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The visa policy of Russia deals with the requirements which a foreign national wishing to enter the Russian Federation must meet to obtain a visa, which is a permit to travel to, enter, and remain in the country. Visa exemptions are based on bilateral or multilateral agreements. Russia has agreements with scores of countries whose citizens are either exempt from visas or can purchase a visa online (e-visa). Citizens of countries without such an agreement with Russia must obtain a visa in advance from a Russian diplomatic mission or visa centre.

Contents

Visa exemptionEdit

 
  Russia
  The disputed Crimean Peninsula under visa policy of Russia
  Freedom of movement
  Visa waiver countries and territories
  Visa required for entry to Russia

Ordinary passportsEdit

Travelers who are nationals of the following 55 nations are not required to obtain a visa prior to visit Russia as long as the length of their trip is within the visa waiver limit listed below.[1][2]

From 2014, citizens of these countries—except for citizens of Belarus and South Ossetia, who have the right to unlimited visa-free entry to Russia—must not stay longer than 90 days within any 180-day period. Resetting the allowed period by leaving and re-entering the country is no longer allowed. Overstaying up to 180 days is punishable by a three-year entry ban, 180–270 days by a five-year entry ban, and over 270 days by a ten-year entry ban.[3]

Unlimited period

90 days

Non-commercial purposes

60 days for non-commercial purposes

30 days for non-commercial purposes

30 days for holders a letter of guarantee/invitation and a tourist voucher

14 days for non-commercial purposes

ID – Internal passport/national identification card accepted
1 – 90 days within any year period
2 – 30 days within any 60-day period

  1. ^ a b limited recognition state.
  2. ^ On 18 February 2017 the President of Russia has signed the decree "About Recognition of the Documents Issued to the Citizens of Ukraine and Persons Without Citizenship Living in Territories of Certain Districts of the Donetsk and Luhansk Regions of Ukraine". Holders of passports of   Donetsk People's Republic and   Luhansk People's Republic can carry out entry into the Russian Federation and departure from the Russian Federation without execution of visas. The decree is applied temporarily, for the period before political settlement of a situation in certain districts of the Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine on the basis of the Minsk Agreement.[4]
  3. ^ From 29 December 2018 citizens of Ukraine who residents of the territories of certain districts of Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine can visit visa free for 180 days.[5]
  4. ^ Persons holding a Macau Special Administrative Region passport.
  5. ^ Persons holding a Hong Kong Special Administrative Region passport.

Common visaEdit

Visa-free entry will be available for holders of a valid visa or residence permit of Belarus in 2019. Entry will also be allowed through the road checkpoints on the border between Russia and Belarus:[54][55]

Land border with BelarusEdit

Citizens of third countries aren't allowed to cross the Belarus–Russia land border due to a lack of international border crossing points, because passports must be stamped.[56][57] Visitors are advised[58] to enter mainland Russia via other countries such as   Terehova–Burachki and   Senkivka–Novye Yurkovichi.

Tour groupsEdit

Citizens of   China may visit Russia without a visa for up to 15 days if traveling as part of a tour group (from 5 to 50 persons) that is accompanied by a representative of a tour operator registered in both countries.

Fan IDEdit

 
FAN ID

UEFA Euro 2020 holders of tickets for matches of the championship in Saint Petersburg will be able to enter Russia without a visa.[59]

In 2018, Russia introduced a visa-free entry program for spectators of the events.
2018 FIFA World Cup holders of tickets for matches of the championship could to enter Russia without a visa with personalized card of viewer (also known as the passport of a fan or fan-ID) and national passport from 4 June to 15 July 2018. Holders of Fan ID previously had to leave Russia no later than 26 July 2018. According to the Border Service of Russia over 633,000 foreign nationals arrived in Russia without a visa with a FanID. Of these, visa countries are citizens of China (68,000), USA (52,000), Mexico (44,000), UK (31,000), Germany (30,000).[60] Russia extended its visa-free travel regime for foreign soccer fans until the end of 2018.[61]
The Russian government uses the program of visa free entry FanID for spectators of future sports, cultural and other events.

