Nizhyn (Ukrainian: Ніжин, pronounced [ˈn⁽ʲ⁾iʒɪn] ; Russian: Нежин) is a city located in Chernihiv Oblast of northern Ukraine along the Oster River. The city is located 116 km (72 mi) north-east of the national capital Kyiv. Nizhyn serves as the administrative center of Nizhyn Raion. It hosts the administration of Nizhyn urban hromada which is one of the hromadas of Ukraine[1] and was once a major city of the Chernigov Governorate. Nizhyn has a population of 65,830 (2022 estimate).[2]

Flag of Nizhyn
Coat of arms of Nizhyn
Nizhyn is located in Chernihiv Oblast
Location of Nizhyn in Chernihiv Oblast
Nizhyn is located in Ukraine
Nizhyn (Ukraine)
Coordinates: 51°02′17″N 31°53′10″E / 51.03806°N 31.88611°E / 51.03806; 31.88611
Country Ukraine
OblastChernihiv Oblast
RaionNizhyn Raion
HromadaNizhyn urban hromada
Magdeburg rights1625
 • Total43.2 km2 (16.7 sq mi)
 • Total65,830
1773 map of the Nizhyn fortress and its citadel



The earliest known references to the location go back to 1147, when it was briefly mentioned as Unenezh.[3]

In the times of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Nizhyn was granted Magdeburg rights (1625) as a self-governing town. In 1663, Nizhyn was the place of the Black Council of Ukrainian Cossacks, which elected Bryukhovetsky as the new Hetman of the Zaporizhian Host thus conditionally dividing Ukraine (Cossack Hetmanate) into left-bank Ukraine and right-bank Ukraine. It was also the seat of a major Cossack regiment (until 1782).

In the Cossack Hetmanate, Nizhyn had six voivodes (a Muscovite military position) from 1665 to 1697. The voivodes of the city were Ivan Rzhevskiy (1665–1672),[4] Stepan Khruscheov (1672–1673), Prince Vladimir Volkonskiy (1673–1675), Prince Semeon Zvenigorodskiy (1673–1675), Avraam Khitrovo (1689–1692), and Ivan Saveolov Junior (1692–1697).[citation needed]

Nizhyn was once a major center of Hasidic Judaism and is the site of the Ohel (tomb) of the Hasidic master, Rabbi Dovber Schneuri of Chabad-Lubavitch. The city also housed the thriving Greek community,[citation needed] which enjoyed a number of privileges granted by Bohdan Khmelnytsky.

In the 19th century Nizhyn became an uyezd capital of the Chernihiv Governorate and the biggest city in the guberniya. In 1805, the Bezborodko Lyceum was established there (today — Nizhyn Gogol State University); its graduates include Nikolai Gogol whose statue graces one of city streets as well as Yevhen Hrebinka among other graduates. Nizhyn has also long been noted for its famous cucumbers.[5][6]

During World War II, Nizhyn was occupied by the German Army from 13 September 1941 to 15 September 1943.

Jewish population


Jews first settled in Nizhyn at the beginning of the 19th century after the partition of Poland. The town grew to become a center for the Chabad Hasidim of Ukraine. Dovber Schneuri, the second Chabad rebbe, is buried here. By 1847, 1,299 Jews had registered as residents. In 1897, 24% of the population, or 7,361 residents, were Jewish.

A wave of pogroms severely affected the Jewish population in 1881 and 1905. One group of emigrants settled in Philadelphia and founded the Neziner Congregation in 1896.

During their retreat from the Germans in the spring of 1918, the Red Army carried out additional pogroms. During World War II, the region was occupied by Germany, who murdered all Jews in the area. Only those who escaped survived.

