Visa policy of Russia

The visa policy of Russia deals with the requirements which a foreign national wishing to enter the Russian Federation must meet to obtain a visa, which is a permit to travel to, enter, and remain in the country. Visa exemptions are based on bilateral or multilateral agreements. Russia has agreements with scores of countries whose citizens are either exempt from visas or can apply for a visa online (e-visa). Citizens of countries without such an agreement with Russia must obtain a visa in advance from a Russian diplomatic mission or visa centre.

Foreign citizens, while in the territory of Russia, must comply with the legislation of Russia, including requirements of customs, border and immigration regimes, rules of travel finance, registration, internal movement within the territory of Russia and extensions of stay. Nothing limits the right of competent authorities of Russia to deny entry or to shorten the period of stay in the territory of Russia for foreign citizens.

Travel restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemicEdit

Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia has imposed the following temporary travel restrictions:

On June 28, 2021, Russia resumed flights with Belgium, Bulgaria, Jordan, Ireland, Italy, Cyprus, North Macedonia, USA, Turkey, Austria, Armenia, Greece, Qatar, Serbia, Finland, Croatia, and Switzerland. [1]

On January 27, 2021, Russia resumed flights with Finland, Vietnam, India and Qatar.[2]

From 15 August 2020, restrictions are lifted for citizens of Switzerland.[3]

From 1 August 2020, restrictions on entry to Russia were lifted for citizens of Abkhazia,[4] Tanzania, Turkey, and the United Kingdom. The issuance of entry visas and invitations has also been resumed.[5]

The issuance of Russian electronic visas for the Far East District, Kaliningrad Oblast, and St Petersburg and Leningrad has been suspended since 18 March 2020 and has not been resumed yet.[6]

For foreign citizens who are in Russia on the basis of a visa or visa-free regime, the duration of temporary stay is suspended From 15 March to 15 June 2020.[7]

From 18 March until a special order of the government,[8] all foreign citizens (except citizens of CIS member nations, Abkhazia, South Ossetia from 20 March 2020[9][10][11]) are not allowed to enter the Russian Federation.[12][13][14] This does not apply to some category of travels.[15]

From 13 March 2020, temporarily suspended the entry of citizens of Italy travelling for educational, work, private, tourist and transit purposes[16]

From 1 March 2020, entry of foreign citizens from the territory of South Korea through air checkpoints (except Sheremetyevo airport) has been canceled.[17]

From 28 February 2020, temporarily suspended the entry of citizens of Iran travelling for educational, work, private, tourist and transit purposes.[18][19]

From 20 February 2020, temporarily suspended the entry of citizens of China, Hong Kong, Macao, travelling for work, private, educational and tourist purposes.[20]

Border-crossing pointsEdit

Foreign citizens may enter into the territory of Russia through the border-crossing points open to international passenger traffic. As of 11 June 2020, Russia has 386 checkpoints[21] across the state border of Russia.[22]

Land border with BelarusEdit

Citizens of third countries aren't allowed to cross the Belarus–Russia land border due to a lack of international border crossing points, because passports must be stamped.[23][24] Visitors are advised[25] to enter mainland Russia via other countries such as Latvia Terehova–Burachki and Ukraine Senkivka–Novye Yurkovichi.

Entry will be allowed through the road checkpoints on the border between Russia and Belarus in 2021:[26]

Land border with KazakhstanEdit

Residents of the border areas of Kazakhstan who visit the territory of the border areas of Russia up to 3 days can enter Russia through checkpoints, which are specially installed for residents of border areas.[27][28][29]

Visa exemptionEdit

World map of the visa policy of Russia.png

Ordinary passportsEdit

Travellers who are nationals of the following 64 nations are not required to obtain a visa prior to visit Russia as long as the length of their trip is within the visa waiver limit listed below.[30][31]

From 2014, citizens of these countries—except for citizens of Belarus and South Ossetia, who have the right to unlimited visa-free entry to Russia—must not stay longer than 90 days within any 180-day period. Resetting the allowed period by leaving and re-entering the country is no longer allowed. Overstaying up to 180 days is punishable by a three-year entry ban, 180–270 days by a five-year entry ban, and over 270 days by a ten-year entry ban.[32]

Indefinite period (2 or 5)

90 days (43)

60 days (5)

30 days (11)

14 days (3)

ID – May enter with a national ID card
ID(KZ) – May enter with a national ID card if arriving from Kazakhstan
1 – 90 days within any 365-day period
2 – 90 days within any one-year period
3 – 60 days within any 180-day period
4 – 30 days within any 60-day period

  1. ^ On 18 February 2017 the President of Russia has signed the decree "About Recognition of the Documents Issued to the Citizens of Ukraine and Persons Without Citizenship Living in Territories of Certain Districts of the Donetsk and Luhansk Regions of Ukraine". Holders of passports of  Donetsk People's Republic and  Luhansk People's Republic can carry out entry into the Russian Federation and departure from the Russian Federation without execution of visas. The decree is applied temporarily, for the period before political settlement of a situation in certain districts of the Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine on the basis of the Minsk Agreement.[33]
  2. ^ From 29 December 2018 citizens of Ukraine who are residents of the territories of certain districts of Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine can visit visa free for 180 days.[34]
  3. ^ Persons holding a Macau Special Administrative Region passport.
  4. ^ Persons holding a letter of guarantee/invitation and a tourist voucher.
  5. ^ Persons holding a biometric passport.[35]
  6. ^ Persons holding a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport.

Tour groupsEdit

Citizens of China and Iran may visit Russia without a visa for up to 15 days if traveling as part of a tour group from 5 to 50 persons that is accompanied by a representative of a tour operator registered in both countries (Russia-China, Russia-Iran).

Common visaEdit

On 19 June 2020, Russia and Belarus have signed an agreement on mutual recognition of visas.[80] After ratification visa-free entry will be available for holders of a valid visa or residence permit of Belarus.[81]

Fan IDEdit

FAN ID

In 2018 the Russian government introduced a visa-free entry for holders of a FanID, for spectators of sports, cultural, and other events.

Holders of tickets for matches of the 2018 FIFA World Cup championship could enter Russia without a visa from 4 June to 15 July 2018 by using a personalized card (also known as a fan passport or fan-ID) and their valid passport. Spectators admitted with a Fan ID had to leave Russia no later than 26 July 2018. According to the Border Service of Russia over 633,000 foreign nationals arrived in Russia using a FanID rather than a visa. Of these, 68,000 were citizens of China, 52,000 from the United States, 44,000 from Mexico, 31,000 from the UK, and 30,000 from Germany.[82] Russia later extended its visa-free travel regime for foreign soccer fans until the end of 2018.[83]

Holders of tickets for matches of the UEFA Euro 2020 championship in Saint Petersburg will be able to enter Russia without a visa during the matches in 2021.[84][85][86]

Visa-free visits for up to 72 hours for cruise ship and ferry passengersEdit

Since May 2009 international tourists entering by regular ferry via several ports have been able to stay in Russia visa-free for up to 72 hours, provided that they spend the night on-board or in accommodation specifically approved by the travel agency.[87]

In addition tourists entering by tourist cruise ships can leave the ship visa-free on tours organized by any authorized local tour company, when entering Russia through the ports of Anadyr, Kaliningrad, Korsakov, Novorossiysk, Murmansk, Sevastopol, Sochi, Saint Petersburg (Big port Saint Petersburg and Passenger Port of St. Petersburg), Vladivostok, Vyborg, Zarubino.[88][89][90]

Entry to the port of St. Petersburg by regular ferry can be done only from the ports of Tallinn (Estonia) or Helsinki (Finland). It is also possible to travel visa-free for 72 hours from the port of Stockholm with the stop in Helsinki.[91][92]