Visa-free visits for up to 72 hours for cruise ship and ferry passengersEdit

Since May 2009 international tourists entering by regular ferry via several ports have been able to stay in Russia visa-free for up to 72 hours, provided that they spend the night on-board or in accommodation specifically approved by the travel agency.[62]

In addition tourists entering by tourist cruise ships can leave the ship visa-free on tours organized by any authorized local tour company, when entering Russia through the ports of Anadyr, Kaliningrad, Korsakov, Novorossiysk, Murmansk, Sevastopol, Sochi, Saint Petersburg (Big port Saint Petersburg and Passenger Port of St. Petersburg), Vladivostok, Vyborg, Zarubino.[63][64][65]

Entry to the port of St. Petersburg by regular ferry can be done only from the ports of Tallinn (Estonia) or Helsinki (Finland). It is also possible to travel visa-free for 72 hours from the port of Stockholm with the stop in Helsinki.[66][67]

Visa-free zonesEdit

  •   Japan — Group travel to central and southern Kuril Islands for pre-approved lists of the Foreign Ministry. Visits are carried out on the basis of identity cards and inserts.[68]
    Visa-free for citizens of Japan who visit the burial place of relatives located in the Kuril Islands and Sakhalin Island, by pre-authorized list in the regional Russian-Japanese consultations.[69]
  •   United States — Residents of Alaska who are members of the indigenous population do not require a visa to visit Chukotka Autonomous Okrug if they have relatives (blood relatives, members of the same tribe, native people who have similar language and cultural heritage) in Chukotka. Individuals must be invited by a relative in Chukotka and must leave Chukotka within 90 days. Entry points are in Anadyr, Provideniya, Lavrentiya and Uelen.[70][71] The agreement was signed between USSR and USA on 23 September 1989[72] but intered into force on 17 July 2015 after ratification by the United States.[73]

Local border traffic

From 6 June 2013 residents of the border areas of Latvia who have a permit for local border traffic can visit the border areas of Russia without a visa. From 16 December 2018 amendments to the current agreement entered into force. The procedure for obtaining a permit was simplified, total period of stay (within 180 days) was canceled, and the stamping of travel documents at the border crossing was canceled.[76]

  •   Norway — 15 days for holders of border traffic permit[77]

From 29 May 2012 residents of the border areas of Norway who have a permit for local border traffic can visit the border areas of Russia without a visa. From 4 March 2017 the Protocol on amendments to the current agreement entered into force – residents of area of Neiden received the right to receive a permit for local border traffic.[78][79]

  •   Poland — 30 days, for a maximum total stay of 90 days within a 180-day period for holders of border traffic permit[80][81]

From 27 July 2012 residents of the border areas of Poland who have a permit for local border traffic can visit Kaliningrad Oblast without a visa. The agreement was suspended for an indefinite period by Poland from 4 July 2016.[82][83]

Crew membersEdit

Visa is not required for crew members of airlines, sea crew, river crew, rail crew that have a bilateral agreement with the Russian government exempting crew members from visa requirements.[84][85]

Citizens of following countries may visit Russia without a visa if they are travelling as part of the airline crew: Afghanistan,[86]Algeria,[87]Austria,[88]Belgium,[89]Bulgaria,[90]Canada,[91]China,[92] Croatia,[93][94]Cyprus,[95]Czech Republic,[96]Denmark,[97]Egypt,[98]France,[99]Germany,[100]Greece[101]Iceland,[102]India,[103]Iraq,[104]Italy,[105]Japan,[106]Jordan,[107]North Korea,[108]Lebanon,[109][110]Libya,[111]Lithuania,[112]Malta,[113]Netherlands,[114]North Macedonia,[115]Norway,[116]Oman[117]Poland,[118]Portugal[119]Qatar,[120]Romania[121]Singapore,[122]Spain,[123]Sri Lanka,[124]Sweden,[125]Switzerland,[126]Turkmenistan,[127]United Arab Emirates,[128]United Kingdom[129]Vietnam.[130]

Agreements signed with Finland,[131]Italy[132] and Luxembourg[133] and are yet to be ratified.

Russian Government has instructed the Foreign Ministry to sign an agreement with Georgia[134] and Tunisia.[135]

Citizens of following countries may visit Russia without a visa if they are travelling as part of the sea crew: Bulgaria,[90]China,1 [92]Croatia,[93][94]Cyprus,[95]DR Congo,[136]Egypt,[137]France,[99]Iran,[138]Iraq[139]North Korea,[108]Lithuania,1 [112]Poland,[118]Tunisia,[140]Turkey, Turkmenistan,1 [141]Vietnam.[130]

1 - including riverboats crew

Citizens of following countries may visit Russia without a visa if they are travelling as part of the railway crew: China,[92] North Korea,[142]Turkmenistan.[143]

Visa-free transitEdit

Direct airside transit

Passengers travelling through international airports do not need a visa for a transit of less than 24 hours in most circumstances,[144] provided a confirmed onward ticket is held and the traveller remains in the international transit area (without clearing regular passport control).[145]

A transit visa is needed when travelling across the territory of Russia to the countries of the Customs Union (Belarus, Kazakhstan, Armenia, Kyrgyzstan)[146] unless he or she is a citizen of countries eligible for visa-free travel to Russia.

