Open main menu

Russia–Ukraine relations

The bilateral relationship between Russia and Ukraine formally started in the 1990s immediately upon the dissolution of the Soviet Union, of which both Russia and Ukraine had been founding constituent republics.

Russia–Ukraine relations
Map indicating locations of Russia and Ukraine



Interactions between the two areas of Russia and Ukraine developed on a formal basis from the 17th century (note the Treaty of Pereyaslav between Moscow and Bohdan Khmelnytsky's cossacks in 1654), but international-level relations ceased when Catherine the Great liquidated the autonomy of the Cossack Hetmanate in 1764. For a short period of time soon after the communist 1917 October Revolution two states interacted again.

In 1920 Soviet Russian forces overran Ukraine and relations between the two states transitioned from international to internal ones within the Soviet Union, founded in 1922. After the Soviet Union's dissolution in 1991, Russia and Ukraine have undergone periods of ties, tensions, and outright hostility.

Prior to Euromaidan (2013-2014), under Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych (in office from February 2010 until he was removed from power on 22 February 2014[1]), relations were cooperative, with various trade agreements in place.[2][3][4][5]

On 1 March 2014 the Federation Council of the Russian parliament voted unanimously to allow the President of Russian Federation enter Russian Armed Forces on territory of Ukraine due to refusal of the latter from the Agreement of 21 February 2014.[6][7][8] On 3 March 2014, the Russian representative to the United Nations, Vitaly Churkin showed a letter signed by former Ukrainian President Yanukovych on 1 March 2014 and addressed to President of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin with a request to enter Russian Armed Forces on territory of Ukraine.[9]

During the February–March 2014 Crimean crisis Ukraine lost control of its government buildings, airports and military bases in Crimea to unmarked soldiers and local pro-Russian militias.[1] This started on 27 February when unmarked armed men seized the Crimean parliamentary building.[1] The same day the Crimean parliament replaced the local government with one who wanted Crimean unification with Russia.[10][11] This government organized the 2014 Crimean status referendum on 14 March 2014 in which te voters voted overwhelmingly to join Russia.[12] On 17 March 2014, Crimea declared its independence.[13] On 18 March 2014, a treaty on incorporating Crimea and Sevastopol into Russia was signed in Moscow and five days the "Constitutional Law on admitting to the Russian Federation the Republic of Crimea and establishing within the Russian Federation the New Constituent Entities the Republic of Crimea and the City of Federal Importance Sevastopol" was quickly pushed through the Russian Federal Assembly, signed by the Russian President and entered into force.[14] On 19 March 2014 all Ukrainian Armed Forces are withdrawn from Crimea.[15] On 17 April 2014, President Putin stated that the Russian military had backed Crimean separatist militias, stating that Russia's intervention was necessary "to ensure proper conditions for the people of Crimea to be able to freely express their will".[16]

Throughout March and April 2014, pro-Russian unrest spread in Ukraine, with pro-Russian groups proclaiming "People's Republics" in the oblasts of Donetsk and Luhansk, as of 2017 both partially outside the control of the Ukrainian government. In response, Ukraine initiated multiple international-court litigations against Russia, as well as suspending all types of military cooperation and military exports.[17] Many countries and international organizations applied sanctions against the Russian Federation and against Ukrainian citizens involved in and responsible for the escalation.

Military clashes between pro-Russian rebels (backed by Russian military) and the Armed Forces of Ukraine began in the east of Ukraine in April 2014. On 5 September 2014 the Ukrainian government and representatives of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic signed a tentative truce (ceasefire - the agreement).[18] The ceasefire imploded amidst intense new fighting in January 2015. A new ceasefire agreement has operated since mid-February 2015, but this agreement also failed to stop the fighting.[19][20][21][22][23][24][25] In January 2018 the Ukrainian parliament passed a law defining areas seized by the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic as "temporarily occupied by Russia", the law also called Russia an "aggressor" state.[26] Russia has been accused by NATO and Ukraine of engaging in direct military operations to support the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic.[27] Russia denies this[27], but in December 2015, Russian Federation President Vladimir Putin admitted that Russian military intelligence officers were operating in Ukraine, insisting though that they were not the same as regular troops.[28] Russia has admitted that Russian "volunteers" are helping the separatists People's Republics.[26]

On 10 February 2015, in response to Russian military intervention, the parliament of Ukraine registered a draft decree on suspending diplomatic relations with Russian Federation.[29] Although this suspension did not materialize, Ukrainian official Dmytro Kuleba (Permanent Representative of Ukraine to the Council of Europe) acknowledged early April 2016 that diplomatic relations had been reduced "almost to zero".[30] Late 2017 Ukrainian Foreign Minister Pavlo Klimkin stated that "there are no diplomatic relations with Russia in terms of content".[31]

On 5 October 2016 the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine officially recommended that its citizens avoid any type of travel to Russia or transit through its territory. The Ministry cited Russian law enforcers' growing number of groundless arrests of Ukrainian citizens who are allegedly often "rudely treated using illegal methods of physical and psychological pressure, torture and other acts violating human rights and dignity".[32][33]

In March 2014 Ukraine started to ban several Russian TV channel from broadcast in Ukraine[34][35][36][nb 1], followed in February 2015 with a ban on showing (on Ukrainian television) of "audiovisual works" that contain "popularization, propaganda, propaganda, any action of law enforcement agencies, armed forces, other military, military or security forces of an invader".[36] One year later Russian productions (on Ukrainian television) had decreased by 3 to 4 (times).[38] In 2015 Ukraine started banning Russian artists from entering Ukraine and bannig other Russian works of culture from the country also when they were considered "a threat to national security".[39] (Following the Kerch Strait incident) starting 30 November, Ukraine is banning all Russian men between 16 and 60 from entering the country with exceptions for humanitarian purposes,[40] claiming this is a security measure.[41][42][43] As another response to the Kerch Strait incident Ukraine imposed a 30-day martial law period that started on 26 November in 10 Ukrainian border Oblasts (regions).[44] [44] Martial law was introduced because Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko claimed there was a threat of "full-scale war" with Russia.[44]

Russia has an embassy in Kyiv and consulates in Kharkiv, Lviv, and Odesa. Ukraine has an embassy in Moscow and consulates in Rostov-on-Don, Saint Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Tyumen and Vladivostok. Ukraine recalled its ambassador to Russia in March 2014.[45][46] Since then, Ukraine’s highest diplomatic representation in Russia has been its temporary chargé d'affaires.[47] Similarly, since July 2016, after the Russian ambassador to Ukraine was relieved, Russia's highest diplomatic representation in Ukraine has also been its temporary chargé d'affaires.[47]

Some[quantify] analysts[which?] believe that the current Russian leadership is determined to prevent an equivalent of the Ukrainian Orange Revolution in Russia. This perspective is supposed[by whom?] to explain not only Russian domestic policy but also Moscow's sensitivity to events abroad.[48] Many[quantify] in Ukraine and beyond[where?] believe that Russia has periodically used its vast energy resources to bully its smaller neighbours, but the Russian government argues that internal squabbling amongst Ukraine's political elite caused energy-supply disputes.[49] The conflict in Ukraine and the alleged role of Russia in it greatly escalated tensions in the relationship between Russia and major Western powers, especially relations between Russia and the United States of America. The situation caused some observers to characterize frostiness in 2014 as assuming an adversarial nature, or presaging the advent of Cold War II and World War III.[50][51][52]


Country comparisonEdit

Russian Federation
Coat of Arms    
Population 146267288 42539010
Area 17075400 km2 (6592800 sq mi) 603500 km2 (233000 sq mi)
Population Density 8/km2 (21/sq mi) 73.8/km2 (191/sq mi)
Time zones 9 1
Exclusive economic zone 8095881 km2 (3125837 sq mi) 6805586 km2 (2627651 sq mi)
Capital Moscow Kiev
Largest City Moscow (pop. 11503501, 15500100 Metro) Kiev (pop. 2900920, 3375000 Metro)
Government Federal semi-presidential
constitutional republic
Unitary semi-presidential
constitutional republic
Official language Russian (de facto and de jure) Ukrainian (de facto and de jure)
Main religions 71% Orthodox[53]
13% non-religious
10% Islam
>1% unaffiliated Christian
2% other Orthodox
>1% other religions (2017 Census)
60.7% Christianity
35.2% non-Religious
0.6% Islam
3.3% Other
Ethnic group 80.90% Russians
8.75% Turkic peoples
3.96% other Indo-Europeans
3.78% Caucasians
1.76% Finno-Ugric and Mongolian peoples and others
77.8% Ukrainians
17.3% Russians
4.9% others/unspecified
GDP (PPP) by the IMF $3373 billion [54] $347.88 billion [54]
GDP (nominal) by the IMF $1267.754 billion [55] $87.198 billion [55]

History of relationsEdit

Kievan Rus'Edit

Russia and Ukraine share much of their history. Kiev, the modern capital of Ukraine, is often referred[peacock term][by whom?] to as a mother of Russian Cities or a cradle of the Rus' civilisation owing to the once powerful Kievan Rus' state, a predecessor of both Russian and Ukrainian nations.[56]

Muscovy and Russian EmpireEdit

After the Mongol invasion of Rus the histories of the Russian and Ukrainian people's started to diverge.[57] The former, having successfully united all the remnants of the Rus' northern provinces, swelled into a powerful Russian state. The latter came under the domination of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, followed by the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. Within the Commonwealth, the militant Zaporozhian Cossacks refused polonization, and often clashed with the Commonwealth government, controlled by the Polish nobility. Unrest among the Cossacks caused them to rebel against the Commonwealth and seek union with Russia, with which they shared much of the culture, language and religion, which was eventually formalized through the Treaty of Pereyaslav in 1654.[58] From the mid-17th century Ukraine was gradually absorbed into the Russian Empire, which was completed in the late 18th century with the Partitions of Poland. Soon afterward in the late 18th century the Cossack host was forcibly disbanded by the Empire, with most of the population relocated to the Kuban region in the South edge of the Russian Empire, where the Cossacks would serve a valuable role for the Empire in subjugating the fierce Caucasian tribes.

The Russian empire considered Ukrainians (and Belarusians) a part of the Russian identity and referred to them as "Little Russians".[59] Until the end of World War I this view was opposed by a small group of Ukrainian nationalists.[60] Nevertheless, a perceived threat of "Ukrainian separatism" set in motion a set of measures aimed at the russification of the "Little Russians".[60] In 1804 the Ukrainian language as a subject and language of instruction was banned from schools.[61] In 1876 followed by a ban on Ukrainian books by Alexander II's secret Ems Ukaz, which prohibited publication and importation of most Ukrainian-language books, public performances and lectures, and even banned the printing of Ukrainian texts accompanying musical scores.[62]

Soviet UnionEdit

The February Revolution saw establishment of official relations between the Russian Provisional Government and the Ukrainian Central Rada that was represented at the Russian government by its commissar Petro Stebnytsky. At the same time Dmitriy Odinets was appointed the representative of Russian Affairs in the Ukrainian government. After the Soviet military aggression by the Soviet government at the beginning of 1918, Ukraine declared its full independence from the Russian Republic. The two treaties of Brest-Litovsk that Ukraine and Russia signed separately with the Central Powers calmed the military conflict between them and peace negotiations were initiated the same year.

