Sør-Varanger

Sør-Varanger (Northern Sami: Máttá-Várjjat, Kven: Etelä-Varenki, Finnish: Etelä-Varanki, Russian: Сёр-Вара́нгер/Syor-Varánger)[3] is a municipality in Troms og Finnmark county, Norway. The administrative centre of the municipality is the town of Kirkenes. Other settlements in the municipality include the villages of Bjørnevatn, Bugøynes, Elvenes, Grense Jakobselv, Hesseng, Jakobsnes, Neiden, and Sandnes. Located west of the Norway–Russia border, Sør-Varanger is the only Norwegian municipality that shares a land border with Russia, with the only legal border crossing at Storskog.

Sør-Varanger kommune

Mátta-Várjjaga gielda
Etelä-Varengin komuuni
N886-Grense-Jakobselv-2012-07-06-12-00-21.jpg
Flag of Sør-Varanger kommune
Flag
Official logo of Sør-Varanger kommune
Troms og Finnmark within
Norway
Sør-Varanger within Troms og Finnmark
Sør-Varanger within Troms og Finnmark
Coordinates: 69°43′43″N 30°02′30″E / 69.72861°N 30.04167°E / 69.72861; 30.04167Coordinates: 69°43′43″N 30°02′30″E / 69.72861°N 30.04167°E / 69.72861; 30.04167
CountryNorway
CountyTroms og Finnmark
DistrictØst-Finnmark
Established1 Jul 1858
Administrative centreKirkenes
Government
 • Mayor (2015)Rune Gjertin Rafaelsen (Ap)
Area
 • Total3,971.58 km2 (1,533.44 sq mi)
 • Land3,458.68 km2 (1,335.40 sq mi)
 • Water512.90 km2 (198.03 sq mi)  12.9%
Area rank6 in Norway
Population
 (2020)
 • Total10,158
(Decrease from last year)
 • Rank112 in Norway
 • Density2.9/km2 (8/sq mi)
 • Change (10 years)
4.3%
Demonym(s)Varangværing[1]
Time zoneUTC+01:00 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+02:00 (CEST)
ISO 3166 codeNO-5444
Official language formBokmål[2]
Websitesor-varanger.kommune.no

The 3,972-square-kilometre (1,534 sq mi) municipality is the 6th largest by area out of the 422 municipalities in Norway. Sør-Varanger is the 112th most populous municipality in Norway with a population of 10,158. The municipality's population density is 2.9 inhabitants per square kilometre (7.5/sq mi) and its population has increased by 4.3% over the last decade.[4][5]

NameEdit

The meaning of the name Sør-Varanger comes from the name of the large Varangerfjorden (Old Norse: Ver(j)angr) on the northern shore of the municipality. The first part is ver meaning "fishing village" and the last part is angr which means "fjord". It was first probably used for the narrow fjord on the inside of Angsnes which now is called "Meskfjorden" and leads into Varangerbotn. Sør means "south" in Norwegian. Prior to 1918, the name was spelled Sydvaranger (also meaning "South Varanger"). Before 1964, there also was a municipality named Nord-Varanger, located north of the Varangerfjorden, covering most of present-day Vadsø municipality.[6]

HistoryEdit

Prehistoric labyrinth constructions at Holmengrå, were possibly used for religious purposes.

The original inhabitants of the area are the Skolt Sami. This Sami group migrated between coast and inland in present Norwegian, Finnish, and Russian territory long before any borders existed. In the 16th century, they were converted to the Russian Orthodox faith, and still today the chapel of Saint George at Neiden, dating from 1565, is a reminder of eastern influence.

The Orthodox chapel of Saint George is in Neiden.

In 1826, the previously disputed areas were divided between Norway and Russia, causing great difficulties for the Sami. The Norwegian state also invited Norwegian settlers to come to the area, building Lutheran churches to counterbalance the Orthodox heritage, notably the King Oscar II Chapel, located immediately west of the Russian border. The historic border crossing station was at Skafferhullet (which was replaced with the present day station at Storskog).

 
View of King Oscar II Chapel on the Russian border

The King Oscar II Chapel in Grense Jakobselv on the Russian border was built in 1869 to mark the border.

