Chernihiv Oblast (Ukrainian: Чернігівська область, translit. Chernihivs’ka oblast’; also referred to as Chernihivshchyna - Ukrainian: Чернігівщина) is an oblast (province) of northern Ukraine. The administrative center of the oblast is the city of Chernihiv. Within the Oblast are 1,511 settlements of various sizes ranging from large cities to very small villages. Population: 991,294 (2020 est.)
|Established||15 October 1932|
|Largest cities||Chernihiv, Nizhyn, Pryluky|
|• Governor||Anna Kovalenko|
|• Oblast council||64 seats|
|• Chairperson||Ihor Vdovenko|
|• Total||31,865 km2 (12,303 sq mi)|
|Area rank||Ranked 3rd|
|• Density||31/km2 (81/sq mi)|
|• Official language(s)||Ukrainian|
|• Average salary||UAH 8857 (2019)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Area code||+380 46|
|ISO 3166 code||UA-74|
|• Regional cities||3|
The total area of the province is around 31,900 km².
The oblast is bordered on the west by the Kyiv Reservoir of the Dnieper River and Kyiv Oblast, by the Sumy Oblast to the east, and the Poltava Oblast to the south. The northern border of the oblast is part of Ukraine's international border abutting Belarus's Homyel Voblast in the north-west and the Russian Bryansk Oblast in the north-east, respectively.
Chernihiv Oblast was created as part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic on 15 October 1932.
The capital city of Chernihiv has known human settlement for over 2,000 years, according to archaeological excavations. The Chernihiv Oblast comprises a very important historical region, notable as early as the Kievan Rus' period, when the cities of Chernihiv and Novhorod-Siverskyi were frequently mentioned. The city of Chernihiv was the second most important Ukrainian city during the Rus' period of Ukrainian history, often serving as a major regional capital. Danylo of Chernihiv wrote of his pilgrimage to Jerusalem during this era. The numerous architectural monuments of the city bear witness to the invasions suffered, including those by the Tatars/Mongols, Lithuanians, Poles, and Nazis. On the territory of the region took place numerous tragic events such as Battle of Kruty, Tragedy of Kryukivka, and many others.
The following data incorporates the number of each type of administrative divisions of the Chernihiv Oblast:
- Administrative Centre - 1 (Chernihiv)
- Raions — 22;
- City raions — 3 (including the Oblast's administrative centre);
- Settlements — 1534, including:
- Selsovets — 525.
The local administration of the oblast is controlled by the Chernihiv Oblast Rada. The governor of the oblast is the Chernihiv Oblast Rada speaker, appointed by the President of Ukraine.
- Main cities
- Chernihiv* (294,727)
- Nizhyn* (72,422)
- Pryluky* (58,456)
- Bakhmach (18,798)
- Nosivka (14,185)
- Novhorod-Siversky* (14,025)
- – regional municipalities
- Other cities
- Borzna (historical city)
- Kozelets (historical city)
- Liubech (historical city of Medieval Ages)
- Baturyn (Hetman residence and fort)
The raions (districts) of the Chernihiv Oblast include:
The current estimated population of the oblast is around 1,055,673 (as of 2015).
The province has experienced long-term population decline. The population has fallen 23% from the 1959 figure of 1,554,000, the steepest decline of any Ukrainian oblast. It has the lowest population density in the country.
- 0-14 years: 12.9% (male 70,680/female 67,487)
- 15-64 years: 68.4% (male 352,230/female 378,864)
- 65 years and over: 18.7% (male 61,722/female 138,277) (2013 official)
- total: 42.8 years
- male: 38.5 years
- female: 46.9 years (2013 official)
The economy of the Chernihiv Oblast mostly deals with petroleum and natural gas extraction, transport, machinery, tobacco and textile industry. A major tobacco factory is situated in Pryluky. Cities of Bakhmach and Nizhyn are the important railway junctions on the route from Russia and Belarus to South-Eastern Europe. There are notable machinery and electronics industries in Chernihiv. Chernihiv also has a beer brewery producing beer under the name "Chernihivske".
The religion among believers in the oblast is overwhelmingly Eastern Orthodox. A substantial percentage of the population is atheist. Small minorities of Ukrainian Catholics, Roman Catholics (including the descendants of earlier Polish colonists), and recent converts to Protestantism are also present.
Culture and tourist attractionsEdit
There are a few outstanding historical Orthodox churches and buildings in Chernihiv, Novhorod-Siverskyi, Liubech, Nizhyn (Nezhyn) and Koselets' (a city of Ancient Rus', older than Kyiv). Nizhyn is an historical cossack city and home to a university.
Chernihiv region was famous for its specific style of folk icon-painting. Brightness and realistic depictions of the saints were typical for it, with red and hot yellow paints used. The icons were decorated by flowers which reminded of Slavonic pre-Christian traditions. The icons from Chernihiv region were spread outside its territory. Many of them are preserved in the Museum of Ukrainian home icons of the Radomysl Castle.
Most of Ukraine's oblasts are named after their capital cities, officially referred to as "oblast centers" (Ukrainian: обласний центр, translit. oblasnyi tsentr). The name of each oblast is a relative adjective, formed by adding a feminine suffix to the name of respective centre city: Chernihiv is the centre of the Chernihivs’ka oblast’ (Chernihiv Oblast). Most oblasts are also sometimes referred to in a feminine noun form, following the convention of traditional regional place names, ending with the suffix "-shchyna", as is the case with the Chernihiv Oblast, Chernihivshchyna.
- Syvak, Nina; Ponomarenko, Valerii; Khodzinska, Olha; Lakeichuk, Iryna (2011). Veklych, Lesia (ed.). "Toponymic Guidelines for Map and Other Editors for International Use" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. scientific consultant Iryna Rudenko; reviewed by Nataliia Kizilowa; translated by Olha Khodzinska. Kyiv: DerzhHeoKadastr and Kartographia. p. 20. ISBN 978-966-475-839-7. Retrieved 6 October 2020.
- (in Ukrainian) Zelensky introduced the new head of the Chernihiv Regional State Administration, Ukrayinska Pravda (15 October 2020)
- "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
- Kardash, Peter. Ukraine and Ukrainians. Ed. Peter Lockwood. Melbourne: Fortuna Publishers, 1988.
- (1972) Історіа міст і сіл Української CCP - Чернігівська область (History of Towns and Villages of the Ukrainian SSR - Chernihiv Oblast), Kiev. (in Ukrainian)
- Information Card of the Region - Official site of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine
- Богомолець. О. "Замок-музей Радомисль на Шляху Королів Via Regia". — Київ, 2013
- Very detailed map of Chernigov Guberniya as in 1910 Latinised placenames
- Chernihiv Oblast State Administration (in Ukrainian)
- patent.net.ua - Symbols of Chernihiv Oblast