After the end of the World War I, Ukraine became a battleground in the Russian Civil War and both Russians and Ukrainians fought in nearly all armies based on their political beliefs.[nb 2]

In 1922, Ukraine and Russia were two of the founding members of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and were the signatories of the treaty that terminated the union in December 1991.[nb 3]

The end of the Russian Empire also ended the ban on the Ukrainian language.[61] Followed by a period of korenizatsiya that promoted the cultures of the different Soviet Republics.[63]

In 1932–1933 Ukraine experienced the Holodomor (Ukrainian: Голодомор, "Extermination by hunger" or "Hunger-extermination"; derived from 'Морити голодом', "Killing by Starvation") which was a man-made famine in the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic that killed up to 7.5 million Ukrainians. During the famine, which is also known as the "Terror-Famine in Ukraine" and "Famine-Genocide in Ukraine", millions of citizens of Ukrainian SSR, the majority of whom were Ukrainians, died of starvation in a peacetime catastrophe unprecedented in the history of Ukraine. Scholars disagree on the relative importance of natural factors and bad economic policies as causes of the famine and the degree to which the destruction of the Ukrainian peasantry was premeditated on the part of Soviet leadership. The Holodomor famine extended to many Soviet republics, including Russia and Kazakhstan. In the absence of absolute documentary proof of intent, scholars have also made the argument that the Holodomor was ultimately a consequence of the economic problems associated with radical economic changes implemented during the period of liquidation of private property and Soviet industrialization, combined with the widespread drought of the early 1930s.

On 13 January 2010, Kiev Appellate Court posthumously found Stalin, Kaganovich, Molotov, and the Ukrainian Soviet leaders Kosior and Chubar, amongst other functionaries guilty of genocide against Ukrainians during the Holodomor famine.[64]

Independent UkraineEdit


Embassy of Russia in Kiev
Embassy of Ukraine in Moscow

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Ukraine held almost 5,000 nuclear weapons, about one third of the Soviet nuclear arsenal and the third largest in the world at the time, as well as significant means of its design and production.[65][66] 130 UR-100N intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBM) with six warheads each, 46 RT-23 Molodets ICBMs with ten warheads apiece, as well as 33 heavy bombers, totaling approximately 1,700 warheads remained on Ukrainian territory.[67] While Ukraine had physical control of the weapons, it did not have operational control, as they were dependent on Russian-controlled electronic Permissive Action Links and the Russian command and control system. In 1992, Ukraine agreed to voluntarily remove over 3,000 tactical nuclear weapons.[65] Following the signing of the Budapest Memorandum on Security Assurances among the U.S., the U.K., and Russia, as well as similar agreements with France and China, Ukraine agreed to destroy the rest of its nuclear weapons, and to join the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT).[68][69][70]

Additionally, several acute disputes formed between the two countries. The first was the question of the Crimea which the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic had administered since 1954. This however was largely resolved in an agreement that allowed for Crimea to remain part of Ukraine, provided its Autonomous Republic status is preserved.

The second major dispute of the 1990s was the city of Sevastopol, with its base of the Black Sea Fleet. During the fall of the Soviet state the city along with the rest of Ukraine participated in the national referendum for independence of Ukraine where 58% of its population voted for the succession of the city in favour of the Ukrainian state, yet the Supreme Soviet of Russia voted to reclaim the city as its territory in 1993. After several years of intense negotiations, in 1997 the whole issue was resolved by partitioning the Black Sea Fleet and leasing some of the naval bases in Sevastopol to the Russian Navy until 2017. In 1997 the Friendship Treaty, which fixed the principle of strategic partnership, the recognition of the inviolability of existing borders, respect for territorial integrity and mutual commitment not to use its territory to harm the security of each other, was signed.[71][72]

Another major dispute was related to the energy supplies, as several Soviet—Western Europe oil and gas pipelines ran through Ukraine. Later after new treaties came into effect, Ukraine's gas debt arrears to Russia were paid off by transfer of some nuclear-capable weapons that Ukraine inherited from the USSR, to Russia such as the Tu-160 strategic bombers.[73] During the 1990s both countries along with other ex-Soviet states founded the Commonwealth of Independent States and large business partnerships came into effect.

While the Russian share in Ukraine’s exports declined from 26.2 percent in 1997 to around 23 percent in 1998–2000, the share of imports held steady at 45-50 percent of the total. Overall, between one third and one half of Ukraine’s trade was with the Russian Federation. Dependence was particularly strong in energy. Up to 70-75 percent of annually consumed gas and close to 80 percent of oil came from Russia. On the export side, too, dependence was significant. Russia remained Ukraine’s primary market for ferrous metals, steel plate and pipes, electric machinery, machine tools and equipment, food, and products of chemical industry. It has been a market of hope for Ukraine’s high value-added goods, more than nine tenths of which were historically tied to the Russian consumer. Old buyers gone by 1997, Ukraine had experienced a 97-99 percent drop in production of industrial machines with digital control systems, television sets, tape recorders, excavators, cars and trucks. At the same time, and in spite of the postcommunist slowdown, Russia came out as the fourth-largest investor in the Ukrainian economy after the USA, Netherlands, and Germany, having contributed $150.6 million out of $2.047 billion in foreign direct investment that Ukraine had received from all sources by 1998.[74]


Vladimir Putin and Leonid Kuchma in December 2003.

Although disputes prior to the Ukrainian presidential election, 2004 were present including the speculations regarding accidental shooting down of a Russian airliner by the Ukrainian military and the controversy with the Tuzla Island, relations with Russia under the latter years of Leonid Kuchma improved. In 2002, the Russian Government participated in financing the construction of the Khmelnytsky and the Rivne nuclear power plants.[75] However, after the Orange Revolution several problems resurfaced including the Russia-Ukraine gas dispute, and Ukraine's bid to join NATO.

The overall perception of relations with Russia in Ukraine differs largely on regional factors. Many Russophone eastern and southern regions, which are also home to the majority of the Russian diaspora in Ukraine welcome closer relations with Russia.[76] However further central and particularly western regions (who were never a part of Imperial Russia) of Ukraine show a less friendly attitude to the idea of a historic link to Russia[77][78][79][80] and the Soviet Union in particular.[81]

Russia has no intention of annexing any country.

Russian President Putin (24 December 2004)[82]

In Russia, there is no regional breakdown in the opinion of Ukraine,[83] but on the whole, Ukraine's recent attempts to join the EU and NATO were seen as change of course to only a pro-Western, anti-Russian orientation of Ukraine and thus a sign of hostility and this resulted in a drop of Ukraine's perception in Russia[84] (although President of Ukraine Yushchenko reassured Russia that joining NATO was not meant as an anti-Russian act,[85] and Putin said that Russia would welcome Ukraine's membership in the EU[86]). This was further fuelled by the public discussion in Ukraine of whether the Russian language should be given official status[87] and be made the second state language.[88][89] During the 2009 gas conflict the Russian media almost uniformly portrayed Ukraine as an aggressive and greedy state that wanted to ally with Russia’s enemies and exploit cheap Russian gas.[90]

Further worsening of relations was provoked by belligerent statements made in 2007–2008 by both Russian (e.g. the Russian Foreign Ministry,[91] the Mayor of Moscow Yury Luzhkov[92] and then President Vladimir Putin[85][93]) and Ukrainian politicians, for example, the former Foreign Minister Borys Tarasiuk,[94] deputy Justice Minister of Ukraine Evhen Kornichuk[95] and then leader of parliamentary opposition Yulia Tymoshenko.[96]

The status of the Russian Black Sea Fleet in Sevastopol remained a matter of disagreement and tensions.[83][97]

Second Tymoshenko GovernmentEdit
Vladimir Putin and Viktor Yushchenko in February 2008

In February 2008 Russia unilaterally withdrew from the Ukrainian-Russian intergovernmental agreement on SPRN signed in 1997.[98]

During the Russo-Georgian war, relations between Ukraine and Russia soured, due to Ukraine's support and selling of arms to Georgia. According to a Russian Investigative Committee 200 members of the Ukrainian UNA-UNSO and "full-time servicemen of the Ukrainian army" aided Georgian forces during the fighting. Ukraine denied the accusation.[99] Further disagreements over the position on Georgia and relations with Russia were among the issues that brought down the Our Ukraine-Peoples Self Defence + Bloc Yulia Tymoshenko coalition in the Ukrainian parliament during September 2008[100] (on 16 December 2008 the coalition did remerge with a new coalition partner, the Lytvyn Bloc[101]).

During the 2008 South Ossetia war, relations with Russia also deteriorated over the new Ukrainian regulations for the Russian Black Sea Fleet such as the demand that Russia obtain prior permission when crossing the Ukrainian border, which Russia refused to comply with.[102][103]

On 2 October 2008, Russian prime minister Vladimir Putin accused Ukraine of supplying arms to Georgia during the South Ossetia War. Putin also claimed that Moscow had evidence proving that Ukrainian military experts were present in the conflict zone during the war. Ukraine has denied the allegations. The head of its state arms export company, Ukrspetsexport, said no arms were sold during the war, and Defense Minister Yuriy Yekhanurov denied that Ukraine's military personnel fought on the side of Georgia.[104] General Prosecutor of Ukraine confirmed on 25 September 2009 that there was no personnel of the Ukrainian Armed Forces participated in the 2008 South Ossetia War, no weapons or military equipment of the Ukrainian Armed Forces were present at the conflict, and no help was given to the Georgian side. Also in the declaration the Ukrainian officials informed that the international transfers of the military specialization equipment between Ukraine and Georgia during the 2006–2008 were conducted in accordance with the earlier established contracts, the laws of Ukraine, and the international treaties.[105]

The US supported Ukraine's bid to join NATO launched in January 2008 as an effort to obtain the NATO Membership Action Plan.[106][107][108] Russia strongly opposed any prospect of Ukraine and Georgia becoming NATO members.[nb 4][109][110][111] According to the alleged transcript of Putin’s speech at the 2008 NATO-Russia Council Summit in Bucharest, Putin spoke of Russia’s responsibility for ethnic Russians resident in Ukraine and urged his NATO partners to act advisedly; according to some media reports he then also privately hinted to his US counterpart at the possibility of Ukraine losing its integrity in the event of its NATO accession.[112] According to a document in the United States diplomatic cables leak Putin "implicitly challenged the territorial integrity of Ukraine, suggesting that Ukraine was an artificial creation sewn together from territory of Poland, the Czech Republic, Romania, and especially Russia in the aftermath of the Second World War."[113]

Vladimir Putin in Ukraine, November 2009

During a January 2009 dispute over natural gas prices, exports of Russian natural gas through Ukraine were shut.[114] Relations further deteriorated when Russian Prime Minister Putin during this dispute said that "Ukrainian political leadership is demonstrating its inability to solve economic problems, and [...] situation highlights the high criminalization of [Ukrainian] authorities"[115][116] and when in February 2009 (after the conflict) Ukrainian President Yushchenko[117][118] and the Ukrainian Foreign Ministry considered Russian President Dmitry Medvedev's statement that Ukraine must compensate for gas crisis losses to the European countries an "emotional statement which is unfriendly and hostile towards Ukraine and the EU member-states".[119][120] During the conflict the Russian media almost uniformly portrayed Ukraine as an aggressive and greedy state that wanted to ally with Russia’s enemies and exploit cheap Russian gas.[90]

Videoblog of the address by Russian president Dmitry Medvedev to Ukrainian president Viktor Yushchenko on 11 August 2009. (Transcript in English).

