Romanization of Ukrainian
The romanization or Latinization of Ukrainian is the representation of the Ukrainian language using Latin letters. Ukrainian is natively written in its own Ukrainian alphabet, which is based on the Cyrillic script. Romanization may be employed to represent Ukrainian text or pronunciation for non-Ukrainian readers, on computer systems that cannot reproduce Cyrillic characters, or for typists who are not familiar with the Ukrainian keyboard layout. Methods of romanization include transliteration, representing written text, and transcription, representing the spoken word.
Transliteration is the letter-for-letter representation of text using another writing system. Rudnyckyj classified transliteration systems into the scholarly system, used in academic and especially linguistic works, and practical systems, used in administration, journalism, in the postal system, in schools, etc. The scholarly or scientific system is used internationally, with very little variation, while the various practical methods of transliteration are adapted to the orthographical conventions of other languages, like English, French, German, etc.
Depending on the purpose of the transliteration it may be necessary to be able to reconstruct the original text, or it may be preferable to have a transliteration which sounds like the original language when read aloud.
International scholarly systemEdit
Also called scientific transliteration, this system is most often seen in linguistic publications on Slavic languages. It is purely phonemic, meaning each character represents one meaningful unit of sound, and is based on the Croatian Latin alphabet. It was codified in the 1898 Prussian Instructions for libraries, or Preußische Instruktionen (PI). It was later adopted by the International Organization for Standardization, with minor differences, as ISO/R 9.
Representing all of the necessary diacritics on computers requires Unicode, Latin-2, Latin-4, or Latin-7 encoding. Other Slavic based romanizations occasionally seen are those based on the Slovak alphabet or the Polish alphabet, which include symbols for palatalized consonants.
Library of Congress systemEdit
The ALA-LC Romanization Tables were first discussed by the American Library Association in 1885, and published in 1904 and 1908, including rules for romanizing Church Slavic, the pre-reform Russian alphabet, and Serbo-Croatian. Revised tables including Ukrainian were published in 1941,, and remain in use virtually unchanged according to the latest 2011 release. This system is used to represent bibliographic information by US and Canadian libraries, by the British Library since 1975, and in North American publications.
Many English-language publications make accommodations for readability, and use a “modified ALA-LC system” in running text, omitting the prime mark (′) for the soft sign (ь) and ligatures for digraphs (as in i͡e for є), and modifying initial iotated vowels (e.g., rendering I͡a-, I͡e-, I͡o-, or I͡u- as Ya-, Ye-, Yo-, or Yu-) and masculine endings in personal names (e.g., -yĭ and -iĭ rendered as -y). For citing bibliographic sources, the same publications preserve precision by using stricter ALA-LC transliteration, although they may still omit ligatures in this context. For example, the name Віктор Єленський is precisely romanized Viktor I͡elens′kyĭ, but might appear as Viktor Ielenskyi in a citation, or as Victor Yelensky in body copy.
Requires Unicode for connecting diacritics, but only plain ASCII characters for a simplified version.
British Standard 2979:1958, from BSI, is used by the Oxford University Press. A variation is used by the British Museum and British Library, but since 1975 their new acquisitions have been catalogued using Library of Congress transliteration.
BGN/PCGN romanization is a series of standards approved by the United States Board on Geographic Names and Permanent Committee on Geographical Names for British Official Use. Pronunciation is intuitive for English-speakers. For Ukrainian, the former BGN/PCGN system was adopted in 1965, but superseded there by the Ukrainian National System in 2019. A modified version is also mentioned in the Oxford Style Manual.
Requires only ASCII characters if optional separators are not used.
GOST (1971, 1983)/Derzhstandart (1995)Edit
The Soviet Union's GOST, COMECON's SEV, and Ukraine's Derzhstandart are government standards bodies of the former Eurasian communist countries. They published a series of romanization systems for Ukrainian, which were replaced by ISO 9:1995. For details, see GOST 16876-71.