Visa-free zonesEdit

  •  Japan — Group travel to central and southern Kuril Islands for pre-approved lists of the Foreign Ministry. Visits are carried out on the basis of identity cards and inserts.[93]
    Visa-free for citizens of Japan who visit the burial place of relatives located in the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin Island, by pre-authorized list in the regional Russian-Japanese consultations.[94]
  •  United States — Residents of Alaska who are members of the indigenous population do not require a visa to visit Chukotka Autonomous Okrug if they have relatives (blood relatives, members of the same tribe, native people who have similar language and cultural heritage) in Chukotka. Individuals must be invited by a relative in Chukotka and must leave Chukotka within 90 days. Entry points are in Anadyr, Provideniya, Lavrentiya and Uelen.[95][96] The agreement was signed between USSR and USA on 23 September 1989[97] but came into force on 17 July 2015 after ratification by the United States.[98]

Local border traffic

From 6 June 2013 residents of the border areas of Latvia who have a permit for local border traffic can visit the border areas of Russia without a visa. From 16 December 2018 amendments to the current agreement entered into force. The procedure for obtaining a permit was simplified, total period of stay (within 180 days) was canceled, and the stamping of travel documents at the border crossing was canceled.[101]

  •  Norway — 15 days for holders of border traffic permit[102]

From 29 May 2012 residents of the border areas of Norway who have a permit for local border traffic can visit the border areas of Russia without a visa. From 4 March 2017 the Protocol on amendments to the current agreement entered into force – residents of area of Neiden received the right to receive a permit for local border traffic.[103][104]

  •  Poland — 30 days, for a maximum total stay of 90 days within a 180-day period for holders of border traffic permit[105][106]

From 27 July 2012 residents of the border areas of Poland who have a permit for local border traffic can visit Kaliningrad Oblast without a visa. The agreement has been suspended for an indefinite period by Poland from 4 July 2016.[107][108]

Crew membersEdit

Visa is not required for crew members of airlines, sea crew, river crew, rail crew that have a bilateral agreement with the Russian government exempting crew members from visa requirements.[109][110]

Citizens of following countries may visit Russia without a visa if they are travelling as part of the airline crew: Afghanistan,[111] Algeria,[112] Austria,[113] Belgium,[114] Bulgaria,[115] Canada,[116] China,[117] Croatia,[118] Cyprus,[119] Czech Republic,[120] Denmark,[121] Egypt,[122] Ethiopia,[123] Finland,[124] France,[125] Germany,[126] Greece[127] Iceland,[128] India,[129] Iraq,[130] Italy,[131] Japan,[132] Jordan,[133] Latvia,[134] Lebanon,[135][136] Libya,[137] Lithuania,[138] Luxembourg,[139] Malta,[140] Netherlands,[141] North Korea,[142] North Macedonia,[143] Norway,[144] Oman,[145] Poland,[146] Portugal,[147] Qatar,[148] Romania,[149] Singapore,[150] Spain,[151] Sri Lanka,[152] Sweden,[153] Switzerland,[154] Turkmenistan,[155] United Arab Emirates,[156] United Kingdom,[157] Vietnam.[158]

Agreement was signed with Italy[159] and it yet to be ratified.

Russian Government has instructed the Foreign Ministry to sign an agreement with Georgia,[160] and Tunisia.[161]

Citizens of following countries may visit Russia without a visa if they are travelling as part of the sea crew: Bulgaria,[115] China,1 [117] Croatia,[118] Cyprus,[119] DR Congo,[162] Egypt,[163] France,[125] Iran,[164] Iraq,[165] Lithuania,1 [138] North Korea,[142] Poland,[146] Tunisia,[166] Turkey, Turkmenistan,1 [167] Vietnam.[158]

1 - including riverboats crew

Citizens of following countries may visit Russia without a visa if they are travelling as part of the railway crew: China,[117] North Korea,[168] Turkmenistan.[169]

Visa-free transitEdit

Direct airside transit

Passengers travelling through international airports do not need a visa for a transit of less than 24 hours in most circumstances,[170] provided a confirmed onward ticket is held and the traveller remains in the international transit area (without clearing regular passport control).[171]

A transit visa is needed when transiting Russia to/from Belarus

The following international Russian airports do not have international transit areas, meaning a transit visa is required to connect there:

Saimaa canal

In accordance with a treaty between Russia and Finland, though there are passport controls at borders, a visa is not required for just passing through the Russian part of the Saimaa canal without leaving the vessel.[172]

Värska–Ulitina road

The road from Värska to Ulitina in Estonia, traditionally the only road to the Ulitina area, goes through Russian territory for one kilometre (0.6 mi) of its length, an area called Saatse Boot. This road has no border control, but there is no connection to any other road in Russia. It is not permitted to stop or walk along the road. This area is a part of Russia but is also a de facto part of the Schengen area.

Diplomatic and service category passportsEdit

  Russia including Crimea[note 1]
  Visa-free for holders of diplomatic and service category passports
  Visa-free for holders of diplomatic passports

Under reciprocal agreements, holders of diplomatic or various categories of service passports (official, service, special, consular) issued by the following countries, territories and jurisdictions are allowed to enter and remain in Russia for up to 90 days (unless otherwise noted) without a visa:[30][31]

D* – diplomatic passport only (diplomatic and service passports for Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia)
D — diplomatic passports
S — service passports
O — official passports
Sp — special passports
C — consular passports

1 – unlimited
2 – 3 months
3 – 90 days within any 365-day period
4 – 90 days within any one-year period
5 – 90 days within any 180-day period
6 – 60 days
7 – 30 days
8 – 14 days
9 – only for employees of Zimbabwe official institutions in Russia

Among nationals of countries whose citizens are normally visa-exempt, only holders of diplomatic or service category passports of Israel, service passports of Qatar and service passports of the UAE require a visa.

APEC Business Travel CardEdit

The APEC Business Travel Card (ABTC) is a travel document issued to business travellers who are citizens of APEC participating economies. Valid for five years, the card eliminates the need for its holder to possess a visa when visiting other APEC participating economies.

From 1 June 2013,[173][174] holders of passports issued by the following countries who possess an APEC Business Travel Card (ABTC) containing the "RUS" code on the reverse that it is valid for travel to Russia can enter visa-free for business trips for up to 90 days within any 180-day period.[175][176]

ABTCs are issued to nationals of:[177]

Electronic visaEdit

From 8 August 2017, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia started to implement the eVisa Program. Citizens of the 18 countries[Note 17] could apply eVisa to visit to regions in the Far Eastern Federal District.[178] From 1 July 2019, citizens of the 54 countries could apply for single-entry business, humanitarian and tourist visas to visit the Kaliningrad region.[179] From 8 June 2019, citizens of Taiwan were added to the list for Far East.[180] From 1 October 2019, electronic visas have become valid for Saint Petersburg and Leningrad Oblast.[181] On 24 January 2020, the new list for the Far Eastern e-visa was approved.[Note 18][182] Thus, the list of countries has become uniform for all regions where an electronic visa is applied.

On 1 January 2021, unified electronic visas were introduced in Russia.[183] On 6 October 2020, in accordance with the Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation No. 2571/2020, the list of States was approved.[184] These are all the countries whose citizens were allowed to enter Russia with an electronic visa as part of the pilot project.

The e-visa is a single entry visa, which is valid for a period of 60 days from the date of issue, and which allows a period of stay in the Russian Federation of up to 16 days from the date of entry. Foreign citizens have the right to freedom of movement within the entire territory of Russia. The 16-day e-visas are issued for private or business visit, tourism, as well as for participating in scientific, cultural, socio-political, economic, sporting events. The application can be submitted no earlier than 40 days and no later than 4 days before the expected date of entry. Applications for a e-visa will be processed in no more than 4 calendar days from the date of submission of the application. The consular fee is $40 (children under 6 years of age get a visa free of charge).[185]

e-Visa allows arrival and departure only through the following border crossing points:[186][187]

Airports (16)

Seaports (6)

Railways (2)

Roads (14)

Russia - Estonia border (3)
Russia - Finland border (1)
Russia - Latvia border (2)
  • Burachki - Latvia side: Terehova
  • Ubylinka - Latvia side: Grebnova
Russia - Lithuania border (4)
Russia - Poland border (4)

Mixed (1)

Pedestrians (1)

Nationalities eligible for e-Visas are as follows:[188]

  1. ^ Available for holders of non-biometric passports.