After a "master plan" to modernize the natural gas infrastructure of Ukraine between the EU and Ukraine was announced (on 23 March 2009) Russian Energy Minister Sergei Shmatko told an investment conference at which the plan was unveiled that it appeared to draw Ukraine legally closer to the European Union and might harm Moscow's interests.[121] According to Putin "to discuss such issues without the basic supplier is simply not serious".[121]

In a leaked US diplomatic cable (as revealed by WikiLeaks) regarding the January 2009 Russian-Ukrainian gas crisis, the US Ambassador to Ukraine William Taylor was quoting Ambassador of Ukraine to Russia Kostyantyn Hryshchenko as expressing his opinion that Kremlin leaders wanted to see a totally subservient person in charge in Kiev (a regency in Ukraine) and that Putin "hated" the then-President Yushchenko and had a low personal regard for Yanukovych, but saw then-Prime Minister Tymoshenko as someone perhaps not that he can trust, yet with whom he could deal.[122]

On 11 August 2009, Russian president Dmitry Medvedev posted a videoblog on the website, and the official Kremlin LiveJournal blog, in which he criticised Yushchenko for what Medvedev claimed was the Ukrainian president's responsibility in the souring of Russia–Ukraine relations and "the anti-Russian position of the current Ukrainian authorities".[nb 5] Medvedev further announced that he would not send a new ambassador to Ukraine until there was an improvement in the relationship.[123][124][nb 6][125] In response, Yushchenko wrote a letter which noted he could not agree that the Ukrainian-Russian relations had run into problems and wondered why the Russian president completely ruled out the Russian responsibility for this.[126][127][nb 7] Analysts said Medvedev's message was timed to influence the campaign for the Ukrainian presidential election, 2010.[123][129] The U.S. Department of State spokesman, commenting on the message by Medvedev to his Ukrainian counterpart Yuschenko, said, among other things: "It is important for Ukraine and Russia to have a constructive relationship. I'm not sure that these comments are necessarily in that vein. But going forward, Ukraine has a right to make its own choices, and we feel that it has a right to join NATO if it chooses."[130]

On 7 October 2009, Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov said the Russian Government wanted to see economy prevail in Russian-Ukrainian relations and that relations between the two countries would improve if the two countries set up joint ventures, especially in small and medium-sized businesses.[131] At the same meeting in Kharkiv, Lavrov said the Russian government would not respond to a Ukrainian proposal to organize a meeting between the Russian and Ukrainian presidents,[132] but that "Contacts between the two countries' foreign ministries are being maintained permanently."[133]

On 2 December 2009, Ukrainian Foreign Minister Petro Poroshenko and Lavrov agreed on gradually abandoning the compilation of lists of individuals banned from entering their countries.[134]


Viktor Yanukovych PresidencyEdit
Viktor Yanukovych and Russian President Dmitry Medvedev on 17 May 2010 near Memorial to the Holodomor Victims in Kiev.
Vladimir Putin arrived at the 14th International Biker Rally in Sevastopol, Crimea, July 24, 2010

According to Taras Kuzio, Viktor Yanukovych was the most pro-Russian and neo-Soviet president to have been elected in Ukraine.[2] Since his election he fulfilled all of the demands laid out by Russian President Dmitri Medvedev in his letter written to former President Viktor Yushchenko in August 2009.[2]

On 22 April 2010 Presidents Viktor Yanukovych and Dmitry Medvedev signed an agreement concerning renting of the Russian Naval Forces base in Sevastopol in the next 25 years for the natural gas discounts in deliveries which accounted for $100 per each 1,000 cubic meters.[135][136][137] The lease extension agreement was highly controversial in and outside of Ukraine.[2]

On 17 May 2010, the President Dmitry Medvedev arrived in Kiev on a two-day visit.[138] During the visit Medvedev hoped to sign cooperation agreements in "inter-regional and international problems", according to RIA Novosti. That also was mentioned on the official inquiry at the Verkhovna Rada by the First Deputy prime-minister Andriy Kliuyev. According to some news agencies the main purpose of the visit was to solve the disagreements in the Russian-Ukrainian energy relations after Viktor Yanukovych agreed on the partial merger of Gazprom and Naftogaz.[139] Apart from the merger of the state gas companies there are also talks of the merger of the nuclear energy sector as well.[140]

Both Russian President Dmitry Medvedev (April 2010[3]) and Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin (June 2010[4]) have stated they noticed a big improvement in relations since Viktor Yanukovych Presidency.

On 14 May 2013 an unknown veteran of unknown intelligence service Sergei Razumovsky, leader of the All-Ukrainian Association of Homeless Officers, who resides in Ukraine under the Ukrainian flag calls on creation of Ukrainian-Russian international volunteer brigades in support of the Bashar al-Assad government in Syria to fight rebels.[141][142][143] One of the reasons why Rozumovsky wants to create such brigades is the fact that government of Ukraine does not support its officer corps.[144] Because of that Rozumovsky has intentions to apply for citizenship of Syria.[145][146] Some sources claim that he is a Kremlin's provocateur.[147]

On 17 July 2013 near the Russian coast of Azov Sea which is considered as internal waters of both Russia and Ukraine (no boundary delimitation), the Russian coast guard patrol boat collided with a Ukrainian fishing vessel.[148] Four fishermen died[149] while one was detained by Russian authorities on the charges of poaching.[150] According to the surviving fisherman, their boat was rammed by Russians[151] and the fishermen were fired at as well, while the Russian law enforcement agency claimed that it was the poachers who tried to ram into the patrol vessel.[152] The Minister of Justice of Ukraine acknowledged that Russia has no jurisdiction to prosecute the detained citizen of Ukraine.[153] According to the wife of the surviving fisherman, the Ukrainian Consul in Russia was very passive in providing any support on the matter.[154] The surviving fisherman was expected to be released to Ukraine before 12 August 2013, however, the Prosecutor Office of Russia chose to keep the Ukrainian detained in Russia.[155]

On 14 August 2013 the Russian Custom Service stopped all goods coming from Ukraine.[156] Some politicians saw that as start of a trade war against Ukraine to prevent Ukraine from signing a trade agreement with the European Union.[157] According to Pavlo Klimkin, one of the Ukrainian negotiators of the Association Agreement, initially "the Russians simply did not believe (the association agreement with the EU) could come true. They didn't believe in our ability to negotiate a good agreement and didn't believe in our commitment to implement a good agreement."[158]

Another incident took place on the border between Belgorod and Luhansk oblasts when an apparently inebriated Russian tractor driver decided to cross the border to Ukraine along with his two friends on 28 August 2013.[159][160] Unlike the Azov incident that took place a month earlier on 17 July 2013, the State Border Service of Ukraine handed over the citizens of Russia right back to the Russian authorities. Tractor "Belarus" was taken away and handed over to the Ministry Revenue and Collections.

In August 2013 Ukraine become an observer of the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia.[161]

Euromaidan and aftermathEdit
March 15 protests, named the March of Peace, took place in Moscow a day before the Crimean referendum
Pro-Russian protesters in Odessa, March 30, 2014

On 17 December 2013 Russian President Vladimir Putin agreed to lend Ukraine 15 billion dollars in financial aid and a 33% discount on natural gas prices.[162][163] The treaty was signed amid massive, ongoing protests in Ukraine for closer ties between Ukraine and the European Union.[164] Critics pointed out that in the months before the 17 December 2013 deal a change in Russian customs regulations on imports from Ukraine was a Russian attempt to prevent Ukraine to sign an Association Agreement with the European Union.[165][166][162]

The 2014 Crimean crisis was unfolding in the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, in the aftermath of the February 2014 Ukrainian revolution, in which the government of Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych was ousted. Protests were staged by groups of mainly ethnic Russians who opposed the events in Kiev and wanted close ties or integration with Russia, in addition to expanded autonomy or possible independence for Crimea. Other groups, including Crimean Tatars, protested in support of the revolution. On 27 February, unmarked military men wearing masks seized a number of important buildings in Crimea, including the parliament building and two airports.[1] Under siege, the Supreme Council of Crimea dismissed the autonomous republic's government and replaced chairman of the Council of Ministers of Crimea, Anatolii Mohyliov with Sergey Aksyonov.[1]

Ukraine accused Russia of intervening in Ukraine's internal affairs, while the Russian side officially denied such claims. In response to the crisis, the Ukrainian parliament requested that the Budapest Memorandum's signatories reaffirm their commitment to the principles enshrined in the political agreement, and further asked that they hold consultations with Ukraine to ease tensions.[167] On 1 March without declaration of war, the Russian parliament granted President Vladimir Putin the authority to use military force in Ukraine.[168] On the same day, the acting president of Ukraine, Oleksandr Turchynov decreed the appointment of the Prime Minister of Crimea as unconstitutional. He said, "We consider the behavior of the Russian Federation to be direct aggression against the sovereignty of Ukraine!"

On 11 March, the Crimean parliament voted and approved a declaration on the independence of the Autonomous Republic of Crimea and the city of Sevastopol from Ukraine, as the Republic of Crimea, with 78 votes out of 100 in favor.[169] Crimeans voted in a referendum to rejoin Russia on 16 March.[170][171] The Republic of Crimea declared its independence from Ukraine the next day, started seeking UN recognition, and requested to join the Russian Federation.[172] On the same day, Russia recognized Crimea as a sovereign state.[173][174] On 19 March 2014 all Ukrainian Armed Forces (at the time besieged in their bases by unmarked soldiers) were withdrawn from Crimea.[15] On 8 April 2014 an agreement was reached between Russia and Ukraine to return interned vessels to Ukraine and "for the withdrawal of an undisclosed number of Ukrainian aircraft seized in Crimea".[175] Russia returned 35 ships that had been impounded during its annexation of Crimea but unilaterally suspended the return of Ukrainian Navy materials from Crimea to Ukraine proper because/after Ukraine did not renew its unilaterally declared ceasefire on 1 July 2014 in the War in Donbass.[176][177] 16 minor ships are hence yet to return to Ukraine proper.[177]

Immediately after the announcement of Russian recognition of Crimea as a sovereign state, Ukraine responded with sanctions against Russia as well as blacklisting and freezing assets of numerous individuals and entities involved with the annexation. Ukraine announced to not buy Russian products. Other countries supporting Ukraine's position (e.g. the European Union, Norway, Iceland, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Albania, Montenegro, the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, etc.) followed similar measures.[178] Russia responded with similar measures against Ukraine and its supporters but did not publicly reveal the list of people or entities sanctioned.[179][180][181]

On 27 March, the U.N. General Assembly passed a non-binding Resolution 68/262 that declared the Crimean referendum invalid.[182][183] Also on March 27, 2016, Dmitry Kozak was appointed to greatly strengthen Crimea's social, political, and economic ties to Russia.[184][185]

On 14 April, Russian President Putin announced that he would open a ruble-only account with Bank Rossiya and would make it the primary bank in the newly annexed Crimea as well as giving the right to service payments on Russia's $36 billion wholesale electricity market - which gave the bank $112 million annually from commission charges alone.[186]