The following international Russian airports do not have international transit areas, meaning a transit visa is required to connect there:

Saimaa canal

In accordance with a treaty between Russia and Finland, though there are passport controls at borders, a visa is not required for just passing through the Russian part of the Saimaa canal without leaving the vessel.[147]

Värska–Ulitina road

The road from Värska to Ulitina in Estonia, traditionally the only road to the Ulitina area, goes through Russian territory for one kilometre (0.6 mi) of its length, an area called Saatse Boot. This road has no border control, but there is no connection to any other road in Russia. It is not permitted to stop or walk along the road. This area is a part of Russia but is also a de facto part of the Schengen area.

Diplomatic and service category passportsEdit

 
  Russia
  The disputed Crimean Peninsula under visa policy of Russia
  Visa-free for holders of diplomatic and service category passports
  Visa-free for holders of diplomatic passports

Under reciprocal agreements, holders of diplomatic or various categories of service passports (official, service, special, consular) issued by the following countries and territories are allowed to enter and remain in Russia for up to 90 days (unless otherwise noted) without a visa:[148][2]

* – diplomatic passport only (diplomatic and service passports for Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Hungary, Romania and Slovakia)
D — diplomatic passports
S — service passports
O — official passports
Sp — special passports
C — consular passports

1 – unlimited
2 – 3 months
3 – 90 days within any 180-day period
4 – 90 days within any one-year period
5 – 60 days
6 – 30 days
7 – 14 days
8 – excluding Ireland and United Kingdom
9 – only for employees of Zimbabwe official institutions in Russia

Among nationals of countries whose citizens are normally visa-exempt, only holders of diplomatic or service category passports of Israel and service passport of UAE require a visa.

APEC Business Travel CardEdit

Holders of passports issued by the following countries who possess an APEC Business Travel Card (ABTC) containing the "RUS" code on the reverse that it is valid for travel to Russia can enter visa-free for business trips for up to 90 days within any 180-day period.[2][149][150]

ABTCs are issued to nationals of:[151]

E-visa to visit certain regionsEdit

From 8 August 2017, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia started to implement the eVisa Program. Citizens of the following 18 countries can apply for a single-entry eVisa to visit to regions in the Russian Far East for less than 8 days.[152][153]

 
  Russia
  The disputed Crimean Peninsula under visa policy of Russia
  Visa-free access
  Access to some regions with e-visa

Conditions for issuing:

  • E-visa is a single-entry visa and issued for 30 calendar days from the date of its issuance. The permitted stay in Russia with an e-visa is up to 8 days starting from the date of entry, within its validity period
  • E-visa validity and/or the permitted stay under it cannot be extended
  • An e-visa is free of charge
  • Invitations, hotel booking confirmations or any other documents that confirm the purpose of your journey to Russia are not required for an e-visa
  • The time period for issuing an e-visa is no longer than 4 calendar days from the date of submission of the complete application
  • E-visas can be of the following categories only: ordinary business visa (purpose of journey is business), ordinary tourist visa (purpose of journey is tourism), and ordinary humanitarian visa (purposes of journey are sports, cultural, scientific and technological ties)
  • Foreign nationals will have the right to freedom of movement within the territory of the region near the point of entry with the exception of territories, organizations and facilities, to enter which a special permission is required in accordance with federal laws of the Russian Federation.
  • Foreign citizens who have arrived to Russia with e-visas have the right to freedom of movement within the territory of the constituent entity of Russia which they entered, with the exception of territories, organizations and facilities, to enter which a special permission is required in accordance with federal laws of Russia.
  • Foreign citizens should leave the territory of Russia only through checkpoints of the constituent entity of Russia which they entered
  • Application form for an e-visa can be filled not earlier than 20 days and no later than 4 days before the intended date of entry into Russia
  • Passport must be valid for at least 6 months from the date of application
  • Foreign citizens are required to have a medical insurance
Regions
 
Russian e-visa for the Far East regions
1 - Primorsky Krai
2 - Kamchatka Krai
3 - Sakhalin Oblast
4 - Amur Oblast
5 - Khabarovsk Krai
6 - Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
7 - Zabaykalsky Krai
8 - Buryatia