Closed citiesEdit

Several closed cities in Russia require special authorization.[189]

Areas requiring special permitsEdit

In accordance with the Government Decree of 1992, 19 areas of the Russian Federation are closed to foreigners without special permits.[190] This restriction does not apply to Russian citizens.

A full list of such areas:

CrimeaEdit

As of 2014 the disputed territory of Crimea is under Russian control and Russia enforces its visa policy there.[191] However, Ukraine requires that foreigners should comply with Ukrainian visa regime including obtaining a Ukrainian visa if one is necessary. Otherwise, Ukraine may impose sanctions for "support of the temporary occupation of the Ukrainian territory".[192]

Future changesEdit

The Russian Government has instructed the Foreign Ministry to sign an agreement on visa waiver with the following countries:

  •  China – 21 days for tourist groups from 3 to 50 persons[193]
  •  Côte d'Ivoire – 90 days for diplomatic and service passports[194]
  •  Eritrea – 90 days within 180 day-period for diplomatic and service passports[195]
  •  Ghana – 90 days within 180 day-period for diplomatic and service passports[196]
  •  Lebanon – 90 days within 180 day-period for diplomatic, service and special passports[197]
  •  Saint Lucia – 90 days within 180 day-period for all passports[198]

Visa waiver agreements have already been signed with the following countries but are not yet ratified or applied:

AgreementsEdit

The Russian Federation has visa waiver agreements with 143 jurisdictions.
In the table, red indicates agreements signed but not ratified or temporarily not applied.