ISO 9 is a standard from the International Organization for Standardization. It supports most national Cyrillic alphabets in a single transliteration table. Each Cyrillic character is represented by exactly one unique Latin character, so the transliteration is reliably reversible. This was originally derived from the Scholarly system in 1954, and is meant to be usable by readers of most European languages.
The 1995 revision considers only graphemes and disregards phonemic differences. So, for example, г (Ukrainian He or Russian Ge) is always represented by the transliteration g; ґ (Ukrainian letter Ge) is represented by g̀.
Representing all of the necessary diacritics on computers requires Unicode, and a few characters are rarely present in computer fonts, for example g-grave: g̀.
Ukrainian National transliterationEdit
This is the official system of Ukraine, also employed by the United Nations and many countries' foreign services. It is currently widely used to represent Ukrainian geographic names, which were almost exclusively romanized from Russian before Ukraine's independence in 1991, and for personal names in passports. It is based on English orthography, and requires only ASCII characters with no diacritics.
Its first version was codified in Decision No. 9 of the Ukrainian Committee on Issues of Legal Terminology on April 19, 1996, stating that the system is binding for the transliteration of Ukrainian names in English in legislative and official acts.
A new official system was introduced for transliteration of Ukrainian personal names in Ukrainian passports in 2007.
An updated 2010 version became the system is used for transliterating all proper names and was approved as Resolution 55 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, January 27, 2010. This modified earlier laws and brought together a unified system for official documents, publication of cartographic works, signs and indicators of inhabited localities, streets, stops, subway stations, etc.
It has been adopted internationally. The 27th session of the UN Group of Experts on Geographical Names (UNGEGN) held in New York 30 July and 10 August 2012 after a report by the State Agency of Land Resources of Ukraine (now known as Derzhheokadastr: Ukraine State Service of Geodesy, Cartography and Cadastre) experts approved the Ukrainian system of romanization. The BGN/PCGN jointly adopted the system in 2020.
Romanization for other languages than EnglishEdit
Romanization intended for readers of other languages than English is usually transcribed phonetically into the familiar orthography. For example, y, kh, ch, sh, shch for anglophones may be transcribed j, ch, tsch, sch, schtsch for German readers (for letters й, х, ч, ш, щ), ir it may be rendered in Latin letters according to the normal orthography of another Slavic language, such as Polish or Croatian (such as the established scholarly system, which is described above).
Ad hoc romanizationEdit
Users of public-access computers or mobile text messaging services sometimes improvise informal romanization due to limitations in keyboard or character set. These may include both sound-alike and look-alike letter substitutions. Example: YKPAIHCbKA ABTOPKA for "УКРАЇНСЬКА АВТОРКА". See also Volapuk encoding.
This system uses the available character set.
Ukrainian telegraph codeEdit
For telegraph transmission. Each separate Ukrainian letter had a 1:1 equivalence to a Latin letter. Latin Q, W, V, and X are equivalent to Ukrainian Я (or sometimes Щ), В, Ж, Ь. Other letters are transcribed phonetically. This equivalency is used in building the KOI8-U table.
Transcription is the representation of the spoken word. Phonological, or phonemic, transcription represents the phonemes, or meaningful sounds of a language, and is useful to describe the general pronunciation of a word. Phonetic transcription represents every single sound, or phone, and can be used to compare different dialects of a language. Both methods can use the same sets of symbols, but linguists usually denote phonemic transcriptions by enclosing them in slashes / ... /, while phonetic transcriptions are enclosed in square brackets [ ... ].
The International Phonetic Alphabet precisely represents pronunciation. Requires a special Unicode font.
Conventional romanization of proper namesEdit
In many contexts, it is common to use a modified system of transliteration that strives to be read and pronounced naturally by anglophones. Such transcriptions are also used for the surnames of people of Ukrainian ancestry in English-speaking countries (personal names have often been translated to equivalent or similar English names, e.g., "Alexander" for Oleksandr, "Terry" for Taras).