During the 19th century, Finnish settlers (Kven) arrived to the valleys, and since 1906, Norwegians came in large numbers because of the iron mining starting up near Kirkenes. After the Treaty of Tartu the area of Petsamo was ceded to Finland, and Sør-Varanger (and Norway) no longer bordered Russia, until Finland had to cede it back to the Soviet Union in 1944.

In 1906, the Sydvaranger company opened the Bjørnevatn Mine at Bjørnevatn and four years later the mine was connected to the port in Kirkenes by Kirkenes–Bjørnevatn Line, the world's most northern railway. The mine was closed in 1996, but re-opened in 2009.

In a 1944 report to Norway's prime minister in exile, a Norwegian government official (embedsmann ) in Finnmark—Thore Boye—said that Norwegian soldiers had [crop-] cut (snauklippet) "25 young girls—some of them married" who had been pointed out by local men, as having had relations with German soldiers".[7]

Establishment of municipalityEdit

The municipality of Sør-Varanger was established on 1 July 1858 when the southern district of the municipality of Vadsø (population: 1,171) was separated to form the new municipality. The borders of the municipality have not changed since that time.[8]

Coat of armsEdit

The coat of arms were granted on 16 April 1982. The arms show three flames in gold/orange. The division of the shield symbolizes the importance of the number three: The three main sources of income are agriculture, mining, and fishing; the municipality also has three main rivers (Neiden, Pasvikelva, and Jakobselva) that form the borders of Norway, Russia, and Finland; and there are three cultures in the municipality: Norwegians, Finns, and Sami.[9]

GeographyEdit

 
The border with Russia follows the Grense Jakobselv in the northeast near the Barents Sea, while Pasvikelva forms the border further south along the Pasvik Valley.
 
Neiden, Sør-Varanger. The river yields a large catch of salmon, which the Skoltesami here traditionally catch with an unusual technique (throwing small nets in the river).

Sør-Varanger is a vast area of about 3,700 square kilometres (1,429 sq mi), situated between Finland and Russia. Most of the area is low-lying forest of pine and birch, with barren sections facing the Barents Sea.

The Varangerfjorden runs along the northern part of the municipality and the Bøkfjorden runs north–south cutting into the municipality and flowing into the Varangerfjorden. The large island of Skogerøya lies on the west side of the Bøkfjorden. Skogerøytoppen is the tallest mountain on Skogerøya. The Bøkfjord Lighthouse lies along the mouth of the Bøkfjorden.

The municipal centre of Sør-Varanger is the town of Kirkenes, located on a peninsula in the Bøkfjorden. Other settlements include Bugøynes, Neiden, and little hamlets along the river of Pasvikelva. The local airport is called Kirkenes Airport, Høybuktmoen which is also a military camp. The Garrison of Sør-Varanger (GSV) is based at Høybuktmoen.

The flora of the area is a part of the Russian and Siberian taiga, including a few hundred spruce trees of the Russian variety. Bears also inhabit the upper valley, notably in the Øvre Pasvik National Park, Øvre Pasvik Landscape Protection Area, and Pasvik Nature Reserve.

Lakes include Ellenvatnet, Gardsjøen, Garsjøen, Klistervatnet, and Ødevatnet. The fjords include Korsfjorden.[10]

ClimateEdit

Climate data for Kirkenes Airport, Høybuktmoen
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) −8.2
(17.2)
−7.8
(18.0)
−3.8
(25.2)
0.6
(33.1)
5.7
(42.3)
12.5
(54.5)
16.1
(61.0)
13.9
(57.0)
8.8
(47.8)
2.4
(36.3)
−2.8
(27.0)
−5.9
(21.4)
2.6
(36.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −11.8
(10.8)
−11.3
(11.7)
−7.4
(18.7)
−2.4
(27.7)
3.0
(37.4)
8.5
(47.3)
12.1
(53.8)
10.5
(50.9)
6.2
(43.2)
0.4
(32.7)
−5.5
(22.1)
−9.7
(14.5)
−0.6
(30.9)
Average low °C (°F) −16.2
(2.8)
−15.1
(4.8)
−10.8
(12.6)
−5.7
(21.7)
0.0
(32.0)
5.2
(41.4)
8.7
(47.7)
7.5
(45.5)
3.6
(38.5)
−1.9
(28.6)
−8.7
(16.3)
−13.4
(7.9)
−3.9
(25.0)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 32
(1.3)
23
(0.9)
21
(0.8)
20
(0.8)
23
(0.9)
41
(1.6)
60
(2.4)
62
(2.4)
47
(1.9)
35
(1.4)
33
(1.3)
33
(1.3)
430
(16.9)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 8.5 6.5 6.0 6.2 6.0 8.2 8.9 10.5 9.8 9.5 8.6 9.0 97.7
Source: Norwegian Meteorological Institute[11]