Valid bilateral and multilateral visa waiver agreements
Country or territory Duration of stay by type of passport Date of signing Effective date Citation
Diplomatic Service
Official
Special
Consular
Ordinary
 Abkhazia 90 days 2 Oct 2009 26 Apr 2011 [206]
 Albania 90 days 7 Apr 1993 6 Aug 1993 [207]
 Algeria 90 days within any 180-day period 19 Feb 2018 6 Feb 2019 [208]
 Andorra 90 days within any 365-day period 5 Dec 2019 25 Nov 2020 [209]
 Angola 90 days 26 Feb 1999 16 Jun 2006 [210]
 Antigua and Barbuda 90 days within any 180-day period 7 Jun 2019 22 Oct 2019 [211]
 Argentina 3 months 16 May 1994 29 Sep 1994 [212]
90 days within any 180-day period 11 Mar 2009
18 Mar 2009
29 Jun 2009 [213]
 Armenia Unspecified  period 25 Sep 2000 25 Sep 2000[214] [215][216]
 Azerbaijan Unspecified  period 3 Jul 1997 4 May 1998 [217]
 Bahrain 90 days within any 180 day-period 16 Dec 2015 26 Jun 2016 [218]
 Bangladesh 30 days 22 Sep 2016 12 Feb 2017 [219]
 Belarus Unspecified  period 30 Nov 2000 30 Nov 2000[220] [221]
 Benin 90 days 21 Jun 2001 20 Aug 2001 [222]
 Bolivia 3 month 11 Apr 1995 24 Apr 1997 [223]
90 days within any 180-day period 12 Apr 2016 3 Oct 2016 [224]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 90 days 30 days within any 60-day period 31 May 2013 20 Oct 2013 [225]
 Botswana 90 days 10 Feb 2005 11 Apr 2005 [226]
30 days, for a maximum total stay of 90 days within any 180-day period 6 Jun 2019 8 Oct 2019 [227]
 Brazil 90 days 16 Apr 19912 16 May 1991 [228]
90 days within any 180-day period 26 Nov 2008 7 Jun 2010 [229]
 Brunei 14 days 7 Oct 2009
12 Oct 20092
11 Nov 2009 [230]
14 days, for a maximum total stay of 90 days within any 180-day period 8 Nov 2017 8 Jan 2018 [231]
 Bulgaria 90 days within any 180-day period 5 Mar 2002 7 May 2002 [232]
 Burkina Faso 90 days 2 Mar 2000 2 Mar 2000 [233]
 Burundi 90 days within any 180-day period 6 Feb 2018 30 Jun 2018 [234]
 Cabo Verde 90 days 14 Jul 1995 12 Sep 1995 [235]
60 days1 30 Apr 2019 4 Jul 2020 [236]
 Cambodia 90 days 17 Mar 1988 28 May 1988 [237]
 Chile 3 months 14 Feb 1995 1 Oct 1996 [238]
3 months 4 Oct 2002 12 Feb 2004 [239]
90 days within any 180-day period 24 Sep 2010 18 Jan 2011 [240]
 China 30 days 22 Mar 2013 26 Apr 2014 [241]
15 days for tourist groups4 29 Feb 2000 9 Nov 2000 [242]
 Colombia 90 days 26 Nov 1997 28 Mar 1998 [243]
90 days within any 180-day period 24 Sep 2010 13 Mar 2011 [244]
 Congo 90 days 18 Dec 2014 1 Jan 2016 [245]
 Costa Rica 3 month 16 Oct 1997 1 May 1998 [246]
90 days within any 180-day period 3 May 2018
28 May 2018
25 May 2019 [247]
 Croatia 90 days within any 180-day period 16 Jun 2019 14 Dec 2019 [248][249][250]
 Cuba 90 days within any 180 day period 22 May 2018 21 Dec 2018 [251]
 Cyprus 90 days within any half-year period 8 Jun 2005 20 Jan 2006 [252]
 Denmark 90 days within any 180-day period 27 May 2008 1 Oct 2009 [253]
 Dominica 90 days within any 180-day period 28 Sep 2018 14 Jan 2019 [254]
 Dominican Republic 90 days 9 Sep 2009 9 Apr 2010 [255]
60 days within any 180-day period 26 Nov 2018 15 Dec 2020 [256]
 Ecuador 90 days within any year period 18 Feb 1999 15 May 1999 [257]
90 days within any 180-day period 24 Sep 2010 24 Nov 2012 [258]
 Egypt 90 days 17 Jul 2003 17 Jul 2003 [259]
 El Salvador 90 days 25 Jan 1999
29 Jan 19992
30 Mar 1999 [260]
90 days within any 180-day period 26 Mar 2015 27 Aug 2016 [261]
 Equatorial Guinea 90 days within any 180-day period 7 Apr 2017 8 Nov 2019 [262]
 Ethiopia 90 days 11 Dec 2002 11 Jan 2003 [263]
European Union European Union countries (excluding Denmark and Ireland) 90 days within any 180-day period 25 May 2006 1 Jun 2007;
for Croatia from
1 Jul 2013
[264]
 Fiji 90 days1 28 Jun 2013 29 Jul 2013 [265]
 Gabon 90 days 5 Apr 2011 25 Sep 2011 [266]
 Gambia 90 days 4 May 2017 15 Aug 2018 [267]
 Grenada 90 days within any 180-day period 20 Sep 2017 24 Dec 2017 [268]
 Guatemala 3 months 24 May 1999 24 Jul 1999 [269]
90 days within any 180-day period 22 Sep 2011 29 Feb 2012 [270]
 Guinea 90 days 7 Jan 1998 8 Mar 1998 [271]
 Guinea-Bissau 90 days 23 Oct 2019 [272]
 Guyana 90 days 3 Nov 2005 12 Feb 2006 [273][274]
90 days 7 Jun 2017
24 Jul 20172
17 Nov 2017
90 days within any 180-day period 27 Sep 2015 27 Nov 2015 [275]
 Honduras 90 days 21 Sep 19992 20 Nov 1999 [276]
90 days within any 180-day period 26 Sep 2014 11 Jul 2015 [277]
 Hong Kong 14 days1 23 Apr 2009 1 Jul 2009 [278]
 Hungary 90 days 14 Jun 2001 14 Jun 2001 [279]
 Iceland 90 days within any 180-day period 24 Sep 2008 1 Mar 2010 [280]
 India 90 days 3 Dec 2004 28 Mar 2006 [281][282]
 Indonesia 14 days 1 Dec 2006 22 Mar 2008 [283]
 Iran 30 days 29 Mar 1993 29 Apr 1993 [284]
15 days for tourist groups4 28 Mar 2017 1 Jul 2021 [285]
 Israel 90 days within any 180-day period 20 Mar 2008 20 Sep 2008 [286]
 Jamaica 90 days 23 Jun 2000 1 Sep 2000 [287]
90 days within any year period 27 Sep 2018 27 Nov 2018 [288]
 Jordan 90 days within any 180-day period 11 Sep 2017 25 Jan 2018 [289]
 Kazakhstan Unspecified  period 30 Nov 2000 30 Nov 2000[220] [221]
 Kuwait 90 days within any 180-day period 10 Nov 2015 10 Apr 2016 [290]
 Kyrgyzstan Unspecified  period 30 Nov 2000 30 Nov 2000[220] [221]
 Laos 30 days 29 Nov 2004 30 Dec 2004 [291]
30 days, for a maximum total stay of 90 days within any 180-day period 8 Sep 2016 2 Dec 2017 [292]
 Liechtenstein 90 days within any 180-day period 12 Nov 2013 1 Apr 2015 [293]
 Macao 30 days1 19 Jun 2012 30 Sep 2012 [294]
 Maldives 90 days1 25 Jun 2019 25 Jul 2019 [295]
 Mali 90 days 27 May 2009 27 May 2009 [296]
 Mauritius 60 days, for a maximum total stay of 90 days within any 180-day period 23 Dec 2015 10 Apr 2016 [297]
 Mexico 90 days 28 Jan 1997 5 Jul 1997 [298]
 Micronesia 30 days1 21 Sep 2017 [299]
 Moldova Unspecified period 30 Nov 2000 30 Nov 2000[300] [301]
 Mongolia 30 days, for a maximum total stay of 90 days within any 180-day period 3 Sep 2014 14 Nov 2014 [302]
 Montenegro 90 days 30 days 24 Sep 2008 21 Nov 2008 [303]
 Morocco 90 days 15 Oct 2002 15 Oct 2002 [304]
 Mozambique 30 days 30 Dec 2009 30 May 2010 [305]
 Myanmar 90 days 3 Jul 2000 3 Aug 2000 [306]
 Namibia 90 days within any 180-day period 14 Apr 2021 2 Aug 2021 [307]
 Nauru 14 days1 24 Sep 2014 14 May 2015 [308]
 Nepal 90 days 16 Apr 2002 16 May 2002 [309]
 Nicaragua 90 days 28 Nov 19972 13 Jan 1998 [310]
90 days within any 180-day period 28 Jul 2009 3 Jul 2010 [311]
 North Korea 90 days 24 Jan 1997 23 May 1997 [312]
 North Macedonia 90 days 30 days 19 Jun 2008 31 Oct 2008 [313]
 Norway 90 days within any 180-day period 8 Jun 2007 1 Dec 2008 [314]
 Oman 90 days 3 Feb 2016 27 Oct 2016 [315]
 Pakistan 90 days 4 Jul 1994 3 Aug 1994 [316]
 Palau 30 days1 28 Sep 2018 27 Dec 2018 [317]
 Palestine 90 days within any 180-day period 23 Jan 2020 21 May 2020 [318]
 Panama 90 days 16 Jun 1995
22 Jun 19952
20 Aug 1995 [319]
90 days within any 180-day period 3 Dec 2014
9 Dec 20142
8 Feb 2015 [320]
 Paraguay 3 months 20 Nov 1995 2 Feb 1997 [321]
90 days within any 180-day period 25 Sep 2013 20 Oct 2014 [322]
 Peru 90 days 14 Jul 1999 26 Nov 1999 [323]
90 days within any 180-day period 13 Nov 2010 21 Jun 2011 [324]
 Philippines 90 days 3 Aug 2007 22 Dec 2008 [325]
 Poland 90 days 18 Sep 2003 1 Oct 2003 [326]
 Qatar 90 days within any 180-day period 27 Dec 2019 23 Feb 2020 [327]
 Romania 90 days 26 Aug 2002 1 Mar 2004 [328]
 Saint Kitts and Nevis 90 days within any 180-day period 21 Sep 2017 21 Nov 2017 [329]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 90 days within any 180-day period 27 Sep 2018 7 Jan 2019 [330]
 Samoa 60 days1 4 Apr 2017 9 July 2017 [331]
 Senegal 90 days 2 Jul 2015 6 Feb 2017 [332][333]
 Serbia 90 days 30 days 20 Feb 2009 10 Jun 2009 [334]
 Seychelles 30 days1 2 Sep 2015 14 Dec 2015 [335]
 Sierra Leone 90 days within any 180-day period 17 May 2021 [336]
 Singapore 90 days 17 Nov 2015 2 Jan 2016 [337]
 Slovakia 90 days 29 Dec 2000 29 Dec 2000 [338]
 South Africa 90 days 5 Aug 2010 15 Dec 2010 [339]
90 days1 24 Jan 2017
27 Feb 20172
30 Mar 2017 [340]
 South Korea 90 days 21 Sep 2004 21 Nov 2004 [341]
90 days 17 Oct 2006 31 Dec 2006 [342]
60 days, for a maximum total stay of 90 days within any 180-day period 13 Nov 2013 1 Jan 2014 [343]
 South Ossetia Unspecified  period[344] 1 Feb 2010 25 Apr 2011 [345]
 Sri Lanka 30 days 13 Aug 2015 24 Oct 2015 [346]
 Sudan 90 days within any 180-day period 24 Nov 2017 [347]
 Suriname 90 days within any 180 day-period 26 Sep 2018 13 May 2019 [348]
 Syria 90 days[349] 19 Mar 2008 2 Jul 2008 [350][351]
 Switzerland 90 days within any 180-day period 21 Sep 2009 1 Feb 2011 [352]
 Tajikistan Unspecified  period 30 Nov 2000 30 Nov 2000[220] [221]
 Thailand 90 days 17 Oct 2002 6 Mar 2003 [353]
30 days 13 Dec 2005 24 Mar 2007 [354]
 Togo 90 days within any 180-day period 16 Feb 2021 19 Aug 2021 [355]
 Tunisia 90 days within any 180-day period 28 Jun 2012 13 Feb 2013 [356]
 Turkey 90 days 5 Nov 1999 6 Jan 2000 [357]
30 days, for a maximum total stay of 90 days within any 180-day period 12 May 2010 16 Apr 2011[358] [359]
30 days, for a maximum total stay of 90 days within any 180-day period
 Turkmenistan 30 days 17 Jul 1999 17 Jul 1999 [360]
 Ukraine Unspecified  period 16 Jan 1997 10 Mar 1997 [361][362][363]
 United Arab Emirates 90 days within any 180-day period 6 Jul 2018 17 Feb 2019 [364]
 Uruguay 3 months 13 Jul 1999 3 Oct 1999 [365]
90 days within any 180-day period 26 Sep 2011 27 Dec 2011 [366]
 Uzbekistan Unspecified period 30 Nov 2000 30 Nov 2000[367] [368]
 Vanuatu 90 days1 20 Sep 2016 21 Oct 2016 [369]
 Vatican City 90 days within any 180-day period 22 Aug 2017 29 Dec 2017 [370]
 Venezuela 90 days 28 Jun 1993
1 Nov 19932
1 Nov 1993 [371]
90 days within any 180-day period 26 Nov 2008 6 Mar 2009 [372][373]
 Vietnam 90 days 28 Oct 1993 20 Feb 1994 [374][375]
 Zambia 90 days within any 180-day period 23 Oct 2019 1 Jul 2020 [376]
 Zimbabwe 90 days 23 Jan 1991
31 Jan 19912
31 Jan 1991 [377]
Notes:
  1. ^ Agreement include the item "Total period of permitted stay in the territory of the state for a certain period of time is set in accordance with the laws of the state." From 2014, it is 90 days within any 180-day period.
  2. ^ Agreement concluded through an exchange of diplomatic notes.
  3. ^ Agreement between Russia and EU. Article 14 " ...the provisions <of the agreement> shall prevail over the provisions of any bilateral or multilateral agreements or arrangements between the Russian Federation and the Member States..."
  4. ^ Only for group tourism (from 5 to 50 persons) organized by accredited travel agencies in both countries.