On 17 April 2014, President Putin stated that the Russian military had backed Crimean separatist militias, stating that Russia's intervention was necessary "to ensure proper conditions for the people of Crimea to be able to freely express their will".[16]

Throughout March and April 2014, pro-Russian unrest spread in Ukraine, with pro-Russian groups proclaiming "People's Republics" in the oblasts of Donetsk and Luhansk, as of 2017 both partially outside the control of the Ukrainian government.[187]

Military clashes between pro-Russian rebels (backed by Russian military) and the Armed Forces of Ukraine began in the Donbass region in April 2014. On 5 September 2014 the Ukrainian government and representatives of the self-proclaimed Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic signed a tentative truce (ceasefire - the agreement).[18] The ceasefire imploded amidst intense new fighting in January 2015. A new ceasefire agreement has operated since mid-February 2015, but this agreement also failed to stop the fighting.[188][189][190][191][192][193][194] Russia has been accused by NATO and Ukraine of engaging in direct military operations to support the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic.[27] Russia denies this[27], but in December 2015, Russian Federation President Vladimir Putin admitted that Russian military intelligence officers were operating in Ukraine, insisting though that they were not the same as regular troops.[28] Russia has admitted that Russian "volunteers" are helping the separatists People's Republics.[26]

At the 26 June 2014 session of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Council of Europe Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko stated that bilateral relations with Russia cannot be normalized unless Russia undoes its unilateral annexation of Crimea and returns its control of Crimea to Ukraine.[195] In February 2015, Ukraine ended a 1997 agreement that Russians can enter Ukraine with internal ID instead of a travel passport.[196]

Early March 2014, and prior to its independence referendum, all broadcast of Ukraine-based TV channels was suspended in Crimea.[37] Later that month, the Ukrainian National Council for TV and Radio Broadcasting ordered measures against some Russian TV channels which were accused of broadcasting misleading information about Ukraine.[34][35] In February 2015 the law "On protection information television and radio space of Ukraine," banned the showing (on Ukrainian television) of "audiovisual works" that contain "popularization, propaganda, propaganda, any action of law enforcement agencies, armed forces, other military, military or security forces of an invader" was enacted.[38] One year later Russian productions (on Ukrainian television) had decreased by 3 to 4 (times).[38] 15 more Russian TV channels were banned in March 2016.[36]

In May 2015, Ukraine suspended military cooperation agreement with Russia,[197][198] that was in place since 1993.[199] Following a breakdown in mutual business ties, Ukraine also ceased supply of components that were used in production of military equipment by Russia.[200] In August, Russia announced that it will ban import of Ukrainian agricultural goods from January 2016.[201] In October 2015, Ukraine banned all direct flights between Ukraine and Russia.[202] In November 2015, Ukraine closed its air space to all Russian military and civil airplanes.[203] In December 2015, Ukrainian lawmakers voted to place a trade embargo on Russia in retaliation of the latter's cancellation of the two countries free-trade zone and ban on food imports as the free-trade agreement between the European Union and Ukraine is to come into force in January 2016.[204] Russia imposes tariffs on Ukrainian goods from January 2016, as Ukraine joins the DCFTA with the EU.[205]

Pro-Russian supportes in Donetsk, 9 May 2016

Since 2015 Ukraine is banning Russian artists from entering Ukraine and also bannig other Russian works of culture from the Russia when they were considered "a threat to national security".[39] Russia did bot reciprocate, Russian Foreign Minister Sergey Lavrov responded by saying that "Moscow should not be like Kiev" and should not impose "black lists" and restrictions on the cultural figures of Ukraine.[206] Lavrov did add that Russian producers and the film industry should take into account "unfriendly attacks of foreign performers in Russia" when implementing cultural projects with them.[206]

According to the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine the amount of Russian citizens who crossed the Russia–Ukraine border (more than 2.5 million Russians in 2014) dropped by almost 50% in 2015.[207]

On 5 October 2016, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Ukraine officially recommended that its citizens should avoid travel to Russia claiming Russian law enforcers growing number of groundless arrests of Ukrainian citizens and that they often "rudely treat Ukrainians, use illegal methods of physical and psychological pressure, torture and other acts that violate human dignity".[32]

On 18 January 2018 the Ukrainian parliament passed a law defining areas seized by the Donetsk People's Republic and Luhansk People's Republic as "temporarily occupied by Russia."[26] The law also called Russia an "aggressor" state.[26]

In March 2018, the Ukrainian border guards detained in the Sea of Azov the Russian-flagged, Crimean-registered fishing vessel Nord, accusing the crew of entering "territory, which has been under a temporary occupation".[208] The captain of the Nord, Vladimir Gorbenko, is facing up to five years in prison.[209]

In November 2018 Russia fired upon and seized three Ukrainian navy vessels (and imprisoned its 24 sailors in Moscow[210]) off the coast of Crimea injuring crew members.[211] The event prompted angry protests outside the Russian embassy in Ukraine and an embassy car was set on fire.[212] Consequently, martial law was imposed for a 30-day period from 26 November in 10 Ukrainian border Oblasts (regions).[213] Martial law was introduced because Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko claimed there was a threat of "full-scale war" with Russia.[44] During the martial law (and starting on 30 November 2018) Ukraine banned all Russian men between 16 and 60 from entering the country for the period of the martial law with exceptions for humanitarian purposes.[40] Ukraine claimed this was a security measure to prevent Russia from forming units of “private” armies on Ukrainian soil.[41] On 27 December 2018 the National Security and Defense Council of Ukraine announced that it had extended "the restrictive measures of the State Border Guard Service regarding the entry of Russian men into Ukraine.”[43] (According to the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine) between 26 November and 26 December 2018 1,650 Russian citizens were refused entry into Ukraine.[214] From 26 December 2018 until 11 January 2019 the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine denied 800 Russian citizens access to Ukraine.[215]


Russia and Ukraine share 2,295 kilometres (1,426 mi) of border. In 2014, the Ukrainian government unveiled a plan to build a defensive walled system along the border with Russia, named "Project Wall". It would cost almost $520 million, take four years to complete and has been under construction as of 2015.[216]

On 1 January 2018 Ukraine introduced biometric controls for Russians entering the country.[217] On 22 March 2018 Ukrainian President Petro Poroshenko signed a decree that required Russian citizens and "individuals without citizenship, who come from migration risk countries” (more details were not given) to notify the Ukrainian authorities in advance about their reason for travelling to Ukraine.[217]

Since 30 November 2018 Ukraine bans all Russian men between 16 and 60 from entering the country with exceptions for humanitarian purposes.[40][43][215]

Armaments and aerospace industriesEdit

The Ukrainian and Russian arms and aviation manufacturing sectors remained deeply integrated following the break-up of the Soviet Union. Ukraine is the world's eighth largest exporter of armaments according to the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute, and according to analysts cited by the Washington Post around 70% of Ukraine's defence-related exports flowed to Russia before 2014, or nearly US$1 billion. Potentially strategically sensitive exports from Ukraine to Russia included 300-350 helicopter engines per year as well as various other aircraft engines from Motor Sich in Zaporizhia, intercontinental ballistic missiles from Yuzhmash in Dnipropetrovsk, missile guidance systems from factories in Kharkiv, 20% of Russia's uranium consumption from mines in Zhovti Vody, 60% of the gears to be used in planned Russian warships from manufacturers Mykolaiv, and oil and gas from the Sea of Azov.[218]

In March 2014, during the 2014 Crimean crisis, Ukraine barred all exports of weaponry and military equipment to Russia.[219] Jane's Information Group believed (on 31 March 2014) that while supply may be slowed by the Ukrainian embargo, it was unlikely to do any real damage to Russia's military.[219]

Popular opinionEdit

In RussiaEdit

In opinion polls, Russians generally say they have a more negative attitude towards Ukraine than vice versa. Polls in Russia have shown that after top Russian officials made radical statements or took drastic actions against Ukraine the attitude of those polled towards Ukraine worsened (every time). The issues that have hurt Russians' view of Ukraine are:

Although a large majority of Ukrainians voted for independence in December 1991, in the following years the Russian press portrayed Ukraine's independence as the work of "nationalists" who "twisted" the "correct" instincts of the masses according to a 1996 study.[220] The study argues that this influenced the Russian public to believe that the Ukrainian political elite is the only thing blocking the "Ukrainians' heartfelt wish" to reunite with Russia.[220] Some members of the Russian political elite continued to claim that Ukrainian is a Russian dialect and that Ukraine (and Belarus) should become part of the Russian Federation.[221] In a June 2010 interview Mikhail Zurabov, then Russian ambassador to Ukraine, stated "Russians and Ukrainians are a single nation with some nuances and peculiarities".[222] Ukrainian history is not treated as a separate subject in leading Russian universities but rather incorporated into the history of Russia.[223]

According to experts, the Russian government cultivates an image of Ukraine as the enemy to cover up its own internal mistakes.[citation needed] Analysts like Philip P. Pan (writing for the Washington Post) argued late 2009 that Russian media portrayed the then-Government of Ukraine as anti-Russian.[224]

Russian attitudes towards Ukraine
Opinion October 2008[225] April 2009[226] June 2009[226] September 2009[227] November 2009[228] September 2011[229] February 2012[229] May 2015[230]
Good 38% 41% 34% 46% 46% 68% 64% 26%
Negative 53% 49% 56% 44% 44% 25% 25% 59%

80% had a "good or very good" attitude towards Belarus in 2009.[227]

During the 1990s, polls showed that a majority of people in Russia could not accept the dissolution of the Soviet Union and the independence of Ukraine.[231] According to a 2006 poll by VCIOM 66% of all Russians regretted the collapse of the Soviet Union.[232] 50% of respondents in Ukraine in a similar poll held in February 2005 stated they regret the disintegration of the Soviet Union.[233] In 2005 (71%) and 2007 (48%) polls, Russians expressed a wish to unify with Ukraine; although a unification solely with Belarus was more popular.[234][235]

A poll released on 5 November 2009 showed that 55% of Russians believed that the relationship with Ukraine should be a friendship between "two independent states".[228] A late 2011 poll by the Levada Center showed 53% of polled Russians preferred friendship with an independent Ukraine, 33% preferred Ukraine to be under Russia's economic and political control, and 15% were undecided.[236] According to Levada's 2012 poll, 60% of Russians preferred Russia and Ukraine as independent but friendly states with open borders without visas or customs; the number of unification supporters increased by 4% to 20% in Russia.[237] Twenty surveys conducted from January 2009 to January 2015 by the Levada Center found that less than 10% of Russians supported Russia and Ukraine becoming one state.[238] In the January 2015 survey, 19% wanted eastern Ukraine to become part of Russia and 43% wanted it to become an independent state.[238]

A November 2014 survey by the University of Oslo found that most Russians viewed Ukraine as not legitimate as a state in its internationally recognised borders and with its then government.[239] According to an April 2015 survey by the Levada Center, when asked "What should be Russia's primary goals in its relations with vis-a-vis Ukraine?" (multiple answers allowed), the most common answers were: Restoring good neighborly relations (40%), retaining Crimea (26%), developing economic cooperation (21%), preventing Ukraine from joining NATO (20%), making gas prices for Ukraine the same as for other European countries (19%), and ousting the current Ukrainian leadership (16%).[240]

In UkraineEdit

Ukrainian attitudes towards Russia
Opinion October 2008[225] June 2009[241] September 2009[227] November 2009[228] September 2011[229] January 2012[229] April 2013[242] Mar–Jun 2014[243] June 2015[244]
Good 88% 91% 93% 96% 80% 86% 70% 35% 21%
Negative 9% - - - 13% 9% 12% 60% 72%

The current crisis between Ukraine and Russia can be identified as a systemic crisis of the basic models which can be Ukrainian statehood after the Soviet Union and the post-unipolar world. There are numerous causes of this crisis, which clearly has political, economic, social, and cultural dimensions to it and clearly three main conflict parties. As it was mentioned above, the country has been divided more or less evenly between Ukrainians who would want to see Ukraine as part of Europe and those who would want to see it as intrinsically linked to Russia.