Eligible border crossing points of entry and exit

Port Areas permitted to stay Effective date
Vladivostok International Airport Primorsky Krai 8 August 2017
Sea passenger terminal of Vladivostok
Sea port of Posyet 1 January 2018
Sea port of Zarubino
Railway checkpoints: Khasan Station
North Korea side: Tumangang Station
Railway checkpoints: Makhalino station (Kraskino)
China side: Hunchun Railway Port
Railway checkpoints: Grodekovo Station (Pogranichny)
China side: Suifenhe Station
Road checkpoints: Poltavka
China side: Dongning
Road checkpoints: Turiy Rog
China side: Mishan
Sea port of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Kamchatka Krai
Sea port of Korsakov Sakhalin Oblast
Blagoveshchensk Airport Amur Oblast 1 September 2018 [154]
Khabarovsk Novy Airport Khabarovsk Krai
Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky Airport Kamchatka Krai
Ugolny Airport (Anadyr) Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk Airport Sakhalin Oblast
Baikal International Airport (Ulan-Ude) Buryatia 1 July 2019[155][156][157][158]
Kadala Airport (Chita) Zabaykalsky Krai
Khrabrovo Airport (Kaliningrad) Kaliningrad Oblast

Closed citiesEdit

Several closed cities in Russia require special authorization.[159]

Areas closed to foreignersEdit

Due to the Government Decree of 1992, parts of 19 subjects of Russian Federation closed for foreigners without special permits.[160] This restriction is not applicable for Russian citizens.

Part of them:

CrimeaEdit

As of 2014 the disputed territory of Crimea is under Russian control and Russia enforces its visa policy there.[161] However, Ukraine requires that foreigners should comply with Ukrainian visa regime including obtaining a Ukrainian visa if one is necessary. Otherwise, Ukraine may impose sanctions for "support of the temporary occupation of the Ukrainian territory".[162]

Future changesEdit

The Russian Government has instructed the Foreign Ministry to sign an agreement on visa waiver with the following countries:

  •   Antigua and Barbuda – 90 days within 180 day-period for all passports[163]
  •   Belarus – Mutual recognition of visas. Visa-free entry for holders of a valid visa or residence permit of Belarus[164]

Visa waiver agreements have already been signed with the following countries but are not yet ratified or applied:

There is a plan to introduce electronic visas by 2021.[176]

AgreementsEdit

The Russian Federation has visa waiver agreements with 134 jurisdictions.
In the table, red indicates agreements signed but not ratified or temporarily not applied.

Russia has concluded agreements that facilitate procedures for issuing visas to both Russian citizens and citizens of the partner jurisdiction on a reciprocal basis. Such agreements are in force with the following countries or political associations:

Russia has agreements on cancellation of consular fees, for execution of visas, with the following countries: Algeria (1965),[383] Angola (15 Apr 1985),[384] Cambodia (26 Sep 1983),[385] Iran (15 Feb 1966),[386] Japan (1 Apr 1965),[387] Mauritania (1967),[388] New Zealand (1 Apr 1962).[389]
Agreements were denounced in 2017–2018 with Bangladesh[390][391] and Pakistan.[392][393]

Visa waiver agreements which ceased to apply

VisaEdit

The Russian visa is a machine-readable document, which is placed in the holder’s passport. All fields are indicated in both Russian and English, but are filled out only in Russian. The holder’s name appears in both the Roman and Cyrillic alphabets.

The name that appears in the machine-readable zone at the bottom of the visa represents the holder’s Cyrillic name mapped into the Roman alphabet. This allows Russian computer systems to read the Cyrillic name, despite the machine readers only being able to read Roman alphabet letters. As a result, the spelling of a name in the machine-readable zone does not necessarily reflect its spelling in the visa’s name field. For example, the name “Christoph” would appear in the field as “Kpиcтoф/Christoph”, but the MRZ would contain the name “Kristof”.

Contrary to guidelines for machine-readable documents, the issuing country’s ISO code (RUS) is not shown at positions 3-5 (i.e. V<RUS). Instead, the first line is formatted as: VSURNAME<<GIVEN<NAMES.