Russia has concluded agreements that facilitate procedures for issuing visas to both Russian citizens and citizens of the partner jurisdiction on a reciprocal basis. Such agreements are in force with the following countries or political associations:

Russia has agreements on cancellation of consular fees with the following countries: Algeria (1965),[415] Angola (15 Apr 1985),[416] Iran (15 Feb 1966),[417] Japan (1 Apr 1965),[418] Mauritania (1967),[419] New Zealand (1 Apr 1962).[420]

Agreements were denounced with Bangladesh,[421][422] Cambodia,[423][424] India,[425][426] and Pakistan[427][428]

Canceled agreements
Country or territory Duration of stay by type of passport Date of signing Effective date Cancellation date Citation
Diplomatic Service category Ordinary
 Bosnia and Herzegovina 90 days 90 days with an invitation
30 days with a voucher
24 Sep 2007 1 May 2008 20 Oct 2013 [429]
 Bulgaria During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For a private trips with an invitation
Transit without a visa
2 Nov 1978 6 Jul 1979 1 Oct 2001 [430]
During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For a private trip with an invitation up to 90 days
3 Nov 1969 24 Jan 1970 6 Jul 1979 [431]
About private trips 20 May 1965 1 Jun 1965 24 Jan 1970 [432]
CIS countries (excluding Azerbaijan and Ukraine) Unspecified  period 9 Oct 1992 9 Oct 1992;
for Flag of Georgia (1990–2004).svg Georgia
1 Aug 1995
3 Dec 2000;
for Flag of Turkmenistan (1997-2001).svg Turkmenistan
19 Jun 1999
[433][434]
 China 30 days 29 Feb 2000 25 May 2001 26 Apr 2014 [435]
Yes
Including passport for public affairs
29 Dec 1993 29 Jan 1994 25 May 2001 [436]
Yes (on duty)
Including passport for public affairs
15 Jul 1988 14 Aug 1988 29 Jan 1994
Yes 13 Jun 1985 13 Jul 1985 14 Aug 1988
 Cuba 30 days 3 Dec 1993 29 Jul 1994 21 Dec 2018 [437]
During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For a private trip with an invitation
10 Jan 1985 29 Jul 1994 [438]
For tourism trips 7 Jul 1981
24 Sep 1981
24 Sep 1981 1985
 Cyprus 3 months 5 Jun 1989 5 Jun 1989 20 Jan 2006 [439]
During a term of official trips 90 days 27 Dec 1994 15 Jun 1995 1 Jan 2004 [440]
 Czech Republic During a term of official trips
30 days for all passports
7 Dec 1994 3 Sep 1995 29 May 2000 [441][442]
 Czechoslovakia During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For private trips with an invitation
Transit without a visa
17 Dec 1981 30 May 1982 for  Czech Republic
3 Sep 1995;
for  Slovakia
7 Aug 1994
[443]
During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For private trips with an invitation up to 90 days
Transit without a visa
16 Sep 1969 16 Sep 1969 30 May 1982 [444]
90 days with an invitation 17 Sep 1965 17 Sep 1965 15 Sep 1969 [445]
18 Dec 1962 17 Sep 1965
 East Germany During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For private trips with an invitation
Transit without a visa
6 Apr 1979 30 Aug 1979 3 Oct 1990 [446]
During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For private trips with an invitation up to 90 days
Transit without a visa
28 Nov 1969 12 Jan 1970 30 Aug 1979 [447]
 Hungary During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For a private trips with an invitation
Transit without a visa
24 Nov 1978 14 Jun 2001 [448]
During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For private trips with an invitation up to 90 days
4 Mar 1969 11 Jun 1969 [449]
 North Korea During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For private trips with an invitation
22 Jan 1986 17 Sep 1986 23 May 1997 [450]
 Laos Yes 20 Dec 1984 30 Dec 2004 [451]
 Lithuania 30 days for Kaliningrad region 24 Feb 1995 25 Jun 1995 1 Jan 2003 [452]
 Mongolia During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For private trips with an invitation
20 December 1979 5 May 1995 [453]
During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For private trips with an invitation up to 90 days
26 Jan 1971 23 May 1971 [454]
 Poland During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For private trips with an invitation
Transit without a visa
13 Dec 1979 22 May 1980 1 Oct 2003 [455]
During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For private trips with an invitation up to 90 days
5 Feb 1970 12 May 1970 22 May 1980 [456]
 Qatar 90 days 18 Jan 2016 14 Aug 2016 23 Feb 2020 [457]
 Romania Yes 11 Mar 1991 24 Oct 1991 1 Mar 2004 [458]
During an office mission
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For private trips with an invitation up to 45 days
9 Sep 1983 11 Apr 1984 24 Oct 1991 [459]
During an office mission
For tourism trips with tourist documents
For private trips with an invitation up to 45 days
30 Jun 1969 1 Jan 1970 11 Apr 1984 [460][461]
Without visas on office affairs
For a private trips with an invitation up to 45 days within year
Transit on private affairs without visa
4 Mar 1966 23 Jun 1966 1 Jan 1970 [462]
About trips for a visit to close relatives 1963 23 Jun 1966 no text
About visa-free trips of citizens on diplomatic, service, all-civil passports and collective certificates 1956 23 Jun 1966 no text
 Slovakia 30 days for all passports
During a term of official trips
13 Feb 1995 25 Aug 1995 1 Jan 2001 [463]
1 Jun 1994 7 Aug 1994 25 Aug 1995 [464]
 United Arab Emirates 90 days 27 Jun 2010 31 Mar 2013 17 Feb 2019 [465]
 Vietnam During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with tourist documents
Visa free transit for tourism and official purposes
15 Jul 1981 14 Aug 1982 20 Feb 1994 no text
 Yugoslavia During a term of official trips
For tourism trips with a voucher
For private trips with an invitation up to 90 days
31 Oct 1989 26 Apr 1990 for  Croatia
31 Mar 2013;
for  Bosnia and Herzegovina
1 May 2008;
for  Montenegro
21 Nov 2008;
for  North Macedonia
31 Oct 2008;
for  Slovenia
1 Dec 1999;
for  Serbia
10 Jun 2009
[466]
For tourism trips with a voucher 3 June 1967
27 Nov 1967
27 Dec 1967 26 Apr 1990
Yes Yes
On duty
26 Oct 1965 25 Jan 1966

VisaEdit

The Russian visa is a machine-readable document, which is placed in the holder's passport. All fields are indicated in both Russian and English, but are filled out only in Russian. The holder's name appears in both the Roman and Cyrillic alphabets.

The name that appears in the machine-readable zone at the bottom of the visa represents the holder's Cyrillic name mapped into the Roman alphabet. This allows Russian computer systems to read the Cyrillic name, despite the machine readers only being able to read Roman alphabet letters. As a result, the spelling of a name in the machine-readable zone does not necessarily reflect its spelling in the visa's name field. For example, the name "Christoph" would appear in the field as "Kpиcтoф/Christoph", but the MRZ would contain the name "Kristof".