A poll released on 5 November 2009 showed that about 67% of Ukrainians believed the relationship with Russia should be a friendship between "two independent states".[228] According to a 2012 poll by the Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (KIIS), 72% of Ukrainians preferred Ukraine and Russia as independent but friendly states with open borders without visas or customs; the number of unification supporters shrunk by 2% to 14% in Ukraine.[237]

In December 2014, 85% of Ukrainians (81% in eastern regions) rated relations with Russia as hostile (56%) or tense (29%), according to a Deutsche Welle survey which did not include Crimea and the separatist-controlled part of Donbass.[245] Gallup reported that 5% of Ukrainians (12% in the south and east) approved of the Russian leadership in a September–October 2014 survey, down from 43% (57% in the south and east) a year earlier.[246]

In September 2014, a survey by Alexei Navalny of the mainly Russophone cities of Odessa and Kharkiv found that 87% of residents wanted their region to stay in Ukraine, 3% wanted to join Russia, 2% wanted to join "Novorossiya," and 8% were undecided.[247] A KIIS poll conducted in December 2014 found 88.3% of Ukrainians were opposed to joining Russia.[248]

Treaties and agreementsEdit

Leaders of Belarusian, Russian and Ukrainian Soviet republics signed the Belavezha Accords, dissolving the Soviet Union, 8 December 1991

Ukraine (has also) terminated several treaties and agreement with Russia since the start of the 2014 Crimea crisis (for example agreements in the military and technical cooperation sphere signed in 1993).[266][267]

Territorial disputesEdit

Crimea, which Russia annexed in 2014, is shown in pink. Pink in the Donbass area represents areas held by the DPR/LPR separatists in September 2014 (cities in red)

A number of territorial disputes exist between two countries:

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Early March 2014, and prior to its independence referendum, all Ukraine-based TV channels broadcast was suspended in Crimea.[37]
  2. ^ See Ukrainian Civil War combatants include Anarchists, White Russians, Bolsheviks, Central Powers, Ententes and those of short-lived Ukrainian governments.
  3. ^ See Belavezha Accords
  4. ^ After the two countries were denied membership of the NATO Membership Action Plan (at the NATO summit 2008 in April 2008) Russia's NATO envoy Dmitry Rogozin stated in December 2008: "They will not invite these bankrupt scandalous regimes to join NATO...more so as important partnerships with Russia are at stake", after an earlier statement that "In the broad sense of the word, there is a real threat of the collapse of the Ukrainian state." Ukraine’s envoy to NATO Ihor Sahach replied: "In my opinion, he is merely used as one of cogs in the informational war waged against Ukraine. Sooner or later, I think, it should be stopped". The envoy also expressed a surprise with Rogozin's slang words. "It was for the first time that I heard such a higher official as an envoy using this, I even don’t know how to describe it, whether it was slang or language of criminal circles... I can understand the Russian language, but, I’m sorry, I don't know what his words meant".[109][110]
  5. ^ In the videoblog, Medvedev accused Yushchenko of arming the Georgian military with Ukrainian weapons which were used in the war in South Ossetia in August 2008. Among other issues in the relationship, such as the Black Sea Fleet, gas disputes, Medvedev also accused Yushchenko of attempting to eliminate the Russian language from everyday life in Ukraine. Medvedev also accused the Yushchenko administration of being willing to engage in historical revisionism and heroisation of Nazi collaborators, and imposing on the international community "a nationalistic interpretation of the mass famine of 1932–1933 in the USSR, calling it the "genocide of the Ukrainian people".
  6. ^ The development came after Ukraine accepted the appointment of Mikhail Zurabov to replace Viktor Chernomyrdin as Russia's ambassador in Kiev, who was recalled in June 2009.
  7. ^ In the letter Ukrainian President Viktor Yushchenko called Ukraine's position on the 2008 events in Georgia coincident with "the known positions of virtually all other countries" with "an exceptional respect for the sovereignty, territorial integrity and inviolability of borders of Georgia or any other sovereign states", called arms trade with Georgia legal since Georgia has not been and now is not a subject of any international sanctions or embargo, objected to Russian criticism about Ukraine joining NATO (emphasizing that the desire of Ukraine to membership in NATO was in no way directed against Russia and the final decision on accession to NATO will be held only after a national referendum), accused the Black Sea Fleet of "gross violations of bilateral agreements and the legislation of Ukraine", accused Russia of trying "to deprive Ukraine of its view of its own history" and accused Russia that not Ukraine but Russia itself is "virtually unable to realize the right to meet their national and cultural needs" of the Ukrainian minority in Russia.[128]