GovernmentEdit

All municipalities in Norway, including Sør-Varanger, are responsible for primary education (through 10th grade), outpatient health services, senior citizen services, unemployment and other social services, zoning, economic development, and municipal roads. The municipality is governed by a municipal council of elected representatives, which in turn elect a mayor.[12] The municipality falls under the Øst-Finnmark District Court and the Hålogaland Court of Appeal.

Municipal councilEdit

The municipal council (Kommunestyre) of Sør-Varanger is made up of 27 representatives that are elected to four year terms. The party breakdown of the council is as follows:

Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 2020–2023 [13]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)11
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)1
 Green Party (Miljøpartiet De Grønne)1
 Conservative Party (Høyre)4
 Red Party (Rødt)1
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)6
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)3
Total number of members:27
Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 2016–2019 [14]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)14
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)2
 Conservative Party (Høyre)4
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)5
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)2
Total number of members:27
Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 2012–2015 [15]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)10
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)2
 Conservative Party (Høyre)5
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)5
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)2
 Liberal Party (Venstre)1
Total number of members:25
Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 2008–2011 [14]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)11
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)4
 Conservative Party (Høyre)2
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)5
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)2
 Mátte Várjjat List (Mátte Várjjat Listu)1
Total number of members:25
Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 2004–2007 [14]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)7
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)4
 Conservative Party (Høyre)4
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)3
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)5
 Mátte Várjjat List (Mátte Várjjat Listu)2
Total number of members:25
Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 2000–2003 [14]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)14
 Conservative Party (Høyre)9
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)3
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)3
 Liberal Party (Venstre)1
 Mátte Várjjat List (Mátte Várjjat Listu)2
Total number of members:31
Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 1996–1999 [16]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)17
 Conservative Party (Høyre)8
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)6
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)4
 Liberal Party (Venstre)2
Total number of members:37
Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 1992–1995 [17]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)16
 Conservative Party (Høyre)9
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)3
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)9
Total number of members:37
Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 1988–1991 [18]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)19
 Progress Party (Fremskrittspartiet)2
 Conservative Party (Høyre)9
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)1
 Red Electoral Alliance (Rød Valgallianse)1
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)1
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)4
Total number of members:37
Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 1984–1987 [19]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)21
 Conservative Party (Høyre)10
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)1
 Red Electoral Alliance (Rød Valgallianse)1
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)1
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)3
Total number of members:37
Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 1980–1983 [20]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)18
 Conservative Party (Høyre)12
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)1
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)2
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)4
Total number of members:37
Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 1976–1979 [21]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)19
 Conservative Party (Høyre)8
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)2
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)2
 Socialist Left Party (Sosialistisk Venstreparti)5
 Liberal Party (Venstre)1
Total number of members:37
Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 1972–1975 [22]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)20
 Conservative Party (Høyre)8
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)1
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)2
 Liberal Party (Venstre)1
 Socialist common list
(Venstresosialistiske felleslister)
5
Total number of members:37
Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 1968–1971 [23]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)20
 Conservative Party (Høyre)8
 Communist Party (Kommunistiske Parti)2
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)1
 Centre Party (Senterpartiet)1
 Socialist People's Party (Sosialistisk Folkeparti)2
 Liberal Party (Venstre)3
Total number of members:37
Sør-Varanger Kommunestyre 1964–1967 [24]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)20
 Conservative Party (Høyre)9
 Communist Party (Kommunistiske Parti)4
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)1
 Socialist People's Party (Sosialistisk Folkeparti)1
 Liberal Party (Venstre)2
Total number of members:37
Sør-Varanger Herredsstyre 1960–1963 [25]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)18
 Conservative Party (Høyre)6
 Communist Party (Kommunistiske Parti)6
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)1
 Liberal Party (Venstre)1
 Local List(s) (Lokale lister)1
Total number of members:33
Sør-Varanger Herredsstyre 1956–1959 [26]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)16
 Conservative Party (Høyre)5
 Communist Party (Kommunistiske Parti)7
 Christian Democratic Party (Kristelig Folkeparti)1
 Liberal Party (Venstre)2
 Local List(s) (Lokale lister)2
Total number of members:33
Sør-Varanger Herredsstyre 1952–1955 [27]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)11
 Conservative Party (Høyre)4
 Communist Party (Kommunistiske Parti)7
 Liberal Party (Venstre)1
 List of workers, fishermen, and small farmholders
(Arbeidere, fiskere, småbrukere liste)
3
 Local List(s) (Lokale lister)2
Total number of members:28
Sør-Varanger Herredsstyre 1948–1951 [28]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)12
 Communist Party (Kommunistiske Parti)8
 Joint List(s) of Non-Socialist Parties (Borgerlige Felleslister)8
Total number of members:28
Sør-Varanger Herredsstyre 1945–1947 [29]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)12
 Communist Party (Kommunistiske Parti)10
 Local List(s) (Lokale lister)6
Total number of members:28
Sør-Varanger Herredsstyre 1938–1941* [30]  
Party Name (in Norwegian) Number of
representatives
 Labour Party (Arbeiderpartiet)12
 Communist Party (Kommunistiske Parti)2
 List of workers, fishermen, and small farmholders
(Arbeidere, fiskere, småbrukere liste)
5
 Joint List(s) of Non-Socialist Parties (Borgerlige Felleslister)3
 Local List(s) (Lokale lister)6
Total number of members:28