While not necessarily printed on the visa (depending on the embassy), a photo is required in the visa application. The visa application form may be filled online and submitted to the diplomatic mission.[425]

Types of visaEdit

 
Russian transit visa with entry and exit stamps in a Swedish passport
 
Entry stamp in the Russian federation issued at Sheremetyevo Airport

Depending on the purpose of entry into the Russian Federation and the purposes of stay, visas are categorized as:

  • Private
  • Business
  • Tourist
  • Educational
  • Working
  • Humanitarian
  • Entry (for receiving shelter or to obtain citizenship in Russia)[426]
Diplomatic visa

A diplomatic visa shall be issued to a foreign citizen holding a diplomatic passport.
A diplomatic visa is issued:

  • to foreign heads of state, foreign heads of government, members of the foreign official delegations, family members of such persons traveling with them or accompanying them - for a period of up to one year.
  • to diplomatic agents of diplomatic missions and consular officials of consular establishments, the staff of representations of the international organizations in the Russian Federation which have the diplomatic status in the Russian Federation, to family members of specified persons for a period of up to one year.
  • to foreign diplomatic and consular couriers for the term of business trip.
  • to officials of the foreign states who have the official status in the Russian Federation have the right to a diplomatic visa and who come for a working visit to diplomatic missions or consular establishments of the foreign states in the Russian Federation or to the international organizations or their representations in the Russian Federation, for a period of up to one year.
Service visa

A service visa is issued to the foreign citizen having service (consular, official, special) passport.
A service visa is issued:

  • to members of foreign official delegations, family members of such persons traveling with them or accompanying them - for a period of up to one year.
  • to administrative and technical and service personnel of diplomatic missions, consular employees and service personnel of consular establishments of the foreign states in the Russian Federation, representations of the international organizations in the Russian Federation and to family members of such persons for a period of up to one year.
  • to military personnel of armed forces of the foreign states and family members of such persons for a period of up to one year. Extension of term of stay in the Russian Federation by issuance of the multiple entry visa for a period of validity of the foreign trade contract registered in accordance with the established procedure, but no more than for five years is allowed to the military personnel of armed forces of the foreign states driving to the Russian Federation for implementation of international treaties of the Russian Federation and (or) decisions of public authorities of the Russian Federation in the field of military and technical cooperation, and family members of such persons.
  • to foreign state officials who have the official status in the Russian Federation have the right to be issued a service visa and those who travel for a working visit to diplomatic missions or consular establishments of the foreign states in the Russian Federation or in the international organizations or their representations in the Russian Federation, for a period of up to one year.
Ordinary visa

Depending on the purpose of entry of the foreign citizen into the Russian Federation and the purpose of his stay in the Russian Federation ordinary visas are subdivided on private, business, tourist, educational, working, humanitarian and entry visas to the Russian Federation for temporary residence or citizenship ceremony:

  1. An ordinary private visa is issued for a period of up to three months or on the basis of the principle of reciprocity for a period of up to one year to foreign citizens traveling to Russia for a short visit on the basis of an invitation letter.
  2. An ordinary business visa is issued for a period of up to one year to foreign citizens traveling to Russia for a business trip.
  3. An ordinary tourist visa is issued for a period of up to one month or on the basis of the principle of reciprocity for a period of up to six months to foreign citizens traveling to Russia as tourists, if holding an invitation letter by a Russian tour operator. Invitations can be issued by many hotels on request (sometimes for a fee) or through various online services associated with Russian tour operators.
    An ordinary tourist group visa is issued for a period of up to one month to foreign citizens traveling to Russia as a tourist in an organized tourist group (not less than five people), of holding a confirmation by an organization in the unified federal register of tour operators.
  4. An ordinary student visa is issued for a period of up to one year to foreign citizens traveling to Russia for training in the educational institution.
  5. An ordinary work visa is issued to foreign citizens visiting Russia for work purposes for a period of validity of the employment contract or civil contract for performance of work (rendering services), but no more than for one year.
  6. An ordinary humanitarian visa is issued for a period of up to one year or on the basis of the principle of reciprocity for a period of up to five years to foreign citizens visiting Russia for a scientific, cultural, political or a sport visit, religious communication and contacts, pilgrimage, charity, delivery of humanitarian aid.
  7. An ordinary entry visa to Russia for receiving a shelter is issued to foreign citizens for a period of up to three months if holding a decision of the federal executive authority authorized on implementation of functions on control and supervision in the sphere of migration on recognition of this foreign citizen as a refugee on the territory of Russia.
  8. An ordinary entry visa to Russia to obtain citizenship of the Russian Federation is issued to foreign citizens for a period of up to one year if holding a decision on recognition of such foreign citizen as a native speaker of Russian.
  9. An ordinary entry visa to Russia to obtain permission for temporary resident is issued to foreign citizens for a period of up to four months.
Transit visa

A Transit visa is issued for a period of up to ten days to the foreign citizen for transit through the territory of Russia.