Contrary to guidelines for machine-readable documents, the issuing country's ISO code (RUS) is not shown at positions 3–5 (i.e. V<RUS). Instead, the first line is formatted as: VSURNAME<<GIVEN<NAMES.

While not necessarily printed on the visa (depending on the embassy), a photo is required in the visa application. The visa application form may be filled online and submitted to the diplomatic mission.[467]

Types of visaEdit

Russian transit visa with entry and exit stamps in a Swedish passport
Entry stamp in the Russian federation issued at Sheremetyevo Airport

Depending on the purpose of entry into the Russian Federation and the purposes of stay, visas are categorized as:

  • Private
  • Business
  • Tourist
  • Educational
  • Working
  • Humanitarian
  • Entry (for receiving shelter or to obtain citizenship in Russia)[468]
Diplomatic visa

A diplomatic visa shall be issued to a foreign citizen holding a diplomatic passport.
A diplomatic visa is issued:

  • to foreign heads of state, foreign heads of government, members of the foreign official delegations, family members of such persons traveling with them or accompanying them - for a period of up to one year.
  • to diplomatic agents of diplomatic missions and consular officials of consular establishments, the staff of representations of the international organizations in the Russian Federation which have the diplomatic status in the Russian Federation, to family members of specified persons for a period of up to one year.
  • to foreign diplomatic and consular couriers for the term of business trip.
  • to officials of the foreign states who have the official status in the Russian Federation have the right to a diplomatic visa and who come for a working visit to diplomatic missions or consular establishments of the foreign states in the Russian Federation or to the international organizations or their representations in the Russian Federation, for a period of up to one year.
Service visa

A service visa is issued to the foreign citizen having service (consular, official, special) passport.
A service visa is issued:

  • to members of foreign official delegations, family members of such persons traveling with them or accompanying them - for a period of up to one year.
  • to administrative and technical and service personnel of diplomatic missions, consular employees and service personnel of consular establishments of the foreign states in the Russian Federation, representations of the international organizations in the Russian Federation and to family members of such persons for a period of up to one year.
  • to military personnel of armed forces of the foreign states and family members of such persons for a period of up to one year. Extension of term of stay in the Russian Federation by issuance of the multiple entry visa for a period of validity of the foreign trade contract registered in accordance with the established procedure, but no more than for five years is allowed to the military personnel of armed forces of the foreign states driving to the Russian Federation for implementation of international treaties of the Russian Federation and (or) decisions of public authorities of the Russian Federation in the field of military and technical cooperation, and family members of such persons.
  • to foreign state officials who have the official status in the Russian Federation have the right to be issued a service visa and those who travel for a working visit to diplomatic missions or consular establishments of the foreign states in the Russian Federation or in the international organizations or their representations in the Russian Federation, for a period of up to one year.
Ordinary visa

Depending on the purpose of entry of the foreign citizen into the Russian Federation and the purpose of his stay in the Russian Federation ordinary visas are subdivided on private, business, tourist, educational, working, humanitarian and entry visas to the Russian Federation for temporary residence or citizenship ceremony:

  1. An ordinary private visa is issued for a period of up to three months to foreign citizens traveling to Russia for a short visit on the basis of an invitation letter. Citizens from certain countries (based on the principle of reciprocity) can receive a visa for a period of up to one year.
  2. An ordinary business visa is issued for a period of up to one year to foreign citizens traveling to Russia for a business trip.
  3. An ordinary tourist visa is issued for a period of up to one month (or on the basis of the principle of reciprocity for a period of up to six months) to foreign citizens traveling to Russia as tourists, if holding an invitation letter by a Russian tour operator. Invitations can be issued by many hotels on request (sometimes for a fee) or through various online services associated with Russian tour operators.
    An ordinary tourist group visa is issued for a period of up to one month to foreign citizens traveling to Russia as a tourist in an organized tourist group (not less than five people), of holding a confirmation by an organization in the unified federal register of tour operators.
  4. An ordinary student visa is issued for a period of up to one year to foreign citizens traveling to Russia for training in the educational institution.
  5. An ordinary work visa is issued to foreign citizens visiting Russia for work purposes for a period of validity of the employment contract or civil contract for performance of work (rendering services), but no more than for one year.
  6. An ordinary humanitarian visa is issued for a period of up to one year (or on the basis of the principle of reciprocity for a period of up to five years) to foreign citizens visiting Russia for a scientific, cultural, political or a sport visit, religious communication and contacts, pilgrimage, charity, delivery of humanitarian aid.
  7. An ordinary entry visa to Russia for receiving a shelter is issued to foreign citizens for a period of up to three months if holding a decision of the federal executive authority authorized on implementation of functions on control and supervision in the sphere of migration on recognition of this foreign citizen as a refugee on the territory of Russia.
  8. An ordinary entry visa to Russia to obtain citizenship of the Russian Federation is issued to foreign citizens for a period of up to one year if holding a decision on recognition of such foreign citizen as a native speaker of Russian.
  9. An ordinary entry visa to Russia to obtain permission for temporary resident is issued to foreign citizens for a period of up to four months.
Transit visa

A Transit visa is issued for a period of up to ten days to the foreign citizen for transit through the territory of Russia.

Visa of temporary living person

A visa of temporarily living person is issued for four months to the foreign citizen to whom entry into Russia is allowed for temporary residence, within a quota of delivery of permissions to temporary residence.

Applying for visaEdit

Entry stamp
Exit stamp
Entry and exit passport stamps issued at Saint Petersburg seaport

All types of Russian entry visas are received through Russian embassies and consulates. Provided all the documents are ready, the process usually takes no more than 3-10 workdays for Russian travel visa.[469]

Russian Tourist Visa requirements:[470]

  • Original passport
  • One photo (colour, passport size photo)
  • Tourist invitation
  • Russian Consulate Application Form

The Russian Consulate requires the visa application form to be printed on A4 paper with right and bottom margins of 5mm. A failure to meet these requirements invalidates the form.

ExitEdit

Russia requires that an alien who needs a visa on entry be in possession of a valid visa upon exit. To satisfy this formal requirement, exit visas sometimes need to be issued. Russia requires an exit visa if a visitor stays well past the expiration date of their visa. They must then extend their visa or apply for an exit visa and are not allowed to leave the country until they show a valid visa or have a permissible excuse for overstaying their visa (e.g., a note from a doctor or a hospital explaining an illness, missed flight, lost or stolen visa). In some cases, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs can issue a Return-Home certificate that is valid for ten days from the embassy of the visitor's native country, thus eliminating the need for an exit visa.[471][472][473]

A foreign citizen granted a temporary residence permit in Russia needs a temporary resident visa to take a trip abroad (valid for both exit and return). It is also colloquially called an exit visa.

Costs for visaEdit

Almost all Russian embassies and consulates, require visa applications to be submitted to semi-private visa processing centers instead of directly to the consular section of the embassy. Costs differ.

