnam[192] 24 24 40
  Yemen[193] 12 0 12
  Zambia[194] 138 43 95
  Zimbabwe[195] 125 44 81

Visa exemption agreementsEdit

Possession of a valid visa is a condition for entry into many countries, and exemption schemes exist. In some cases visa-free entry may be granted to holders of diplomatic passports even as visas are required by normal passport holders (see: Passport).

Some countries have reciprocal agreements such that a visa is not needed under certain conditions, e.g., when the visit is for tourism and for a relatively short period. Such reciprocal agreements may stem from common membership in international organizations or a shared heritage:

  • All citizens of European Union and EFTA member countries can travel to and stay in all other EU and EFTA countries without a visa. See Four Freedoms (European Union) and Citizenship of the European Union. Also See Brexit.
  • The United States Visa Waiver Program allows citizens of 38 countries to travel to the United States without a visa (although a pre-trip entry permission, ESTA, is needed).[196]
  • Any Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) citizen can enter and stay as long as required in any other GCC member state.
  • All citizens of members of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), excluding those defined by law as undesirable aliens, may enter and stay without a visa in any member state for a maximum period of 90 days. The only requirement is a valid travel document and international vaccination certificates.[197]
  • Nationals of the East African Community member states do not need visas for entry into any of the member states.[198][199][200]
  • Some countries in the Commonwealth do not require tourist visas of citizens of other Commonwealth countries.
  • Citizens of member states of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations do not require tourist visas to visit another member state, with the exception of Myanmar. Until 2009, Burmese citizens were required to have visas to enter all other ASEAN countries. Following the implementation of visa exemption agreements with the other ASEAN countries, in 2016 Burmese citizens are only required to have visas to enter Malaysia and Singapore. Myanmar and Singapore had agreed on a visa exemption scheme set to be implemented on 1 December 2016.[201] ASEAN citizens are entitled to use the Burmese visa on arrival facility.
  • Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) member states mutually allow their citizens to enter visa-free, at least for short stays. There are exceptions between Tajikistan and Uzbekistan, and between Armenia and Azerbaijan.
  • Nepal and India allow their citizens to enter, live and work in each other's countries due to the Indo-Nepal friendship treaty of 1951. Indians do not require a visa or passport to travel to Bhutan and are only required to obtain passes at the border checkpoints, whilst Bhutan nationals holding a valid Bhutanese passport are authorised to enter India without a visa.
  • In the past, Qatar citizens did not require permission to enter the UAE, Saudi Arabia and other Gulf nations. However, that has changed.
  • Sometimes, citizens who hold a valid visa for America or another country, can enter another country.

Other countries may unilaterally grant visa-free entry to nationals of certain countries to facilitate tourism, promote business, or even to cut expenses on maintaining consular posts abroad.

Some of the considerations for a country to grant visa-free entry to another country include (but are not limited to):

  • being a low security risk for the country potentially granting visa-free entry
  • diplomatic relationship between two countries
  • conditions in the visitor's home country as compared to the host country
  • having a low risk of overstaying or violating visa terms in the country potentially granting visa-free entry

To have a smaller worldwide diplomatic staff, some countries rely on other country's (or countries') judgments when issuing visas. For example, Mexico allows citizens of all countries to enter without Mexican visas if they possess a valid American visa that has already been used. Costa Rica accepts valid visas of Schengen/EU countries, Canada, Japan, South Korea and the United States (if valid for at least 3 months on date of arrival). The ultimate example of such reliance is Andorra which imposes no visa requirements of its own because it has no international airport and is inaccessible by land without passing through the territory of either France or Spain and is thus "protected" by the Schengen visa system.

Visa-free travel between countries also occurs in all cases where passports (or passport-replacing documents such as laissez-passer) are not needed for such travel. (For examples of passport-free travel, see International travel without passports.)

As of 2016, the Visa Restrictions Index ranks the German passport as the one with the most visa exemptions by other nations, allowing holders of this passport to visit 177 countries without obtaining a visa in advance of arrival.