Typically such a modified transliteration is based on the ALA-LC, or Library of Congress (in North America), or, less commonly, the British Standard system. Such a simplified system usually omits diacritics and ligatures (tie-bars) from, e.g., i͡e, ï or ĭ, often simplifies -yĭ and -iĭ word endings to "-y", omits romanizing the Ukrainian soft sign (ь) and apostrophe (’), and may substitute ya, ye, yu, yo for ia, ie, iu, io at the beginnings of words. It may also simplify doubled letters. Unlike in the English language where an apostrophe is punctuation, in the Ukrainian language it is a letter. Therefore sometimes Rus’ is translated with an apostrophe, even when the apostrophe is dropped for most other names and words.
Conventional transliterations can reflect the history of a person or place. Many well-known spellings are based on transcriptions into another Latin alphabet, such as the German or Polish. Others are transcribed from equivalent names in other languages, for example Ukrainian Pavlo ("Paul") may be called by the Russian equivalent Pavel, Ukrainian Kyiv by the Russian equivalent Kiev.
The employment of romanization systems can become complex. For example, the English translation of Kubijovyč's Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopædia uses a modified Library of Congress (ALA-LC) system as outlined above for Ukrainian and Russian names—with the exceptions for endings or doubled consonants applying variously to personal and geographic names. For technical reasons, maps in the Encyclopedia follow different conventions. Names of persons are anglicized in the encyclopedia's text, but also presented in their original form in the index. Various geographic names are presented in their anglicized, Russian, or both Ukrainian and Polish forms, and appear in several forms in the index. Scholarly transliteration is used in linguistics articles. The Encyclopedia's explanation of its transliteration and naming convention occupies 2-1/2 pages.
Tables of romanization systemsEdit
|Cyrillic||Scholarly*||ALA-LC†||British‡||BGN/PCGN (pre-2019)**||ISO 9||National††||French‡‡||German***|
|Г г||h||h||h||h||g||h, gh¹||h||h|
|Є є||je||i͡e||ye||ye||ê||ie, ye²||ie||je|
|Ї ї||ji (ï)||ï||yi||yi||ï||i, yi²||ï||ji|
|Й й||j||ĭ||ĭ||y||j||i, y²||y||j|
|С с||s||s||s||s||s||s||s||s, ss|
|Ь ь||ʹ||ʹ||ʼ, '||ʼ||ʹ||–||–||–|
|Ю ю||ju||i͡u||yu||yu||û||iu, yu²||iou||ju|
|Я я||ja||i͡a||ya||ya||â||ia, ya²||ia||ja|
|ʼ||- (ʺ)||-||ˮ, "||ˮ||ʼ||–||–||–|
|Ъ ъ||ˮ, "|
- * Scholarly transliteration
- Where two transliterations appear, the first is according to the traditional system, and the second according to ISO/R 9:1968.
- † ALA-LC
- When applied strictly, ALA-LC requires the use of the ligature (U+0361), but in practice these are often omitted.
- ‡ British Standard
- The character sequence тс = t-s, to distinguish it from ц = ts.
- Accents and diacritics may be omitted when back-transliteration is not required.
- ** BGN/PCGN
- The character sequences зг = z·h, кг = k·h, сг = s·h, тс = t·s, and цг = ts·h may be romanized with midpoints to differentiate them from the digraphs ж = zh, х = kh, ш = sh, ц = ts, and the letter sequence тш = tsh. Superseded by the Ukrainian National system in 2020.
- †† Ukrainian National transliteration
- 1. gh is used in the romanization of зг = zgh, avoiding confusion with ж = zh.
- 2. The second variant is used at the beginning of a word.
- ‡‡ French
- Jean Girodet (1976), Dictionnaire de la langue française, Paris: Éditions Bordas.