FingerprintingEdit

From January 2015 visa applicants from the United Kingdom, Denmark, Myanmar and Namibia will be obliged to provide fingerprint scans. After a trial period it will be decided whether to expand this to other countries as well.[474]

Russia plans to require, from 1 July 2019, fingerprinting and photographing of all foreign citizens entering the Russian Federation without a visa and staying for more than 30 days.[475]

StatisticsEdit

Visitor statistics

According to the Border Service of the Federal Security Service and the Federal State Statistics Service, most visitors arriving to Russia were from the following countries of nationality:[476][477]

Nationality Total (includes all types of purposes of visits)
2020 2019 2018 2017 2016
 Ukraine Decrease 3,648,972 Decrease 8,646,295 Decrease 9,177,272 Increase 9,817,008 Decrease 9,737,405
 Kazakhstan Decrease 1,426,727 Increase 4,324,856 Increase 4,241,244 Decrease 4,137,613 Decrease 4,686,059
 Uzbekistan Decrease 720,041 Increase 2,588,922 Increase 2,354,642 Increase 2,350,007 Decrease 2,116,480
 Abkhazia Decrease 414,927 Increase 600,399 Increase 492,310 Increase 436,368 Decrease 415,606
 Tajikistan Decrease 401,888 Increase 1,557,148 Decrease 1,340,975 Increase 1,350,356 Increase 1,293,270
 Kyrgyzstan Decrease 299,611 Increase 959,130 Increase 859,735 Increase 836,946 Decrease 792,042
 Azerbaijan Decrease 269,807 Increase 1,175,045 Increase 1,145,327 Decrease 1,143,243 Increase 1,156,703
 Armenia Decrease 209,812 Decrease 816,454 Decrease 825,200 Increase 857,212 Decrease 833,577
 Finland Decrease 180,110 Decrease 938,693 Decrease 994,098 Decrease 1,063,348 Decrease 1,376,646
 Belarus Decrease 176,601 Increase 440,438 Increase 403,597 Increase 382,022 Decrease 320,372
 China Decrease 155,594 Increase 2,257,039 Increase 2,030,319 Increase 1,780,200 Increase 1,565,524
 Moldova Decrease 154,766 Decrease 614,043 Decrease 698,027 Increase 803,916 Decrease 699,112
 Philippines Decrease 133,414 Increase 193,031 Increase 179,672 Increase 172,278 Decrease 160,734
 Poland Decrease 133,014 Decrease 680,382 Decrease 728,546 Decrease 765,544 Decrease 1,056,013
 Turkey Decrease 132,372 Decrease 187,612 Increase 196,061 Increase 181,285 Decrease 120,035
 Estonia Decrease 105,584 Increase 540,062 Increase 496,582 Decrease 432,803 Increase 433,926
 Latvia Decrease 93,865 Increase 365,783 Increase 355,641 Decrease 330,266 Increase 360,603
Stateless persons Decrease 74,215 Decrease 303,851 Increase 327,613 Decrease 318,393 Decrease 321,383
 South Ossetia Decrease 70,470 Increase 147,355 Increase 143,501 Increase 137,427 Decrease 115,382
 Germany Decrease 69,456 Increase 744,473 Increase 701,576 Increase 629,082 Increase 613,370
 Lithuania Decrease 57,883 Increase 253,950 Decrease 243,190 Decrease 256,009 Increase 281,168
 Mongolia Decrease 56,625 Decrease 394,994 Decrease 401,485 Decrease 416,293 Increase 542,196
 Georgia Decrease 56,266 Decrease 120,086 Increase 123,732 Increase 117,204 Decrease 65,378
 India Decrease 46,025 Increase 180,567 Increase 159,865 Increase 130,400 Increase 108,498
 South Korea Decrease 42,297 Increase 453,796 Increase 386,413 Increase 276,560 Increase 181,024
 France Decrease 38,391 Increase 249,410 Increase 236,583 Increase 211,673 Increase 201,260
 Israel Decrease 32,402 Increase 260,472 Increase 228,530 Increase 185,426 Increase 182,438
 Italy Decrease 28,432 Increase 251,751 Increase 225,776 Decrease 206,860 Increase 208,689
 Serbia Decrease 26,731 Decrease 84,852 Increase 96,730 Increase 87,899 Increase 79,575
 United Kingdom Decrease 22,471 Decrease 194,956 Increase 216,029 Increase 193,522 Decrease 190,278
 Turkmenistan Decrease 21,680 Increase 92,616 Increase 82,675 Increase 65,749 Increase 56,258
 Vietnam Decrease 19,477 Increase 90,565 Increase 84,612 Increase 77,391 Increase 66,939
 United States Decrease 19,306 Decrease 300,933 Increase 337,395 Increase 293,011 Increase 248,990
 Japan Decrease 16,048 Increase 127,696 Increase 119,240 Increase 114,207 Increase 95,675
 Netherlands Decrease 14,663 Increase 84,651 Increase 80,540 Increase 73,729 Increase 68,017
 Egypt Decrease 13,481 Decrease 28,039 Increase 39,402
 Iran Decrease 12,725 Decrease 54,469 Decrease 61,007 Increase 91,862 Increase 75,203
 Thailand Decrease 12,183 Increase 72,031 Increase 64,898 Increase 52,697 Increase 32,222
 Greece Decrease 11,732 Increase 44,784 Increase 42,967 Decrease 41,205 Increase 46,730
 Bulgaria Decrease 10,255 Increase 41,083 Increase 40,836 Decrease 39,191 Increase 41,290
 Austria Decrease 9,977 Increase 67,429 Increase 64,500 Increase 59,501 Decrease 56,663
 Czech Republic Decrease 9,874 Increase 57,835 Increase 53,739 Increase 49,232 Increase 47,288
 Indonesia Decrease 9,671 Increase 40,284 Increase 31,695 Increase 25,425 Increase 20,211
 Spain Decrease 9,565 Increase 140,181 Increase 123,652 Increase 118,642 Increase 116,032
 Romania Decrease 9,335 Increase 32,779 Increase 29,920 Increase 26,330 Decrease 23,684
 Norway Decrease 8,506 Increase 52,022 Decrease 51,003 Increase 53,197 Decrease 46,631
 Sweden Decrease 8,308 Decrease 43,198 Increase 55,329 Decrease 32,095 Decrease 39,153
 Belgium Decrease 7,534 Decrease 42,473 Increase 48,270 Increase 38,868 Increase 37,492
 Croatia Decrease 7,480 Decrease 19,243 Increase 36,045
 Switzerland Decrease 7,407 Decrease 55,747 Increase 59,828 Increase 53,167 Increase 52,656
 Cuba Decrease 6,631 Increase 29,169 Decrease 27,882 Increase 30,711 Increase 26,667
 Hungary Decrease 5,680 Increase 35,541 Increase 32,998 Increase 25,659 Increase 25,313
 Denmark Decrease 5,016 24,662 Increase 31,308
Total Decrease n/a Increase 32,866,265 Increase32,550,677 Increase32,035,443 Decrease 31,466,538
Visa statistics

Most visas were issued in the following countries:[478][479]

Location Number of visas issued in
2020 2019 2018 2017 2016 2015
 Germany 58,953 410,780 360,582 336,423 324,959 299,791
 China 41,280 453,338 406,831 371,489 339,030 357,040
 Turkey 34,162 83,169 81,177 79,898 45,209 33,698
 France 27,059 172,870 146,491 145,576 131,229 119,314
 United Kingdom 20,770 92,573 88,290 96,246 93,169 87,863
 Italy 18,272 162,529 139,797 129,124 129,038 117,123
 United States 16,736 106,250 98,936 95,630 94,682 85,974
 Finland 14,271 110,480 105,157 108,792 116,462 112,655
 Latvia 11,295 78,727 79,082 74,382 77,574 70,328
 Poland 10,535 67,666 62,840 59,187 54,885 43,038
Total 452 161 3,090,538 2,758,893 2,687,146 2,505,457 2,283,850

HistoryEdit

General RulesEdit

Visa policy of the Russian Federation
  Russia
  Visa free access

The law "On the legal status of foreign citizens in the USSR" was used by the Russian Federation. Action extended from 1 January 1993. Chapter III of the law "entry into the USSR and exit from the USSR Foreign citizens" was replaced adopted the Federal Law No.114-FZ 1996 "On the Order of Exit from the Russian Federation". The law was repealed with the adoption of the Federal Law 115-FZ on 25 Jul 2002 On the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in the Russian Federation. The laws establishes that as a general rule all foreign citizens and stateless persons need visas for entry and exit from the territory of Russia and the period of temporary stay (90 days within any 180 days). It also establishes a number of exceptions addressing certain groups of travelers. The basis of the legal status of foreign citizens and stateless persons are secured primarily by the Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993 - Art. 62 and Art. 63.[480]

According to the Russian Constitution, international treaties of Russia override the domestic legislation. Russia has concluded a number of bilateral or multilateral treaties on visa abolishing or simplification and is seeking to negotiate new such treaties. The visa policy Russia applies the principle of reciprocity, the principle of specular.