Common visasEdit

Normally, visas are valid for entry only into the country which issued the visa. Countries that are members of regional organizations or party to regional agreements may however issue visas valid for entry into some or all of the member states of the organization or agreement:

  • The Schengen Visa is a visa for the Schengen Area, which consists of the European Economic Area, plus several other adjacent countries. The visa allows visitors to stay in the Schengen Area for up to 90 days within a 180-day period. The visa is valid for tourism, family visits, and business.
  • The Central American Single Visa (Visa Única Centroamericana) is a visa for Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua. It was implemented by the CA-4 agreement. It allows citizens of those four countries free access to other member countries. It also allows visitors to any member country to enter another member country without having to obtain another visa.

Possible common visa schemesEdit

These are potentially new common visas:

  • The ASEAN common visa scheme is considered when the labor union goes into effect in 2016 (being delayed a year); however, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar are opting in earlier. After talk arose of a CLMV common visa,[202] with Thailand being omitted, Thailand initiated and begun implementation of a trial common visa with Cambodia, but cited security risks as the major hurdle. The trial run was delayed,[203] but Thailand implemented a single visa scheme with Cambodia beginning on December 27, 2012, on a trial basis.[204]
  • A Gulf Cooperation Council single visa has been recommended as a study submitted to the council.[205]
  • The Pacific Alliance, that currently consists of Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, offer a common visa for tourism purposes only in order to make it easier for nationals from countries outside of the alliance to travel through these countries by not having to apply for multiple visas.[206]
  • An East African Single Tourist Visa is under consideration by the relevant sectoral authorities under the East African Community (EAC) integration program. If approved the visa will be valid for all five partner states in the EAC (Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, Rwanda and Burundi). Under the proposal for the visa, any new East African single visa can be issued by any partner state's embassy. The visa proposal followed an appeal by the tourist boards of the partner states for a common visa to accelerate promotion of the region as a single tourist destination and the EAC Secretariat wants it approved before November's World Travel Fair (or World Travel Market) in London.[207] When approved by the East African council of ministers, tourists could apply for one country's entry visa which would then be applicable in all regional member states as a single entry requirement initiative.[208] This is considered also by COMESA.
  • The SADC UNIVISA (or Univisa) has been in development since Southern African Development Community (SADC) members signed a Protocol on the Development of Tourism in 1998. The Protocol outlined the Univisa as an objective so as to enable the international and regional entry and travel of visitors to occur as smoothly as possible.[citation needed] It was expected to become operational by the end of 2002.[209] Its introduction was delayed and a new implementation date, the end of 2006, was announced.[210] The univisa was originally intended to only be available, initially, to visitors from selected "source markets" including Australia, the Benelux countries, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Portugal, Spain, the United Kingdom and the United States.[209] It is now expected that when the Univisa is implemented, it will apply to non-SADC international (long-haul) tourists traveling to and within the region and that it will encourage multi - destination travel within the region. It is also anticipated that the univisa will enlargen tourist market for transfrontier parks by lowering the boundaries between neighboring countries in the parks. The visa is expected to be valid for all the countries with trans frontier parks (Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe) and some other SADC countries (Angola and Swaziland).[211] As of 2017, universal visa is implemented by Zambia and Zimbabwe. Nationals of 65 countries and territories are eligible for visa on arrival that is valid for both countries. This visa is branded KAZA Uni-visa programme after Kavango–Zambezi Transfrontier Conservation Area (KAZA). It is expected that other SADC countries will join the programme in the future.[212]

Previous common visa schemesEdit

These schemes no longer operate.