- *** German
- (2000) Duden, 22nd ed., Mannheim: Dudenverlag.
|Cyrillic||GOST 1971||GOST 1986||Derzhstandart 1995||National 1996||Passport 2004||Passport 2007||National 2010|
|В в||v||v||v||v||v, w||v||v|
|Г г||g||g||gh||h, gh††||h, g||g||h, gh††|
|Ґ ґ||–||–||g||g||g, h||g||g|
|Є є||je||je||je||ie, ye*||ie, ye*||ie||ie, ye*|
|Ж ж||zh||ž||zh||zh||zh, j||zh||zh|
|Ї ї||ji||i||ji||i, yi*||i, yi*||i||i, yi*|
|Й й||j||j||j†||i, y*||i, y*||i||i, y*|
|К к||k||k||k||k||k, c||k||k|
|Ю ю||ju||ju||ju||iu, yu*||iu, yu*||iu||iu, yu*|
|Я я||ja||ja||ja||ia, ya*||ia, ya*||ia||ia, ya*|
- * The second transliteration is used word-initially
- † Word-initially, after vowels or after the apostrophe
- ‡ After consonants
- ** Apostrophe is used before iotated ja, ju, je, ji, jo, and to distinguish the combination ьа (j'a) in compound words from я (ja), for example, Волиньавто = Volynj'avto
- †† gh is used in the romanization of зг (zgh), avoiding confusion with ж (zh)
In the National (1996) system transliteration can be rendered in a simplified form:
- Doubled consonants ж, х, ц, ч, ш are simplified, for example Запоріжжя = Zaporizhia
- Apostrophe and soft sign are omitted, but always render ьо = ’o and ьї = ’i
- Belarusian alphabet
- Cyrillic alphabets
- Cyrillic script
- Faux Cyrillic
- Greek alphabet
- Macedonian alphabet
- Montenegrin alphabet
- Romanization of Belarusian
- Romanization of Bulgarian
- Romanization of Greek
- Romanization of Macedonian
- Romanization of Russian
- Scientific romanization of Cyrillic
- Ukrainian alphabet
- Ukrainian Latin alphabet
- Russian alphabet
- Scientific transliteration of Cyrillic
- Serbian Cyrillic alphabet
- Rudnyckyj 1948, p. 1.
- Transliteration Timeline on the website of the University of Arizona Library
- Cutter, Charles Ammi (1885). "Report of the A.L.A. Transliteration Committee, 1885". Library Journal. 10: 302–309.
- Cutter, Charles Ammi (1908). "Report of the A.L.A. Transliteration Committee". Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries. Chicago, IL: American Library Association and the (British) Library Association. pp. 65–73.
- Gerych, G. (1965). Transliteration of Cyrillic Alphabets (master's dissertation). Ottawa: University of Ottawa.
- Gjelsness, Rudolph, ed. (1941). A.L.A. Catalog Rules: Author and Title Entries. Chicago, IL: American Library Association. pp. 335–36.
- "ALA-LC Romanization Tables". The Library of Congress. 2011. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
- “Searching for Cyrillic items in the catalogues of the British Library: guidelines and transliteration tables”
- Pauly, Matthew D. (2014). "A Note on Transliteration". Breaking the Tongue: Language, Education, and Power in Soviet Ukraine, 1923–1934. University of Toronto Press. ISBN 978-1-4426-4893-7.
- Oxford Style Manual (2003), "Slavonic Languages", s 11.41.2, p 350. Oxford University Press.
- "Official Ukrainian-English transliteration system adopted by the Ukrainian Legal Terminology Commission (in English)". Archived from the original on 2008-09-26. Retrieved 2008-10-10.
- Рішення Української Комісії з питань правничої термінології (in Ukrainian)
- Resolution no. 55 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, January 27, 2010
- Romanization system in Ukraine, paper presented on East Central and South-East Europe Division of the United Nations Group of Experts on Geographical Names
- The document prepared for the UNGEGN session by Ukrainian Experts.
- "UNGEGN WGRS. Resolution X/9". www.eki.ee. Retrieved 2020-10-22.