  1. ^ a b c d e Timeline: Political crisis in Ukraine and Russia's occupation of Crimea, Reuters (MARCH 8, 2014)
  2. ^ a b c d The Crimea: Europe's Next Flashpoint? Archived 2014-03-09 at the Wayback Machine, By Taras Kuzio, November 2010
  3. ^ a b Russia and Ukraine improve soured relations - Russian President, RIA Novosti (May 16, 2010)
  4. ^ a b Putin satisfied with state of Ukrainian-Russian relations, Kyiv Post (June 28, 2010)
  5. ^ "After Russian Invasion of Georgia, Putin's Words Stir Fears about Ukraine", Kyiv Post (30 November 2010)
  6. ^ Russia declared war onto Ukraine (РОСІЯ ОГОЛОСИЛА УКРАЇНІ ВІЙНУ). Ukrayinska Pravda. 1 March 2014
  7. ^ Russian parliament approves use of troops in Ukraine. Washington Post. 1 March 2014
  8. ^ Russian parliament approves troop deployment in Ukraine. The Guardian. 1 March 2014
  9. ^ Louis Charbonneau. Russia: Yanukovich asked Putin to use force to save Ukraine. Reuters. 3 March 2014
  10. ^ How the separatists delivered Crimea to Moscow, Reuters (MARCH 12, 2014)
  11. ^ "Russia Stages a Coup in Crimea". The Daily Beast. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
  12. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Crimea parliament asks to join Russia". BBC News. 6 March 2014.
  13. ^ Crimean parliament formally applies to join Russia, BBC News (17 March 2014)
  14. ^ "Putin signs treaty to add Crimea to map of Russia". The Concord Monitor. 19 March 2014. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  15. ^ a b "Ukraine 'preparing withdrawal of troops from Crimea'". BBC News. 19 March 2014. Retrieved 20 March 2014.
  16. ^ a b "Direct Line with Vladimir Putin". 17 April 2014.
  17. ^ "Ukraine suspends military cooperation with Russia". IANS. Retrieved 2017-08-11. Ukrainian First Deputy Prime Minister Vitaly Yarema Friday said his country is suspending military cooperation with Russia over Moscow's troops movements near the Ukrainian border. [...] Although the two ex-Soviet neighbours have very close links in the military-industrial complex, Kyiv was forced to stop supplying defence goods to Russia as these could be used against Ukraine if military tensions arise, Xinhua reported citing Yarema.
  18. ^ a b "Ukraine and pro-Russia rebels sign ceasefire deal - BBC News". Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  19. ^ Monitor Says Ukraine Cease-Fire, Weapons Withdrawal Not Being Honored, Radio Free Europe (22 February 2017)
    East Ukraine ceasefire due to take effect, BBC News (20 February 2017)
  20. ^ ATO HQ: Truce disrupted, no conditions for withdrawal of arms, UNIAN (20 February 2017)
  21. ^ (in Ukrainian) In the area of ATU decreased military activity - Staff, Ukrayinska Pravda (20 February 2017)
  22. ^ Ukraine rebels agree to new indefinite truce, SBS Australia (24 December 2016)
  23. ^ Latest from OSCE Special Monitoring Mission (SMM) to Ukraine, based on information received as of 19:30, 4 January 2017, OSCE (5 January 2017)
  24. ^ Militants shell Ukrainian army positions 32 times in past 24 hours, Interfax-Ukraine (6 January 2017)
  25. ^ Kiev forces violate ceasefire three times over past 24 hours — news agency, TASS news agency (3 January 2017)
  26. ^ a b c d e Ukraine crisis: Kiev defines Russia as 'aggressor' state, BBC News (19 January 2018)
  27. ^ a b c d [Nato accuses Russia of violating Ukraine sovereignty], BBC News (29 August 2014)
    "Kiev claims 'intensive' movements of troops crossing from Russia". AFP. 2 November 2014. Archived from the original on 14 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
  28. ^ a b Walker, Shaun (17 December 2015). "Putin admits Russian military presence in Ukraine for first time". The Guardian.
  29. ^ "Офіційний портал Верховної Ради України | Проект Постанови про тимчасове припинення дипломатичних відносин з Російською Федерацією". Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  30. ^ (in Ukrainian) Kuleba, diplomatic relations with the Russian Federation reduced to zero, but they can not break. Ukrayinska Pravda (8 April 2016)
  31. ^ Klimkin comments on possibility of severing diplomatic ties with Russia, UNIAN (1 December 2017)
  32. ^ a b Ukraine warns citizens against traveling to Russia, Reuters (5 October 2016)
  33. ^ Ukraine's foreign ministry issues Russia travel warning, UNIAN (5 October 2016)
  34. ^ a b Ennis, Stephen (12 March 2014). "Ukraine hits back at Russian TV onslaught". BBC News.
  35. ^ a b Barry, Ellen; Somaiya, Ravi (5 March 2014). "For Russian TV Channels, Influence and Criticism". The New York Times.
  36. ^ a b c TV broadcasting council removes 15 more Russian TV channels from adaptation list Interfax-Ukraine (12 February 2016)
  37. ^ a b "Crimeans urged to vote against "neo-Nazis" in Kiev". BBC News. 13 March 2014.
  38. ^ a b c (in Ukrainian) During the year, showing Russian media product fell to 3-4 - National Council, Den (5 February 2016)
  39. ^ a b Ukraine bans 38 Russian 'hate' books amid culture war, BBC News (11 August 2015)
  40. ^ a b c "Ukraine bans entry to all male Russian nationals aged 16-60". UNIAN. 30 November 2018. Retrieved 2018-12-04.
  41. ^ a b Roth, Andrew (30 November 2018). "Ukraine bans entry to Russian men 'to prevent armies forming'". The Guardian. Retrieved 30 November 2018.
  42. ^ "Ukraine continues tightened control on border with Russia, incl. entry ban for men aged 16-60". 26 December 2018. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
  43. ^ a b c Ukraine upholds entry restrictions for Russian men aged 16-60 years, Ukrinform (December 27, 2018)
  44. ^ a b c d Cite error: The named reference world-europe-46356111 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  45. ^ "МИД Украины: посол отозван из России еще год назад". Russia-24. 2015-03-02. Retrieved 2015-03-02.
  46. ^ Ukraine mobilises its army as Kremlin ups the ante with warning to America: 'We can reduce you to radioactive ash', Daily Mail (17 March 2014)
  47. ^ a b Ukraine's diplomat: Non-approval of Russia's ambassador doesn't mean full diplomatic break, UNIAN (6 August 2016)
  48. ^ Reynolds, Paul (2008-03-03). "Russia: World watching for any change". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  49. ^ The rifts behind Europe's gas row, BBC News (January 8, 2009). "Russian and Ukrainian officials have met to try to resolve the latest round of their dispute over payments for Russian gas, but the rhetoric still remains bitter and trenchant, in public at least, as Moscow blames Kiev, and Kiev blames Moscow. [...] Many in Ukraine and beyond believe that Moscow has periodically used its vast energy resources to bully its smaller, dependent neighbour. [...] But Moscow argues instead that it is internal squabbling amongst Ukraine's political elite that is to blame for the deadlock. "
  50. ^ Dmitri Trenin (March 4, 2014). "Welcome to Cold War II". Foreign Policy. Retrieved 2014-12-26.
  51. ^ Mauldin, John (29 October 2014). "The Colder War Has Begun". Forbes. Retrieved 2014-12-26.
  52. ^ Kendall, Bridget (12 November 2014). "Rhetoric hardens as fears mount of new Cold War". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-12-26.
  53. ^ "1. Religious affiliation". 10 May 2017. Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  54. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  55. ^ a b "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  56. ^ Kievan Rus Archived 2000-08-19 at the Wayback Machine, in The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition (2007)
  57. ^ Gumilev, Lev (2005). Ot Rusi k Rossii. AST. ISBN 5-17-012201-2.
  58. ^ Shambarov, Valery (2007). Kazachestvo Istoriya Volnoy Rusi. Algorithm Expo, Moscow. ISBN 978-5-699-20121-1.
  59. ^ Abdelal, R. (2005). National Purpose in the World Economy: Post-Soviet States in Comparative Perspective. Cornell University Press. p. 106. ISBN 9780801489778. Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  60. ^ a b Bassin, M.; Glebov, S.; Laruelle, M. (2015). Between Europe and Asia: The Origins, Theories, and Legacies of Russian Eurasianism. University of Pittsburgh Press. ISBN 9780822980919. Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  61. ^ a b Eternal Russia: Yeltsin, Gorbachev, and the Mirage of Democracy by Jonathan Steele, Harvard University Press, 1988, ISBN 978-0-674-26837-1 (p. 217)
  62. ^ "XII. СКОРПІОНИ НА УКРАЇНСЬКЕ СЛОВО. Іван Огієнко. Історія української літературної мови". Retrieved 2012-05-22.
  63. ^ Legvold, R. (2012). Russian Foreign Policy in the Twenty-first Century and the Shadow of the Past. Columbia University Press. p. 240. ISBN 9780231512176. Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  64. ^ Yushchenko Praises Guilty Verdict Against Soviet Leaders For Famine, Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (14 January 2010)
  65. ^ a b "Ukraine Special Weapons". Federation of American Scientists. Retrieved 2016-01-25.
  66. ^ Dahlburg, Decemb. "Ukraine Votes to Quit Soviet Union : Independence: More than 90% of Voters Approve Historic Break with Kremlin. The President-elect Calls for Collective Command of the Country's Nuclear Arsenal". LA Times. Retrieved 2014-04-15.
  67. ^ Norris, Robert S. (January–February 1992). "The Soviet Nuclear Archipelago". Arms Control Today. Arms Control Association. 22 (1): 24. JSTOR 23624674. (Subscription required (help)).
  68. ^ William C. Martel (1998). "Why Ukraine gave up nuclear weapons : nonproliferation incentives and disincentives". In Barry R. Schneider; William L. Dowdy. Pulling Back from the Nuclear Brink: Reducing and Countering Nuclear Threats. Psychology Press. pp. 88–104. ISBN 9780714648569. Retrieved 2014-08-06. There are some reports that Ukraine had established effective custody, but not operational control, of the cruise missiles and gravity bombs. ... By early 1994 the only barrier to Ukraine's ability to exercise full operational control over the nuclear weapons on missiles and bombers deployed on its soil was its inability to circumvent Russian permissive action links (PALs).
  69. ^ Alexander A. Pikayev (Spring–Summer 1994). "Post-Soviet Russia and Ukraine: Who can push the Button?" (PDF). The Nonproliferation Review. 1 (3). doi:10.1080/10736709408436550. Retrieved 2014-08-06.
  70. ^ Vasylenko, Volodymyr (15 December 2009). "On assurances without guarantees in a 'shelved document'". The Day. Retrieved 2014-03-18.
  71. ^ "Setting Past Aside, Russia and Ukraine Sign Friendship Treaty - The New York Times". Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  72. ^ "Deutsche Welle: Bound by treaty: Russia, Ukraine and Crimea". 2014-03-11. Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  73. ^ "Кабінет Міністрів України, Російська Федерація; Угода, Міжнародний документ від". 1999-10-08. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  74. ^ Molchanov, Mikhail A. (2002). Political culture and national identity in Russian-Ukrainian relations. Texas A&M University Press. pp. 235–6. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  75. ^ 2001 Political sketches: too early for summing up, Central European University (January 4, 2002)
  76. ^ Charles, Jonathan (2004-12-25). "Angry mood in eastern Ukraine - Voters in Russian-speaking eastern Ukraine will go to the polls on Sunday in an angry mood". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  77. ^ "Country profile: Ukraine". BBC News. 2012-04-26. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  78. ^ Gatehouse, Gabriel (2008-06-05). "BBC dragged into Ukraine TV furore". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  79. ^ "BBC 28 Jan 2008 Ukrainians dream of EU future". BBC News. 2008-01-28. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  80. ^ Fawkes, Helen (2004-06-18). "Ukraine drive to keep Russian off buses". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  81. ^ "In Ukrainian Lviv also want to demolish Soviet war memorials" (in Russian). 11 May 2007. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  82. ^ "Polish head rejects Putin attack", BBC News (December 24, 2004)
  83. ^ a b "Russians want Sevastopol to belong to Russia, poll shows". Unian news agency. 2008-05-23. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  84. ^ "Almost fourth of Russians believe Ukraine is an enemy – poll". Unian news agency. 9 May 2008. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  85. ^ a b "Russia in Ukraine missile threat". BBC News. 2008-02-12. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  86. ^ "Press Conference Following Talks with Spanish Prime Minister Jose Luis Rodriguez Zapatero". The Kremlin. 10 December 2004. Retrieved 2014-10-28.