Visa of temporary living person

A visa of temporarily living person is issued for four months to the foreign citizen to whom entry into Russia is allowed for temporary residence, within a quota of delivery of permissions to temporary residence.

Applying for visaEdit

All types of Russian entry visas are received through Russian embassies and consulates. Provided all the documents are ready, the process usually takes no more than 3-10 workdays for Russian travel visa.[427]

Russian Tourist Visa requirements:[428]

  • Original passport
  • One photo (colour, passport size photo)
  • Tourist invitation
  • Russian Consulate Application Form

The Russian Consulate requires the visa application form to be printed on A4 paper with right and bottom margins of 5mm. A failure to meet these requirements invalidates the form.

ExitEdit

Russia requires that an alien who needs a visa on entry be in possession of a valid visa upon exit. To satisfy this formal requirement, exit visas sometimes need to be issued. Russia requires an exit visa if a visitor stays well past the expiration date of their visa. They must then extend their visa or apply for an exit visa and are not allowed to leave the country until they show a valid visa or have a permissible excuse for overstaying their visa (e.g., a note from a doctor or a hospital explaining an illness, missed flight, lost or stolen visa). In some cases, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs can issue a Return-Home certificate that is valid for ten days from the embassy of the visitor's native country, thus eliminating the need for an exit visa.[429][430][431]

A foreign citizen granted a temporary residence permit in Russia needs a temporary resident visa to take a trip abroad (valid for both exit and return). It is also colloquially called an exit visa.

Costs for visaEdit

Some Russian embassies and consulates, but not all, require visa applications to be submitted in person to visa processing centres instead of directly to the consular section. Costs differ per administration center.

FingerprintingEdit

From January 2015 visa applicants from the United Kingdom, Denmark, Myanmar and Namibia will be obliged to provide fingerprint scans. After a trial period it will be decided whether to expand this to other countries as well.[432]

Russia plans to require, from 1 July 2019, fingerprinting and photographing of all foreign citizens entering the Russian Federation without a visa and staying for more than 30 days.[433]

StatisticsEdit

Visitor statistics

According to the Border Service of the Federal Security Service and the Federal State Statistics Service, most visitors arriving to Russia were from the following countries of nationality:[434]

Nationality Total (includes all types of purposes of visits)
2018 2017 2016
  Ukraine   9,177,272   9,817,008   9,737,405
  Kazakhstan   4,241,244   4,137,613   4,686,059
  Uzbekistan   2,354,642   2,350,007   2,116,480
  China   2,030,319   1,780,200   1,565,524
  Tajikistan   1,340,975   1,350,356   1,293,270
  Azerbaijan   1,145,327   1,143,243   1,156,703
  Finland   994,098   1,063,348   1,376,646
  Kyrgyzstan   859,735   836,946   792,042
  Armenia   825,200   857,212   833,577
  Poland   728,546   765,544   1,056,013
  Germany   701,576   629,082   613,370
  Moldova   698,027   803,916   699,112
  Estonia   496,582   432,803   433,926
  Abkhazia   492,310   436,368   415,606
  Belarus   403,597   382,022   320,372
  Mongolia   401,485   416,293   542,196
  South Korea   386,413   276,560   181,024
  Latvia   355,641   330,266   360,603
  United States   337,395   293,011   248,990
Stateless persons   327,613   318,393   321,383
  Lithuania   243,190   256,009   281,168
  France   236,583   211,673   201,260
  Israel   228,530   185,426   182,438
  Italy   225,776   206,860   208,689
  United Kingdom   216,029   193,522   190,278
  Turkey   196,061   181,285   120,035
  Philippines   179,672   172,278   160,734
  India   159,865   130,400   108,498
  South Ossetia   143,501   137,427   115,382
  Georgia   123,732   117,204   65,378
  Spain   123,652   118,642   116,032
  Japan   119,240   114,207   95,675
  Serbia   96,730   87,899   79,575
  Vietnam   84,612   77,391   66,939
  Turkmenistan   82,675   65,749   56,258
  Netherlands   80,540   73,729   68,017
  Brazil   73,965   38,344   29,704
  Australia   68,552   49,259   43,940
  Mexico   65,020   27,713   21,071
  Thailand   64,898   52,697   32,222
  Austria   64,500   59,501   56,663
  Canada   61,899   53,890   43,158
  Iran   61,007   91,862   75,203
  Argentina   61,006   25,892   19,944
   Switzerland   59,828   53,167   52,656
  Sweden   55,329   32,095   39,153
  Czech Republic   53,739   49,232   47,288
  Norway   51,003   53,197   46,631
  Belgium   48,270   38,868   37,492
  Greece   42,967   41,205   46,730
  Bulgaria   40,836   39,191   41,290
  Colombia   40,711
  Egypt   39,402
  Croatia   36,045
  Hungary   32,998   25,659   25,313
  Indonesia   31,695   25,425   20,211
  Peru   31,652
  Denmark   31,308
  Romania   29,920   26,330   23,684
  Cuba   27,882   30,711   26,667
  Slovakia   26,863   25,213   23,555
  Portugal   25,301   20,347   17,729
Total N/A  31,629,331[citation needed]
(unverified data)
  31,658,997[citation needed]
(unverified data)
Visa statistics