- "Guidance on the US Board on Geographic Names (BGN)/Permanent Committee on Geographical Names (PCGN) romanization systems". GOV.UK. 2020-04-24. Retrieved 2020-09-08.
- Syvak, Nina; Ponomarenko, Valerii; Khodzinska, Olha; Lakeichuk, Iryna (2011). Veklych, Lesia (ed.). "Toponymic Guidelines for Map and Other Editors for International Use" (PDF). United Nations Statistics Division. scientific consultant Iryna Rudenko; reviewed by Nataliia Kizilowa; translated by Olha Khodzinska. Kyiv: DerzhHeoKadastr and Kartographia. ISBN 978-966-475-839-7. Retrieved 2020-10-06.
- Kubijovyč, Volodymyr, ed. (1963). Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopædia, Vol. 1. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. pp. xxxii–xxxiv. ISBN 0-8020-3105-6.
- Decision no. 858 of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine, July 26, 2007
- Clara Beetle ed. (1949), A.L.A. Cataloging Rules for Author and Title Entries, Chicago: American Library Association, p 246.
- British Standard 2979 : 1958, London: British Standards Institution.
- Daniels, Peter T., and William Bright, eds. (1996). The World's Writing Systems, pp. 700, 702, Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-507993-0.
- G. Gerych (1965), Transliteration of Cyrillic Alphabets, masters thesis, Ottawa: University of Ottawa.
- Maryniak, K. (2008), 'Короткий огляд систем транслітерації з української на англійську мову' (Brief Overview of Transliteration Systems from Ukrainian to English), Західньоканадський збірник — Collected Papers on Ukrainian Life in Western Canada, Part Five, Edmonton–Ostroh: Shevchenko Scientific Society in Canada, pp. 478–84.
- Rudnyc’kyj, Jaroslav B. (1948). Чужомовні транслітерації українських назв: Iнтернаціональна, англійська, французька, німецька, еспанська й португальська (Foreign transliterations of Ukrainian names: The international, English, French, German, Spanish and Portuguese), Augsburg: Iнститут родо- й знаменознавства.
- U.S. Board on Geographic Names, Foreign Names Committee Staff (1994). Romanization Systems and Roman-Script Spelling Conventions, p. 105.
- English Transliteration by the State Migration Service of Ukraine
- Standard Ukrainian Transliteration — multistandard bidirectional online transliteration (BGN/PCGN, scholarly, national, ISO 9, ALA-LC, etc.) (in Ukrainian)
- Ukrainian Transliteration—online Ukrainian transliteration
- Ukrainian Translit—online Ukrainian transliteration service (non-standard system)
- Ukrainian-Latin and Latin-Ukrainian—online transliterator (non-standard system)
- Transliteration history—history of the transliteration of Slavic languages into Latin alphabets
- Lingua::Translit Perl module covering a variety of writing systems. Transliteration according to several standards (e.g. ISO 9 and DIN 1460).
- Transliteration of Non-Roman Scripts A collection of writing systems and transliteration tables, by Thomas T. Pedersen. PDF reference charts for many languages' transliteration systems. Ukrainian PDF
- Latin transliteration—transliteration systems used for national Ukrainian domain names (in Ukrainian)
- Decision No. 858 affecting transliteration of names passports (2007) (Ukrainian)
- Working Group on Romanization Systems, under the United Nations Conferences on the Standardization of Geographical Names. Ukrainian PDF
- ALA-LC Romanization Tables Scanned text of the 1997 edition of the ALA-LC Romanization Tables: Transliteration Schemes for Non-Roman Scripts. Ukrainian PDF
- BGN/PCGN 1965 Romanization System for Ukrainian at geonames.nga.mil
- Cyrillic Transliteration Table (Ukrainian and Russian), based on both International Linguistic and ALA-LC systems
- Ukrainian language in the International Phonetic Alphabet (PDF, in Ukrainian)