In 1959, 1,400 Jews lived in Nizhyn, about 3% of the town's population. In 2005, Nizhyn population reached 80,000. Only about 300 Jewish families lived in the city.[7]

Aircraft crash


In July 1969 two Tupolev Tu-22 aircraft from the nearby air base collided in mid-air. The crew ejected and the plane flew on unpiloted for 52 minutes, threatening the city of Nizhyn before crashing 0.5 km from the city's railway station.[8]

Modern times


The city of Nizhyn is one of the ancient cities of Ukraine. The architectural complex of the city forms an expressive ensemble of an ancient trade city. The experts' estimates distinguish more than 300 ancient buildings, where 70 are of a great cultural and historical value. The expressive 200 years ensemble of Post Station (the only one preserved in Ukraine) deserves special mention. Nizhyn is a city of students (each fifth inhabitant of Nizhyn is a student). The following educational establishments operate in Nizhyn – State University named after Gogol; Agro-technical College, faculty of Kremenchyk Institute of Economy and New Technologies, College of Culture and Arts named after Zankovetska, Medical College, Nizhyn Professional Lyceum of Services, Nizhyn Agrarian Lyceum, vocational college, Lyceum at the University. There are four club institutions, the Drama Theater named after Kotsiubynskyi, the Choreographic school and park landscapes in the city.

The city boasts 38 libraries with the total fund of 17,365 thousand books, which caters for 44,429 readers, more than a dozen of museums, including Nizhyn Regional museum with the following sections: art, history, Nizhyn Post Station, with about 31 thousand of exhibits of the main fund, the Museum of the History of School No.3, the Museum of the History of School No.7 with a room of M. V. Nechkina, the Korolyov Museum in School No.14, the Glory Museum of Agrarian and Technical Institute, the Museum-Chemists shop named after M. Ligda. The following institutions function at Nizhyn State Pedagogical Institute named after Gogol: The Museum of Gogol, Art Gallery, the Museum “Rare book”, zoological museum, and botanical museum. Nizhyn is a well-known industrial center, where 16 industrial enterprises, which belong to 8 branches, operate. Nizhyn is also an attractive tourist city. It is included into the tour “Necklace of Slavutych”.

A postage stamp featuring the coat of arms of Nizhyn was released by Ukraine in 2017.

Until 18 July 2020, Nizhyn was designated as a city of oblast significance and did not belong to Nizhyn Raion even though it was the center of the raion. As part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Chernihiv Oblast to four, the city was merged into Nizhyn Raion.[9][10]




Climate data for Nizhyn (1981–2010)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean daily maximum °C (°F) −1.6
Daily mean °C (°F) −4.3
Mean daily minimum °C (°F) −7.0
Average precipitation mm (inches) 36.1
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 8.7 9.1 7.8 7.4 8.4 9.2 8.9 6.5 7.6 7.2 8.1 9.3 98.2
Average relative humidity (%) 85.4 82.6 78.2 70.3 67.5 72.0 72.9 73.2 78.5 81.8 87.4 87.5 78.1
Source: World Meteorological Organization[11]


John the Apostle Church in Nizhyn

Architecturally Nizhyn was shaped in the 18th century. Foremost among its buildings must be mentioned its seven Baroque churches: Annunciation Cathedral (1702–16, modernised 1814), Presentation Cathedral (1788), St. Michael's Church of the Greek community (1719–29), St John's Church (1752, illustrated, to the right), Saviour's Transfiguration Church (1757), Intercession Church (1765), and the so-called Cossack Cathedral of St. Nicholas (1658, restored 1980s), a rare survival from the days of Nizhyn's Cossack glory, noted for its octagonal vaults and drums crowned by archetypal pear-shaped domes.[12] Other notable buildings include the Trinity Church (1733, rebuilt a century later), the Greek magistrate (1785), and the Neoclassical complex of the Nizhyn Lyceum (designed by Luigi Rusca, built in 1805–17, expanded in 1876–79).