Most visas were issued in the following countries:[435][436]

Location Number of visas issued in 2015 Number of visas issued in 2016
  Germany 299,791 153,727
  China 357,040 129,744
  France 119,314 61,999
  Finland 112,655 55,415
  Italy 117,123 52,107
  United Kingdom 87,863 42,524
  United States 85,974 46,180
  Estonia 77,953 37,445
  Latvia 70,328 30,933
  Spain 57,001 25,262

HistoryEdit

General RulesEdit

 
Visa policy of the Russian Federation
  Russia
  Visa free access

The law "On the legal status of foreign citizens in the USSR" was used by the Russian Federation. Action extended from 1 January 1993. Chapter III of the law "entry into the USSR and exit from the USSR Foreign citizens" was replaced adopted the Federal Law No.114-FZ 1996 "On the Order of Exit from the Russian Federation". The law was repealed with the adoption of the Federal Law 115-FZ on 25 Jul 2002 On the Legal Status of Foreign Citizens in the Russian Federation. The laws establishes that as a general rule all foreign citizens and stateless persons need visas for entry and exit from the territory of Russia and the period of temporary stay (90 days within any 180 days). It also establishes a number of exceptions addressing certain groups of travelers. It should be noted that the basis of the legal status of foreign citizens and stateless persons are secured primarily by the Constitution of the Russian Federation 1993 - Art. 62 and Art. 63.[437]

According to the Russian Constitution, international treaties of Russia override the domestic legislation. Russia has concluded a number of bilateral or multilateral treaties on visa abolishing or simplification and is seeking to negotiate new such treaties. The visa policy Russia applies the principle of reciprocity, the principle of specular.

Visa-free 72-hour transit

In September, 2013 the president of Russia has sent the bill of introduction of 72-hour visa-free transit to parliament. The list of the airports and the list of the states which citizens will be able to use visa-free transit in the tourist purposes, will be approved by the Government of the Russian Federation after ratification. In 2014 the parliament has suspended ratification of the bill for an indefinite term.[438]

Crimea

In April 2014 Crimea’s Tourism Minister proposed a visa-free regime for foreign tourists staying at Crimean resorts for up to 12 days and a 72-hour visa-free stay for cruise passengers.[439] Visa-free access for Chinese citizens was proposed in June 2014.[440] Visa-free entrance in cruise courts to Sevastopol began to be carried out from September 2015[64] Other of the proposals has been not realized.

International eventsEdit

Art events

Participants and members of delegations coming to participate in the musical events are either provided with a simplified visa regime (e.g. Eurovision Song Contest 2009) or the right of visa-free entry (e.g. International Tchaikovsky Competition 2015).[441]
Currently (September 2015) the law providing permanent visa abolition for participants and jury members of art competitions is being planned by the Government of Russia. The focus of this regulation will be on the International Tchaikovsky Competition.[442]

Economic events

Participants of the 1st Eastern Economic Forum in Vladivostok did not require a visa. Entrance was allowed with passport and the accreditation certificate only.[443]

Participants of East Economic Forum in Vladivostok can visit an event without visas from 8 to 15 September 2018.[444]

Sporting events

Prior to the adoption of a special law, participants and members of delegations arriving to sporting events, could count on a visa-free entry or visa facilitation (determined by law for each event which has to pass ratification in parliament and to be signed by the president). For the 2008 Champions League Final held in Moscow, also spectators were given such visa-free entry. On 13 May 2013 the presidential decree on the abolition of visas for athletes, coaches, team leaders and members of foreign official delegations, as well as judges from the international sports competitions came into effect. It envisages entry on the basis of passport and accreditation certificate.[445] The order of the President or the Government of Russia is sufficient for visa abolition or simplification of registration of visas.
Visas were abolished for participants of the 2013 Summer Universiade,[446] the 2014 ICF Canoe Sprint World Championships in Moscow, the 2014 World Judo Championships in Chelyabinsk and the 16th FINA World Championships in Kazan.[447] Participants of the XVI World Aquatics Championships in the Masters category were exempted from visa fees.[448]