  • The CARICOM Visa was introduced in late 2006 and allowed visitors to travel between 10 CARICOM member states (Antigua & Barbuda, Barbados, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Jamaica, St. Kitts & Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent & the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago). These ten member countries had agreed to form a "Single Domestic Space" in which travelers would only have their passport stamped and have to submit completed, standardized entry and departure forms at the first port and country of entry. The CARICOM Visa was applicable to the nationals of all countries except CARICOM member states (other than Haiti) and associate member states, Canada, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, South Africa, the United Kingdom, the United States of America and the overseas countries, territories or departments of these countries. The CARICOM Visa could be obtained from the Embassies/Consulates of Barbados, Jamaica and Trinidad & Tobago and in countries which have no CARICOM representatives, the applications forms could be obtained from the embassies and consulates of the United Kingdom. The common visa was only intended for the duration of the 2007 Cricket World Cup and was discontinued on May 15, 2007. However, discussions are ongoing into instituting a revised CARICOM visa on a permanent basis in the future.
  • A predecessor of the Schengen common visa was the Benelux visa. Visas issued by Belgium, Netherlands and Luxemburg were valid for all the three countries.

Exit visasEdit

EuropeEdit

During the Fascist period in Italy, an exit visa was required from 1922 to 1943. Nazi Germany required exit visas from 1933 to 1945.[213] The Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact allies required exit visas both for emigration and for those who wanted to leave the USSR for a shorter period.

Some countries, including the Czech Republic,[214] require that an alien who needs a visa on entry be in possession of a valid visa upon exit. To satisfy this formal requirement, exit visas sometimes need to be issued. Russia requires an exit visa if a visitor stays past the expiration date of their visa. They must then extend their visa or apply for an exit visa and are not allowed to leave the country until they show a valid visa or have a permissible excuse for overstaying their visa (e.g., a note from a doctor or a hospital explaining an illness, missed flight, lost or stolen visa). In some cases, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs can issue a Return-Home certificate that is valid for ten days from the embassy of the visitor's native country, thus eliminating the need for an exit visa.

A foreign citizen granted a temporary residence permit in Russia needs a temporary resident visa to take a trip abroad (valid for both exit and return). It is also colloquially called an exit visa. Not all foreign citizens are subject to that requirement. Citizens of Germany, for example, do not require this exit visa.

AsiaEdit

Saudi Arabia and Qatar have an exit visa requirement, particularly for foreign workers. This is part of the kafala system, also present in Lebanon, Jordan, United Arab Emirates, Iraq, Kuwait, and Oman. Consequently, at the end of a foreign worker's employment period, the worker must secure clearance from their employer stating that the worker has satisfactorily fulfilled the terms of their employment contract or that the worker's services are no longer needed. The exit visa can also be withheld if there are pending court charges that need to be settled or penalties that have to be meted out.

Nepal requires citizens emigrating to the United States on an H-1B visa to present an exit permit issued by the Ministry of Labour. This document is called a work permit and needs to be presented to immigration to leave the country.[215]

Uzbekistan is the last remaining former USSR state that still requires an exit visa, which is valid for a two-year period.[216] There has been explicit UN complaint about this practice.[217]

The DPRK (North Korea) requires that its citizens obtain an exit visa stating the traveller's destination country and time to be spent abroad before leaving the country. Additionally, DPRK authorities also require that their citizens obtain a re-entry visa from a DPRK embassy or mission abroad before being allowed back into the DPRK.

The government of the People's Republic of China requires its citizens to obtain a Two-way Permit, issued by the PRC authorities, prior to their visit to the Chinese dependencies of Hong Kong or Macau. The Two-way Permit is a de facto exit visa for Hong Kong- or Macau-bound trips for PRC citizens.

Singapore operates an Exit Permit scheme in order to enforce the national service obligations of its male citizens and permanent residents.[218] Requirements vary according to age and status:[219]

Status Time overseas Requirements
Pre-enlistment: 13 – 16.5 years of age 3+ months Exit permit
2+ years Exit permit + bond
Pre-enlistment: 16.5 years of age and older 3+ months Registration, exit permit + bond[220]
Full-time National Service 3+ months Exit permit
Operationally-ready National Service 14+ days Overseas notification
6+ months National service unit approval + exit permit
Regular servicemen 3+ months Exit permit, where Minimum Term of Engagement is not complete
6+ months Exit permit

Taiwan[221] and South Korea, two countries currently enforcing conscription, require draftees to register with local immigration office before short-term international travels and studies.