Visa-free 72-hour transit

In September, 2013 the president of Russia has sent the bill of introduction of 72-hour visa-free transit to parliament. The list of the airports and the list of the states which citizens will be able to use visa-free transit in the tourist purposes, will be approved by the Government of the Russian Federation after ratification. In 2014 the parliament has suspended ratification of the bill for an indefinite term.[481]

Crimea

In April 2014 Crimea's Tourism Minister proposed a visa-free regime for foreign tourists staying at Crimean resorts for up to 12 days and a 72-hour visa-free stay for cruise passengers.[482] Visa-free access for Chinese citizens was proposed in June 2014.[483] Visa-free entrance in cruise courts to Sevastopol began to be carried out from September 2015[89] Other of the proposals has been not realized.

International eventsEdit

Art events

Participants and members of delegations coming to participate in the musical events are either provided with a simplified visa regime (e.g. Eurovision Song Contest 2009) or the right of visa-free entry (e.g. International Tchaikovsky Competition 2015).[484]
Currently (September 2015) the law providing permanent visa abolition for participants and jury members of art competitions is being planned by the Government of Russia. The focus of this regulation will be on the International Tchaikovsky Competition.[485]

Economic events

Participants of the 1st Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok did not require a visa. Entrance was allowed with passport and the accreditation certificate only.[486]

Participants of East Economic Forum in Vladivostok can visit an event without visas from 8 to 15 September 2018.[487]

Sporting events

Prior to the adoption of a special law, participants and members of delegations arriving to sporting events, could count on a visa-free entry or visa facilitation (determined by law for each event which has to pass ratification in parliament and to be signed by the president). For the 2008 Champions League Final held in Moscow, also spectators were given such visa-free entry. On 13 May 2013 the presidential decree on the abolition of visas for athletes, coaches, team leaders and members of foreign official delegations, as well as judges from the international sports competitions came into effect. It envisages entry on the basis of passport and accreditation certificate.[488] The order of the President or the Government of Russia is sufficient for visa abolition or simplification of registration of visas.
Visas were abolished for participants of the 2013 Summer Universiade,[489] the 2014 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships in Moscow, the 2014 World Judo Championships in Chelyabinsk and the 16th FINA World Championships in Kazan.[490] Participants of the XVI World Aquatics Championships in the Masters category were exempted from visa fees.[491]

The right to enter Russia without a visa was also given to visitors during the 2014 Winter Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics in Sochi if they were in a possession of tickets for the event.[492] Players of 2016 IIHF World Championship were able to obtain visas on arrival, for the fans were simplified procedure for issuing visas.[493]
2017 FIFA Confederations Cup holders of tickets for matches of the championship could enter Russia without a visa with personalized card of viewer (also known as the passport of a fan or fan-ID) and national passport from 7 June to 12 July 2017, if holding a laminated FIFA FAN ID card; from 14 June to 2 July 2017, if holding a printed FIFA FAN ID electronic format card. The foreign citizens could use their FAN IDs for multiple visa-free entry into and exit from the Russian Federation.[494]

2018 FIFA World Cup holders of tickets for matches of the championship were able to enter Russia without a visa with personalized card of viewer (also known as the passport of a fan or fan-ID) and national passport from 4 June to 25 July 2018.
Foreigners participating in events and athletes included in the lists of FIFA, will have to obtain visas, but in a simplified manner. In particular, visas for this category of citizens will be issued within 3 working days from the date of filing and without consular fees. This procedure will be applied until 31 December 2018. Foreigners involved in activities and not participating in sporting events, will travel to and from Russia by an ordinary multiple-entry work visas that will be issued for a period of 1 year. Foreigners, attracted by the FIFA, its subsidiaries and contractors, confederations, national football associations, the Russian football Union, organizing Committee "Russia-2018" will be entitled to work in Russia without obtaining a patent.[495]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Cite error: The named reference crimea_note was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  1. ^ Previous visa-free agreements under different terms were applied in period 1981-1985 and 1985-1994. 30 days from 29 Jul 1994 to 21 December 2018; 90 days within 180 days period from 21 December 2018.
  2. ^ Previous visa-free agreement was applied in period 1990-2008 (was signed between USSR and Yugoslavia).
  3. ^ Previous visa-free agreement under different terms was applied in period 1990-2008 (was signed between USSR and Yugoslavia).
  4. ^ Previous visa-free agreement under different terms were applied in period 1965 (on duty)/1967 (for tourism)-1990 and 1990-2009 (were signed between USSR and Yugoslavia).
  5. ^ Previous visa-free agreements under different terms were applied in period 1990-2008 (was signed between USSR and Yugoslavia) and 2008-2013.
  6. ^ Visa-free agreements were applied in period 1970-1979, 1979-1990.
  7. ^ Except «citizens of the former USSR permanently residing in the territory of the Republic of Latvia and the Republic of Estonia who have not received citizenship of these States».
  8. ^ Was applied from 14 August 1982.
  9. ^ Was applied from 23 May 1971.
  10. ^ Was applied from 22 January 1986.
  11. ^ Was applied as Yugoslavia from 26 April 1990.
  12. ^ Visa-free agreements under different terms were applied in period 1962-1965, 1965-1969, 1969-1982, 1982-1995 as Czechoslovakia and 1995-2000.
  13. ^ Visa-free agreements under different terms were applied in period 1962-1965, 1965-1969, 1969-1982, 1982-1994 as Czechoslovakia and 1994-1995, 1995-2001.
  14. ^ Was applied from 15 June 1995.
  15. ^ Was applied as Yugoslavia from 26 April 1990.
  16. ^ Was applied from 16 April 2011.
  17. ^ Algeria, Bahrain, Brunei, China, India, Iran, Japan, North Korea, Kuwait, Mexico, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates.
  18. ^ Citizens of Algeria, Morocco and Tunisia were not included in the new list.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Russia resumes flights with Belgium, Bulgaria, Jordan, Ireland, Italy, Cyprus, North Macedonia, the United States and Turkey".
  2. ^ spbdnevnik.ru - in Russian
  3. ^ Россия сняла ограничения на въезд для граждан Швейцарии - in Russian
  4. ^ С 1 августа Россия возобновляет пассажирское сообщение с Абхазией
  5. ^ Михаил Мишустин подписал распоряжение о возобновлении выдачи виз для въезда в Россию гражданам трёх стран
  6. ^ "Coronavirus: Russia is Taking Action to Ensure Safety at the Border". 3 February 2020.
  7. ^ https://www.interfax.ru/russia/704914
  8. ^ https://www.interfax.ru/russia/706610
  9. ^ http://static.government.ru/media/files/jAoAhJRorpxg0f72WmFfslvkuZhvbBOy.pdf
  10. ^ "Распоряжение Правительства Российской Федерации от 20.03.2020 № 685-р ∙ Официальное опубликование правовых актов ∙ Официальный интернет-портал правовой информации".
  11. ^ "Мишустин разрешил проезжать через Россию жителям СНГ".
  12. ^ Россия закрывает границы для иностранцев
  13. ^ Санитарно-эпидемиологическая безопасность
  14. ^ Россия с 18 марта по 1 мая ограничит въезд иностранцев
  15. ^
    • employees of diplomatic missions and consular offices in the Russian Federation;
    • drivers of international road transport vehicles;
    • crews of air, sea and river vessels, train and locomotive crews of international railway transport;
    • members of official delegations and persons holding diplomatic, official, or ordinary private visas issued in connection with the death of a close relative;
    • persons permanently residing in the territory of the Russian Federation, as well as persons in transit through air checkpoints.
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