The right to enter Russia without a visa was also given to visitors during the 2014 Winter Olympics and 2014 Winter Paralympics in Sochi if they were in a possession of tickets for the event.[449] Players of 2016 IIHF World Championship were able to obtain visas on arrival, for the fans were simplified procedure for issuing visas.[450]
2017 FIFA Confederations Cup holders of tickets for matches of the championship could enter Russia without a visa with personalized card of viewer (also known as the passport of a fan or fan-ID) and national passport from 7 June to 12 July 2017, if holding a laminated FIFA FAN ID card; from 14 June to 2 July 2017, if holding a printed FIFA FAN ID electronic format card. The foreign citizens could use their FAN IDs for multiple visa-free entry into and exit from the Russian Federation.[451]

2018 FIFA World Cup holders of tickets for matches of the championship were able to enter Russia without a visa with personalized card of viewer (also known as the passport of a fan or fan-ID) and national passport from 4 June to 25 July 2018.
Foreigners participating in events and athletes included in the lists of FIFA, will have to obtain visas, but in a simplified manner. In particular, visas for this category of citizens will be issued within 3 working days from the date of filing and without consular fees. This procedure will be applied until 31 December 2018. Foreigners involved in activities and not participating in sporting events, will travel to and from Russia by an ordinary multiple-entry work visas that will be issued for a period of 1 year. Foreigners, attracted by the FIFA, its subsidiaries and contractors, confederations, national football associations, the Russian football Union, organizing Committee "Russia-2018" will be entitled to work in Russia without obtaining a patent.[452]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Условия въезда граждан иностранных государств в Российскую Федерацию по дипломатическим, служебным (официальным, специальным), общегражданским паспортам". Консульский Департамент МИД России. January 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  2. ^ a b c "Country information (visa section)". Timatic. International Air Transport Association (IATA) through Olympic Air. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
  3. ^ "Федеральный закон "О внесении изменений в статью 27 Федерального закона "О порядке выезда из Российской Федерации и въезда в Российскую Федерацию" от 31.12.2014 N 524-ФЗ (действующая редакция, 2016) / КонсультантПлюс". Consultant.ru. 2014-12-31. Retrieved 2016-12-26.
  4. ^ "Указ о признании документов, выданных гражданам Украины и лицам без гражданства, проживающим на территориях отдельных районов Донецкой и Луганской областей Украины" [The decree on recognition of the documents issued to the citizens of Ukraine and persons without citizenship living in territories of certain districts of the Donetsk and Luhansk regions of Ukraine]. Kremlin.ru (in Russian). Официальный сайт Президента России / Official site of the President of Russia. Retrieved 16 December 2017.
  5. ^ "Постановление Правительства Российской Федерации от 29.12.2018 № 1744 "Об увеличении срока временного пребывания на территории Российской Федерации граждан Украины, постоянно проживающих на территориях отдельных районов Донецкой и Луганской областей Украины"". pravo.gov.ru (in Russian). Официальное опубликование правовых актов России. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  6. ^ Previous visa-free agreements under different terms were applied in period 1981-1985 and 1985-1994. 30 days from 29 Jul 1994 to 21 December 2018; 90 days within 180 days period from 21 December 2018.
  7. ^ Previous visa-free agreement was applied in period 1990-2008.
  8. ^ Previous visa-free agreement under different terms was applied in period 1990-2008.
  9. ^ Previous visa-free agreement under different terms were applied in period 1965 (on duty)/1967 (for tourism)-1990 as Yugoslavia and 1990-2009.
  10. ^ "О вступлении в силу Соглашения между Правительством Российской Федерации и Правительством Республики Никарагуа об отмене визовых требований при взаимных поездках граждан Российской Федерации и граждан Республики Никарагуа" [About entry into force of the Agreement between the Government of the Russian Federation and the Government of the Republic of Nicaragua on the abolition of visa requirements for mutual trips of citizens of the Russian Federation and citizens of the Republic of Nicaragua]. Mid.ru (in Russian). Министерство Иностранных Дел России / The Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Russia. Retrieved 16 December 2017.