  87. ^ "Q&A: Ukrainian parliamentary poll". BBC News. 2007-10-01. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  88. ^ "Ukraine divided over language row". BBC News. 2005-04-22. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  89. ^ Ragozin, Leonid (2004-11-22). "Ukraine's east-west showdown - The Ukrainian presidential election, plagued by bitter controversy and scandals, is seen as an east-west showdown". BBC News. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  90. ^ a b The Key to Kyiv by Adrian Karatnycky and Alexander J. Motyl, Council on Foreign Relations (May 3, 2009)
  91. ^ "Unian news agency 17 Jun 2008, Russian Foreign Ministry says Russian language in Ukraine suffers from pressure". 2008-06-17. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  92. ^ "Unian news agency 5 Jun 2008, Moscow Mayor calls on to take Crimea and Sevastopol from Ukraine". Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  93. ^ Chaly, Valeriy. "Unian news agency 10 Jun 2008, Ukrainian-Russian relations". Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  94. ^ "Unian news agency 23 May 2008, Ukrainian politicians never went to Russia to violate its constitution - Tarasiuk". 2008-05-23. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  95. ^ "Unian news agency 22 may 2008, Russia bars entry to Ukrainian politicians". 2008-05-22. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  96. ^ Foreign Affairs May/June 2007 Archived 2007-05-17 at the Wayback Machine, Yuliya Tymoshenko, Containing Russia
  97. ^ Russia's Next Target Could Be Ukraine by Leon Aron, Wall Street Journal, September 10, 2008
  98. ^ Ukrainian radars withdrawn form operation in Russia's interests to undergo technical maintenance, Kyiv Post (February 26, 2009)
  99. ^ Ukrainian army supported Georgian attack on South Ossetia, Russia Today (August 24, 2009)
  100. ^ "Georgian Crises broke apart the ruling "Orange" coalition". 2008-09-17. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  101. ^ "Tymoshenko Bloc, OU-PSD, And Lytvyn Bloc Sign Rada Coalition Agreement" Archived 2009-01-22 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrainian News Agency (December 16, 2008)
  102. ^ "Presidential Secretariat gives answer to Moscow". Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  103. ^ "Ukrainian Armed Forces to implement Yushchenko's decree on Russian ships". Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  104. ^ Ukrainians deny giving wartime help to Georgia. Associated Press. Archived October 9, 2008, at the Wayback Machine
  105. ^ General Prosecutor of Ukraine explains the presence of Ukrainian military personnel in Georgia (in Ukrainian)
  106. ^ Bush to back Ukraine's NATO hopes, BBC News (April 1, 2008)
  107. ^ Biden Says U.S. Still Backs Ukraine in NATO, New York Times (July 21, 2009)
  108. ^ Ukraine asks to join NATO membership action plan, UNIAN (January 16, 2008)
  109. ^ a b "Rogozin Sees Threat to Ukraine, Kommersant (December 01, 2008)". Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  110. ^ a b "Ukraine's envoy to NATO proposes Russian counterpart to focus on his problems". Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  111. ^ "NATO puts Russia ties ahead of Georgia, Ukraine – Russian envoy". Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  112. ^ "Путин не заявлял о том, что Украина не является государством. СТЕНОГРАММА - Новости Украины - Министр иностранных дел России Сергей Лавров утверждает, что Владимир Путин на саммите НАТО в Бухаресте рассказывал об общей сложной истории и культуре России и Украины. | СЕГОДНЯ". Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  113. ^ "Viewing cable 08USNATO290, UKRAINE, MAP, AND THE GEORGIA-RUSSIA CONFLICT". Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  114. ^ Russia’s Prime Minister Putin: Yuschenko Recalled Naftohaz Ukrainy’s Delegation From Talks With Gazprom On December 31, Ukrainian News Agency (January 8, 2009)
  115. ^ "Putin: Ukraine run by criminals who can't solve economic problems". Kyiv Post. 2009-01-08. Retrieved 2009-01-08.
  116. ^ "WRAPUP 11-EU seeks to finalise Russian gas monitoring deal". Reuters. 2009-01-09. Retrieved 2009-01-09.
  117. ^ Yuschenko Responds To Medvedev's Unfriendly Statement That Ukraine Must Compensate European Union For Losses During Gas Rows, Ukrainian News Agency (February 6, 2009)
  118. ^ Ukrainian president says Russia is to blame for halt in gas supplies to EU, Interfax-Ukraine (February 6, 2009)
  119. ^ Kyiv considers Russian president's statement about gas losses compensation unfriendly act, Interfax-Ukraine (February 6, 2009)
  120. ^ Ukraine Surprised With Medvedev’s Statement Obliging Ukraine To Compensate EU’s Losses For Termination Of Gas Supplies To Europe, Ukrainian News Agency (February 6, 2009)
  121. ^ a b "Russia suspicious of EU-Ukraine gas 'master plan'", Reuters (March 23, 2009)
  122. ^ "The Global Intelligence Files - UKRAINE/RUSSIA - WikiLeaks: Gryshchenko says Putin has low personal regard for Yanukovych". Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  123. ^ a b "Medvedev lambasts Ukraine leader". BBC News. 11 August 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-12.
  124. ^ "Address to the President of Ukraine Victor Yushchenko". Presidential Press and Information Office. 11 August 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-12.
  125. ^ "Kiev formally accepts new Russian ambassador to Ukraine". Kiev: RIA Novosti. 6 August 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-12.
  126. ^ (in Ukrainian) Лист Президента України Віктора Ющенка Президенту Російської Федерації Дмитру Медведєву, (August 13, 2009)
  127. ^ Yuschenko denies Medvedev's claims about Ukraine's anti-Russian policy, Interfax-Ukraine (August 13, 2009)
  128. ^ (in Ukrainian) Ющенко відповів Медведєву. Лист Yushchenko's response to Medvedev. Letter, Ukrayinska Pravda (August 09, 2009)
  129. ^ UPDATE 3-Russia's Medvedev wades into Ukraine polls, Reuters (August 11, 2009)
  130. ^ Ukraine has right to make its own choices, says US Department of State official, Interfax-Ukraine (August 13, 2009)
  131. ^ Lavrov: Russian-Ukrainian relations should not be over-politicized, Kyiv Post (October 7, 2009)
  132. ^ Moscow gives no response to Kyiv’s proposal to organize summit, says Lavrov, Interfax-Ukraine (October 7, 2009)
  133. ^ Lavrov: contacts between Russian, Ukrainian foreign ministries to continue without pauses, Kyiv Post (October 7, 2009)
  134. ^ Kyiv, Moscow to gradually abandon bans on entry for certain individuals, Kyiv Post (December 2, 2009)
  135. ^ Russia, Ukraine agree on naval-base-for-gas deal, CNN (April 21, 2010)
  136. ^ a b Update: Ukraine, Russia ratify Black Sea naval lease, Kyiv Post (April 27, 2010)
  137. ^ "Kiev gets new gas deal, opposition furious". 2010-04-22. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  138. ^ "May 17 visit of Medvedev to Kiev". Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  139. ^ "Medvedev in Ukraine: 'Witch hunt is over'". 2010-05-17. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  140. ^ Merger with the Russian monopolies is not the most interesting (in Ukrainian)
  141. ^ На Украине развернут лагеря для желающих воевать в Сирии (In Ukraine will be established camps for volunteers to fight in Syria. June 7, 2013.
  142. ^ Russian & Ukrainian Volunteers Pledged for Syrian Army. Syria Report. May 31, 2013.
  143. ^ The Voice of Russia: Russian-Ukrainian volunteer corps going to Syria to fight. Voice of Russia. Kyiv Post. August 27, 2013.
  144. ^ Russian & Ukrainian Volunteers Pledged for Syrian Army. Syria Report (youtube). May 31, 2013.
  145. ^ Російсько-український добровольчий корпус може відправитися воювати за Дамаск (Russian-Ukrainian volunteer corps may be deployed to fight for Damascus). Mirror Weekly. May 30, 2013.
  146. ^ Russian-Ukrainian volunteer corps going to Syria to fight. Voice of Russia. (cached)
  147. ^ «Подполковник разведки» Сергей Разумовский, агитирующий воевать в Сирии - это кремлёвский провокатор ("Intelligence Lieutenant Colonel" Sergei Rozumovsky who agitates to fight in Syria is a Kremlin's provocateur). Internet Freedom Organization. June 11, 2013.
  148. ^ "В Азовском море столкнулись российский и украинский корабли: минимум 2 человека погибли". REGNUM News Agency.
  149. ^ Two Ukrainians killed, two missing after fishing launch collides with Russian border guards' motorboat in Azov Sea, says Ukraine's Border Service. Kyiv Post. July 18, 2013.
  150. ^ "Foreign Ministry: Russia investigating case against Ukrainian fisherman who survived collision in Azov Sea". Kyiv Post. July 31, 2013.
  151. ^ "Survival of Azov Sea incident claims Russian border guards rammed their vessel". Kyiv Post. August 5, 2013.
  152. ^ "Ukrainian poachers tried to ram their vessel into Russian border guards' motorboat in Sea of Azov - source". Kyiv Post. July 19, 2013.
  153. ^ "Ukraine says Russia had no right to charge Ukrainian fisherman". Kyiv Post. August 10, 2013.
  154. ^ "The only survived Ukrainian fisherman is held by force in Russia and is threatened with imprisonment". Segodnya. July 30, 2013.
  155. ^ "The Prosecutor of the Russian Federation took on proceedings of the Ukrainian sailor who survived in the Azov Sea". Mirror Weekly. August 12, 2013.
  156. ^ "Ukraine's Employers Federation: Russia's customs service halts all Ukrainian imports". Kyiv Post. August 14, 2013.
  157. ^ Russia sets off trade war to prevent Ukraine from signing agreement with EU, says UDAR. Kyiv Post. August 14, 2013.
    "Ukraine Leader Ignores Putin Warning on EU Path". Voice of America. August 24, 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
    "Russia hits at Ukraine with chocolate war". EurActiv. 14 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
    "Trading insults". The Economist Newspaper. 24 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
    "Putin warns Ukraine against EU pact". euobserver. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
    "Ukraine PM tells Russia to accept "reality" of EU trade deal". Reuters. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
    "Putin 'deserves medal' for pushing Ukraine towards EU". Euractiv. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
    "О комплексе мер по вовлечению Украины в евразийский интеграционный процесс". Зеркало недели. Украина. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 2013-09-01.
    Does Russia Have a Secret Plan for Ukraine?, The Atlantic (21 August 2013)
    Caught in a Zeitnot, The Ukrainian Week (6 August 2013)
  158. ^ Klimkin: Russia trying to force renegotiation of Minsk deals, Kyiv Post (18 January 2015)
  159. ^ Drunk Russians on tractor illegally entered Ukraine. State Border Service of Ukraine. "Ukrayinska Pravda". August 28, 2013.
  160. ^ Drunk Russians on tractor illegally entered Ukraine. 5 channel. August 28, 2013.
  161. ^ Ukraine to be observer in Russia-led trade bloc, Reuters (31 May 2013)
  162. ^ a b Russia cuts Ukraine gas price by a third, BBC News (17 December 2013)
  163. ^ Ukraine to issue Eurobonds; Russia will purchase $15 bln, says Russian finance minister, Interfax-Ukraine (17 December 2013)
  164. ^ "Ukraine still wants historic pact with EU". Oman Observer. Archived from the original on 2013-11-28. Retrieved 2013-11-27.
    Ukraine police dismantle Kiev protest camps, BBC News (9 December 2013)
  165. ^ Ukraine media see Kremlin pressure over EU, BBC News (22 November 2013)
    Q&A: Stand-off in Ukraine over EU agreement, BBC News (29 December 2013)
    Analysis: Russia's carrot-and-stick battle for Ukraine, BBC news (17 December 2013)
  166. ^ Eased Russian customs rules to save Ukraine $1.5 bln in 2014, says minister, Interfax-Ukraine (18 December 2013)
    Russia to lift restrictions on Ukrainian pipe imports - Ukrainian ministry, Interfax-Ukraine (18 December 2013)
    Russia tightens customs rules to force Ukraine into union, Reuters (15 August 2013)
  167. ^ a b "Ukrainian parliament appeals to Budapest Memorandum signatories". Interfax Ukraine. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-01.
  168. ^ "Vladimir Putin prepares authorisation of military force in Ukraine". The Telegraph. 1 March 2014
  169. ^ Yanukovych denounces Ukrainian elections as 'illegitimate'
  170. ^ Door: Pieter Sabel, Heleen van Lier, Sacha Kester. "Teruglezen: Feest op de Krim na eerste uitslagen referendum". De Volkskrant. Retrieved 2014-10-23.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  171. ^ "Явка на референдуме в Крыму достигла 79%". Retrieved 2014-10-23.
  172. ^ Crimean parliament formally applies to join Russia, BBC, March 17, 2014
  173. ^ "U.S., EU set sanctions as Putin recognizes Crimea sovereignty". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-10-23.
  174. ^ Putin Recognizes Crimea Secession, Defying the West, New York Times, March 17, 2014