MayorEdit

Mayors (ordfører) of Sør-Varanger include Cecilie Hansen (2011—2015) of the Centre Party.

TransportationEdit

Kirkenes Airport, Høybuktmoen is operated by the state-owned Avinor and serves as the main primary airport for eastern Finnmark county. Located 10 kilometers (6.2 mi) west of Kirkenes, at Høybuktmoen,[31] the airport has a 2,115-meter (6,939 ft)[32] long runway which allows Scandinavian Airlines and Norwegian Air Shuttle to operate direct flights to Oslo. In addition Widerøe uses the airport as a hub to regional airports throughout Finnmark.[33]

The Kirkenes–Bjørnevatn Line is a 8.5-kilometer (5.3 mi) railway, until 2010 the world's northernmost, which runs between Kirkenes and Bjørnevatn;[34]

The European route E6 highway has its northern endpoint in the town of Kirkenes. This highway heads west and then south to the rest of Norway. The European route E105 highway has its northern endpoint in the village of Hesseng, just south of Kirkenes. That highway heads south into Russia through the Storskog border crossing, the only legal public crossing on the Norway-Russia border.

ReligionEdit

ChurchesEdit

The Church of Norway has one parish (sokn) within the municipality of Sør-Varanger. It is part of the Varanger prosti (deanery) in the Diocese of Nord-Hålogaland.

Churches in Sør-Varanger
Parish (Sokn) Church Name Location of the Church Year Built
Sør-Varanger Bugøynes Chapel Bugøynes 1989
Kirkenes Church Kirkenes 1959
King Oscar II Chapel Grense Jakobselv 1869
Neiden Chapel Neiden 1902
Svanvik Church Svanvik (in the
Pasvikdalen valley)
1934

ArchaeologyEdit

In 2015 rock carvings, estimatedly dated to 4200–5200 B.C. were found at Tømmerneset on Gamneset, several kilometers outside Kirkenes.[35][36] The carvings were discovered along an old path used by reindeers—between two crags—by an archaeologist traveling between existing excavation sites at Gamneset.[35] (A planned oil terminal will expectedly shut out the general public, from the site of the carvings.[37])

LeisureEdit

Popular leisure activities include salmon fishing in one of the numerous rivers, hunting for moose and grouse, and snowmobile driving. Many inhabitants also own and frequently use a cabin located in more remote parts of the municipality.