The AmericasEdit

The government of Cuba announced in October 2012 its plans to remove exit visa requirements to be effective January 14, 2013, albeit with some exceptions.[222]

Guatemala requires any foreigner who is a permanent resident to apply for a multiple 5-year exit visa.

United States of AmericaEdit

The United States of America does not require exit visas. However, the U.S. government has required all foreign and U.S. nationals departing the US by air to hold a valid passport (or certain specific passport-replacing documents) since October 1, 2007. Even though travelers might not require a passport to enter a certain country, they will require a valid passport booklet (booklet only, U.S. Passport Card not accepted) to depart the U.S. in order to satisfy the U.S. immigration authorities.[223] Exemptions to this requirement to hold a valid passport include:

  • U.S. Permanent Resident/Resident Alien Card (Form I-551);
  • U.S. Military ID Cards when traveling on official orders;
  • U.S. Merchant Mariner Card;
  • NEXUS Card;
  • U.S. Travel Document:
    • Refugee Travel Document (Form I-571); or
    • Permit to Re-Enter (Form I-327)
  • Emergency Travel Document (e.g. Consular Letter) issued by a Foreign Embassy or Consulate specifically for the purpose of travel to the bearer's home country.
  • Nationals of Mexico holding one of the following documents:
    • (expired) "Matricula Consular"; or
    • Birth Certificate with consular registration; or
    • Certificate of Nationality issued by a Mexican consulate abroad; or
    • Certificate of Military Duty (Cartilla Militar); or
    • Voter's Certificate (Credencial IFE or Credencial para Votar).

In addition, green card holders and certain other aliens must obtain a certificate of compliance (also known as a "sailing permit" or "departure permit") from the Internal Revenue Service proving that they are up-to-date with their US income tax obligations, before they may leave the country.[224] While the requirement has been in effect since 1921, it has not been stringently enforced, but the House Ways and Means Committee has recently considered it as a way to increase tax revenues.[225]

Visa restrictionsEdit

Henley & PartnersEdit

Henley & Partners annually compiles a Visa Restrictions Index, which ranks countries according to openness of their visa restrictions and visa requirements. The index is based on the International Air Transport Association database.[226]

Notes
  1. ^ As Serbia and Montenegro.
  2. ^ As part of Sudan.


World Tourism OrganizationEdit

The World Tourism Organization in its Visa Openness Report concluded that the 30 countries whose citizens were least affected by visa restrictions in 2015 were (based on the data compiled by the UNWTO, based on information from national official institutions):[236]

Least restricted citizens
Rank Country Mobility index (out of 215 with no visa weighted by 1, visa on arrival weighted by 0.7, eVisa by 0.5 and traditional visa weighted by 0)
1   Denmark,   Finland,   Germany,   Italy,   Luxembourg,   Singapore,   United Kingdom 160
8   France,   Japan   Netherlands,   South Korea,   Sweden,   United States 159
14   Belgium,   Canada,   Ireland,   Norway,   Portugal,   Spain,    Switzerland,   Hong Kong 158
21   Austria,   Greece,   Malta 157
24   Czech Republic,   New Zealand 156
26   Hungary,   Iceland,   Malaysia 155
29   Australia,   Slovakia 154

The world average score in 2015 was 89, among advanced economies the average score was 154 and among emerging economies, 73 (Brazil scored 144, Russia 93, India 50 and China 46).

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  228. ^ The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index 2016
  229. ^ The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index 2015
  230. ^ The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index 2014. Data accurate as of 20 May 2014
  231. ^ The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index 2013. Data accurate as of 1 July 2013
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  233. ^ The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index 2010
  234. ^ The Henley & Partners Visa Restrictions Index 2008. Data accurate as of 1 September 2008.
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Further readingEdit

External linksEdit