  175. ^ "Russia begins returning Ukraine naval vessels and aircraft". Jane's Defence Weekly. 12 April 2014. Archived from the original on April 18, 2014.
  176. ^ Seleznev, Denis (6 August 2014). "Флот Украины 2014 - на что сейчас способны остатки украинского флота". (in Russian). Retrieved 30 October 2014.
  177. ^ a b "Мексика вернёт Украине судно, захваченное Россией во время аннексии Крыма". (in Russian). 18 February 2016. Archived from the original on 22 July 2016. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
  178. ^ "Ukraine crisis: Russia and sanctions". BBC. December 19, 2014. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
  179. ^ "Russia says has expanded sanctions against U.S., Canada". Reuters. May 8, 2014. Retrieved 2014-05-14.
  180. ^ "Russische "Visasperrliste" vom RAM am 27.5. an EU-Delegation Moskau übergeben" [Russian visa bans] (PDF) (in German). Yle. 26 May 2015.
  181. ^ "European Union anger at Russian travel blacklist". BBC News. 30 May 2015.
  182. ^ Charbboneau, Louis (27 March 2014). "U.N. General Assembly declares Crimea secession vote invalid". Reuters. Retrieved 2014-03-30.
  183. ^
  184. ^ Sukhov, Oleg (March 28, 2014). "From Olympics to Crimea, Putin Loyalist Kozak Entrusted with Kremlin Mega-Projects". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2016-03-04.
  185. ^ Dawisha, Karen (2014). Putin's Kleptocracy: Who Owns Russia?. Simon & Schuster. pp. 87, 377. ISBN 978-1-4767-9519-5.
  186. ^ Hobson, Peter (14 April 2014). "Sanctioned Bank Rossiya to Service $36Bln Domestic Electricity Market".
  187. ^ "Ukraine suspends military cooperation with Russia". IANS. Retrieved 2017-08-11. Ukrainian First Deputy Prime Minister Vitaly Yarema Friday said his country is suspending military cooperation with Russia over Moscow's troops movements near the Ukrainian border. [...] Although the two ex-Soviet neighbours have very close links in the military-industrial complex, Kiev was forced to stop supplying defence goods to Russia as these could be used against Ukraine if military tensions arise, Xinhua reported citing Yarema.
  188. ^ Monitor Says Ukraine Cease-Fire, Weapons Withdrawal Not Being Honored, Radio Free Europe (22 February 2017)
    East Ukraine ceasefire due to take effect, BBC News (20 February 2017)
  189. ^ ATO HQ: Truce disrupted, no conditions for withdrawal of arms, UNIAN (20 February 2017)
  190. ^ (in Ukrainian) In the area of ATU decreased military activity - Staff, Ukrayinska Pravda (20 February 2017)
  191. ^ Ukraine rebels agree to new indefinite truce, SBS Australia (24 December 2016)
  192. ^ Latest from OSCE Special Monitoring Mission (SMM) to Ukraine, based on information received as of 19:30, 4 January 2017, OSCE (5 January 2017)
  193. ^ Militants shell Ukrainian army positions 32 times in past 24 hours, Interfax-Ukraine (6 January 2017)
  194. ^ Kiev forces violate ceasefire three times over past 24 hours — news agency, TASS news agency (3 January 2017)
  195. ^ Ukraine cannot normalize relations with Russia without return of Crimea, says Poroshenko Archived 2014-06-27 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (26 June 2014)
  196. ^ "Russians Will Need Passport to Enter Ukraine". The Moscow Times. Published on February 3, 2015.
  197. ^ Ukraine Lawmakers Suspend Military Cooperation With Russia. MAY 21. New York Times.
  198. ^ "Ukraine crisis: US suspends military cooperation with Russia". The Telegraph
  199. ^ "Ukraine suspends military and technical cooperation with Russia, says Yatsenyuk". May. 20, 2015. Ukraine Today
  200. ^ Pavel Aksenov. Ukraine crisis: Why a lack of parts has hamstrung Russia's military. 8 August 2015.
  201. ^ Olena Gordiienko. Trade war with Russia hurts Ukraine less. Aug. 21, 2015.
  202. ^ Ban due on direct flights between Russia and Ukraine. BBC News. 24 October 2015.
  203. ^ Ukraine closes airspace to all Russian planes. BBC News. 25 November 2015.
  204. ^ "Ukraine's Lawmakers Vote To Allow Trade Embargo Against Russia". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. 2015-12-24. Retrieved 2015-12-25.
  205. ^ Valentina Pop. Russia Hits Ukraine With Tariffs Over Imminent Trade Deal With EU. The Wall Street Journal. Dec. 21, 2015
  206. ^ a b (in Russian) Actor Zelensky criticized the SBU because of the ban on the series "Matchmakers", RIA Novosti (24 November 2017)
    (in Russian) SC will check whether Zelensky financed the Ukrainian army, Komsomolskaya Pravda (02/05/15)
  207. ^ Number of Russians crossing border with Ukraine on decline – border service, UNIAN (15 August 2016)
  208. ^ "Some Russian ships stop cargoes to Ukraine after tanker detained: sources". Reuters. 15 August 2018.
  209. ^ "Russians from Nord ship swapped for Ukrainian sailors". UNIAN. 30 October 2018.
  210. ^ Merkel, Macron demand Russia immediately free captive Ukrainian sailors, UNIAN (28 December 2018)
  211. ^ "Russia 'fires on and seizes Ukraine ships'". BBC News. 25 November 2018. Retrieved 25 November 2018.
  212. ^ "Tensions spark Ukraine martial law talks". BBC News. 26 November 2018. Retrieved 26 November 2018.
  213. ^ "Russia puts captured Ukrainians on TV". BBC News. 27 November 2018. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  214. ^ Almost 1,650 Russian citizens refused entry into Ukraine amid martial law – Ukrainian Border Service, Interfax-Ukraine (December 26, 2018)
  215. ^ a b "State Border Service after completing martial law did not let over 800 Russians". Glavcom (in Ukrainian). 11 January 2019.
  216. ^ As Ukraine Erects Defenses, Critics Fear Expensive Failure. Moscow Times. May 6, 2015
  217. ^ a b Editorial, Reuters. "Kiev tightens requirements for Russians travelling to Ukraine". Retrieved 2 April 2018.
  218. ^ Birnbaum, Michael (15 August 2014). "Ukraine factories equip Russian military despite support for rebels". The Washington Post.
  219. ^ a b Ukraine bars defence exports to Russia, Jane's Information Group (31 March 2014)
  220. ^ a b Ukraine and Russia: The Post-Soviet Transition by Roman Solchanyk, Rowman & Littlefield, 2000, ISBN 978-0-7425-1018-0 (page 22)
  221. ^ Contemporary Ukraine: Dynamics of Post-Soviet Transformation by Taras Kuzio, M.E. Sharpe, 1998, ISBN 978-0-7656-0224-4 (page 35)
  222. ^ Zurabov asserts that Russians and Ukrainians are single nation, UNIAN (June 15, 2010)
  223. ^ Ukraine and Russia: The Post-Soviet Transition by Roman Solchanyk, Rowman & Littlefield, 2000, ISBN 978-0-7425-1018-0 (page 21)
  224. ^ "Ukraine-Russia tensions are simmering in Crimea", The Washington Post (October 18, 2009)
  225. ^ a b Russia, Ukraine relationship going sour, say polls, Kyiv Post (October 2, 2008)
  226. ^ a b "56% Of Russians Disrespect Ukraine". Kyiv Post. June 17, 2009.
  227. ^ a b c "Russian attitudes not as icy towards Ukraine". Kyiv Post. 15 October 2009.
  228. ^ a b c d "Poll: Russians like Ukrainians half as much as the other way round". Kyiv Post. 6 November 2009.
  229. ^ a b c d "Poll:Ukrainians still positively disposed to Russia". Kyiv Post. 2 March 2012.
  230. ^ "Russia's Friends and Enemies". Levada Center. 22 June 2015.
  231. ^ Envisioning Eastern Europe: Postcommunist Cultural Studies by Michael D. Kennedy, University of Michigan Press, 1995, ISBN 978-0-472-10556-4 (page 138)
    Russia and the New States of Eurasia: The Politics of Upheaval by Karen Dawisha, Cambridge University Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-521-45895-5 (page 65)
    Perceptions of Security: Public Opinion and Expert Assessments in Europe's New Democracies by Richard Smoke, Manchester University Press, 1996, ISBN 978-0-7190-4813-5 (page 238)
    Vote brings wave of recognition, The Ukrainian Weekly (8 December 1991)
  232. ^ Russians Regret Collapse of Soviet Union, Angus Reid Global Monitor (01/01/06)
  233. ^ Russians, Ukrainians Evoke Soviet Union Archived 2012-06-16 at the Wayback Machine, Angus Reid Global Monitor (01/02/05)
  234. ^ Russians Would Welcome Association with Ukraine, Angus Reid Global Monitor (05/20/07)
  235. ^ Russians Ponder Unification with Ukraine, Belarus, Angus Reid Global Monitor (10/02/05)
  236. ^ Poll: Most Russians want mutually beneficial relations with Ukraine, Kyiv Post (1 November 2011)
  237. ^ a b "Ukrainians and Russians support independence, favor greater openness". Kyiv Post. 19 November 2012.
  238. ^ a b Украина: внимание и оценки. Levada Center (in Russian). 5 February 2015.
  239. ^ "Russians see Ukraine as an illegitimate state". Washington Post. 20 May 2015.
  240. ^ "The Ukrainian Crisis". Levada Center. 10 June 2015.
  241. ^ Why Ukraine will always be better than Russia, Kyiv Post (June 12, 2009)
  242. ^ 32% of Ukrainians call Russia brotherly country – poll, Interfax-Ukraine (12 June 2013)
  243. ^ Russia’s Global Image Negative amid Crisis in Ukraine. JULY 9, 2014.
  244. ^ NATO publics blame Russia for Ukrainian Crisis, but reluctant to provide military aid, Pew Research Center (10 June 2015)
  245. ^ Hovorukha, Serhiy; Kanevskyi, Dmytro (23 December 2014). "DW-Trend: українці вважають, що між РФ і Україною точиться війна" [DW-Trend: Ukrainians believe there is a war between Russia and Ukraine]. Deutsche Welle (in Ukrainian).
  246. ^ Ray, Julie; Esipova, Neli (15 December 2014). "Ukrainian Approval of Russia's Leadership Dives Almost 90%". Gallup.
  247. ^ Navalny, Alexei (23 September 2014). Соцопрос ФБК по Харьковской и Одесской областям. Европа, Россия, Новороссия [Survey of Kharkov and Odessa Oblasts] (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2014-09-23.
  248. ^ Лише 3% українців хочуть приєднання їх області до Росії [Only 3% of Ukrainians want their region to become part of Russia] (in Ukrainian). Zerkalo Nedeli. 3 January 2015.
  249. ^ "1654 March Articles". Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  250. ^ a b c "Ukraine and creation of USSR". Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  251. ^ "Creation of USSR". 2010-10-27. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  252. ^ Ignatius, David (March 2, 2014), "Historical claim shows why Crimea matters to Russia", PunditFact by Tampa Bay Times'
  253. ^ Cohen, Josh (Feb 24, 2014), "Will Putin Seize Crimea?", The Moscow Times
  254. ^ Siegelbaum, Lewis, "1954: The Gift of Crimea",, retrieved 2014-03-03
  255. ^ a b c "Treaty between the RSFSR and UkrSSR". 2014-02-27. Archived from the original on 2013-04-16. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  256. ^ "Readout of President Obama's Call with President Putin" (Press release). The White House. 1 March 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-26.
  257. ^ Editorial Board (28 February 2014). "Condemnation isn't enough for Russian actions in Crimea". Washington Post.
  258. ^ That, Corinne Ton; Commisso, Christina (22 March 2014). "In Kyiv, Harper calls for 'complete reversal' of Crimea annexation". CTV News.
  259. ^ Stevenson, Chris; Williams, Oscar (1 March 2014). "Ukraine crisis: David Cameron joins Angela Merkel in expressing anxiety and warns that 'the world is watching'". The Independent.
  260. ^ "Russia suspended from G8 over annexation of Crimea, Group of Seven nations says | National Post". Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  261. ^ "404". Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  262. ^ Fleetwood, Blake (June 30, 2014). "Too Bad Ukraine Didn't Keep Its 2,000 Nuclear Weapons". The Huffington Post. New York City. Retrieved 2016-01-25.
  263. ^ Specter, Michael (June 1, 2007), "Setting Past Aside, Russia and Ukraine Sign Friendship Treaty", The New York Times
  264. ^ a b State Duma approves denunciation of Russian-Ukrainian agreements on Black Sea Fleet, ITAR-TASS (31 March 2014)
  266. ^ Ukraine's government backs termination of agreement signed in 2003 with Russia on liquidation, return of aircraft at repair plants, Interfax-Ukraine (23 November 2016)
  267. ^ Ukraine terminates broadcasting deal with Russia, UNIAN (30 November 2016)
  268. ^ Oleksandr Turchynov (20 March 2014). Декларація "Про боротьбу за звільнення України" [Declaration "On the struggle for the liberation of Ukraine"] (in Ukrainian). Parliament of Ukraine. Retrieved 2014-04-24.
  269. ^ Fred Dews (19 March 2014). "NATO Secretary-General: Russia's Annexation of Crimea Is Illegal and Illegitimate". Brookings. Retrieved 2015-03-08.
  270. ^ Bruno Waterfield; Peter Dominiczak; David Blair; The Daily Telegraph (24 March 2014). "Russia Temporarily Kicked Out of G8 Club of Rich Countries". Business Insider. Retrieved 2015-03-08.
  271. ^ "UN General Assembly adopts resolution affirming Ukraine's territorial integrity". China Central Television. 28 March 2014. Retrieved 2015-03-08.
  272. ^ "United Nations A/RES/68/262 General Assembly" (PDF). United Nations. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 2014-04-24.

External linksEdit