Notable peopleEdit

 
Osvald Harjo, 1958
 
Helga Pedersen, 2009
  • Kathrine Bugge (1877–1951) an educator, cultural worker and politician, brought up in Jarfjord
  • John Savio (1902 in Bugøyfjord - 1938) an artist of Sami and Kven descent, made woodcuts
  • Osvald Harjo (1910–1993) a resistance member in WWII and a prisoner in Soviet Gulag camps for over a decade
  • Alfred Henningsen (1918 in Sør-Varanger – 2012) a military officer, spy and politician
  • Gudmund Grytøyr (born 1920 in Sør-Varanger - 2001) a sailor, laborer in industry and forestry, a farmer and politician
  • Annemarie Lorentzen (1921 in Sør-Varanger – 2008) a politician and Norwegian ambassador to Iceland 1978 to 1985
  • Aino Hivand (born 1947 in Bugøyfjord) Norwegian-Sami visual artist and children's book writer
  • Helga Pedersen (born 1973 in Sør-Varanger) a politician, former Minister and member of the Storting; brought up in Vestertana
  • Pavel Zakharov (born 2001 in Sør-Varanger) a Russian college basketball player
and

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Navn på steder og personer: Innbyggjarnamn" (in Norwegian). Språkrådet.
  2. ^ "Forskrift om målvedtak i kommunar og fylkeskommunar" (in Norwegian). Lovdata.no.
  3. ^ Russian pronunciation: [ˌsʲɵr vɐˈranɡʲɪr]
  4. ^ Statistisk sentralbyrå (2018). "Table: 06913: Population 1 January and population changes during the calendar year (M)" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2020-03-20.
  5. ^ Statistisk sentralbyrå. "09280: Area of land and fresh water (km2) (M)" (in Norwegian). Retrieved 2018-12-10.
  6. ^ Rygh, Oluf (1924). Norske gaardnavne: Finmarkens amt (in Norwegian) (18 ed.). Kristiania, Norge: W. C. Fabritius & sønners bogtrikkeri. p. 288.
  7. ^ "Skamklipt av norske soldater - NRK Dokumentar". nrk.no. Retrieved 21 August 2016.
  8. ^ Jukvam, Dag (1999). "Historisk oversikt over endringer i kommune- og fylkesinndelingen" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Statistisk sentralbyrå.
  9. ^ "Civic heraldry of Norway - Norske Kommunevåpen". Heraldry of the World. Retrieved 2017-08-20.
  10. ^ Mener Miljøverndepartementet lar seg presse av oljenæringen [Of the opinion that the Department of Environmental Protection lets itself coerce by the oil industry]
  11. ^ "eKlima Web Portal". Norwegian Meteorological Institute. Archived from the original on 2004-06-14.
  12. ^ Hansen, Tore, ed. (2016-05-12). "kommunestyre". Store norske leksikon (in Norwegian). Kunnskapsforlaget. Retrieved 2018-05-28.
  13. ^ "Tall for Norge: Kommunestyrevalg 2019 - Troms og Finnmark". Valg Direktoratet. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
  14. ^ a b c d "Table: 04813: Members of the local councils, by party/electoral list at the Municipal Council election (M)" (in Norwegian). Statistics Norway.
  15. ^ "Tall for Norge: Kommunestyrevalg 2011 - Finnmark". Valg Direktoratet. Retrieved 2019-10-23.
  16. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1995" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo-Kongsvinger: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1996. Retrieved 2020-02-20.
  17. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1991" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo-Kongsvinger: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1993. Retrieved 2020-02-20.
  18. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1987" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo-Kongsvinger: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1988. Retrieved 2020-02-20.
  19. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1983" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo-Kongsvinger: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1984. Retrieved 2020-02-20.
  20. ^ "Kommunestyrevalget 1979" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1979. Retrieved 2020-02-20.
  21. ^ "Kommunevalgene 1975" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1977. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  22. ^ "Kommunevalgene 1972" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1973. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  23. ^ "Kommunevalgene 1967" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1967. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  24. ^ "Kommunevalgene 1963" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1964. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  25. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1959" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1960. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  26. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1955" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1957. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  27. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1951" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1952. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  28. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1947" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1948. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  29. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1945" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1947. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  30. ^ "Kommunevalgene og Ordførervalgene 1937" (PDF) (in Norwegian). Oslo: Statistisk sentralbyrå. 1938. Retrieved 2020-03-16.
  31. ^ "To/from airport". Avinor. Archived from the original on 15 August 2012. Retrieved 26 August 2012.
  32. ^ "ENKR – Kirkenes/Høybuktmoen" (PDF). Avinor. 8 March 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2012.
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  34. ^ Bjerke, Thor; Jerijervi, Ørjan (2003). "Aktieselskabet Sydvarangers jernbane". Ottar (in Norwegian). Tromsø: University of Tromsø. 244: 32–39.
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