There is the memorial museum of Russian naval officer and explorer Yuri Lisyansky in his family house [uk] in Nizhyn and a monument by the house.[13]



Modern Nizhyn is a major industrial center. The city has 16 companies and firms from eight industries:

  • Engineering:
    • NEC "Progress" – the production of photographic supplies, hunting scopes, medical equipment, household goods;
    • JSC "Mechanical Plant" – manufacture of machinery for agriculture;
    • Plant "Nezhinselmash" – poultry equipment, motorcycles, bicycles, spare parts, fittings for gas and vodogonov;
    • Nizhynske Training and Production Enterprise "UTOS" – covers of metal for home canning, switches, electric sockets, nails, clips, extension cords.
  • Food:
    • Nizhynskyi cannery – the leading state-owned enterprise for the production of canned vegetables;
    • JSC "Nizhyn bread" – the production of bakery, confectionery and pasta;
    • JSC "Nizhyn brewery" (stopped in the summer of 2008) – the production of beer;
    • JSC "Nizhyn zhirkombinat" – manufacture and sale of varnishes, lacquers, oils, makukha.
  • Medicine:
    • LLC "Lab scanning devices" – the production of medical equipment, optical and electronic devices, rubber means;
    • LLC RDC "Metecol" – the production of medical products using and training simulators.
  • Light:
    • JSC "DiSi Nezhinka" – design and manufacture of clothing;
  • Dry:
    • JSC "Nifar" – the production and supply of paints, detergents, toothpastes, plant protection products;
  • Timber:
    • Of "Furniture Factory"

PVKF ** "Courier";

  • Building:
    • JSC "Plant management of construction materials";
  • "Printing":
    • LLC "Aspect".

Starting in 1915, the city was served by a tram public transportation system. The tram system had a track gauge of 1,524 mm (5 ft) and first began as horse-pulled trams at its opening in 1915. The system became defunct in the mid-1920s and never recovered. Information on the number of lines that existed is not available.


International relations


Twin towns – sister cities


Nizhyn is twinned with:

Notable people



  1. ^ "Нежинская городская громада" (in Russian). Портал об'єднаних громад України.
  2. ^ Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2022] (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2022.
  3. ^ Нежин // Украинская Советская Энциклопедия. том 7. Киев, «Украинская Советская энциклопедия», 1982. стр.223
  4. ^ Lesyk, Lyudmyla (2016). "THE REPORT OF NIZHYN VOIVODES IN THE "ACTS OF SOUTH WESTERN RUSSIA"". City History, Culture, Society (1): 163–170. doi:10.15407/mics2016.01.163. ISSN 2616-4280.
  5. ^ "газета Kyiv Weekly". 22 April 2009. Archived from the original on 22 April 2009. Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  6. ^ "Його Величнiсть нiжинський огiрок - Всеукраїнський незалежний медійний простір "Сіверщина"". Retrieved 15 May 2020.
  7. ^ "Nezhin in the 1800s". Retrieved 12 October 2009.
  8. ^ Gordon, Yefim (1999). Tupolev Tu-22 'Blinder' Tu-22M 'Backfire'. Midland Publishing. ISBN 1-85780-065-6.
  9. ^ "Про утворення та ліквідацію районів. Постанова Верховної Ради України № 807-ІХ". Голос України (in Ukrainian). 18 July 2020. Retrieved 3 October 2020.
  10. ^ "Нові райони: карти + склад" (in Ukrainian). Міністерство розвитку громад та територій України.
  11. ^ "World Meteorological Organization Climate Normals for 1981–2010". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 17 July 2021. Retrieved 17 July 2021.
  12. ^ "Photo".
  13. ^ Меморіальний будинок-музей Юрія Лисянського
  14. ^ "Από τη Δομπόλη και τη Ζωσιμαία ως τη Νίζνα". 11 March 2022.
  15. ^ "Ψηφιακό Αρχείο Πρακτικών Συνεδριάσεων Δημοτικού Συμβουλίου και Δημαρχιακής Επιτροπής Ιωαννίνων".
  16. ^ Anatoly Selianin. "Timofei Dokshizer, Russian Trumpet Virtuoso [Rare Documentary]". YouTube. Archived from the original on 21 December 2021. Retrieved 4 September 2020.
  17. ^ "Ukraine unveils monument to soldier shot dead on video". Reuters. 25 November 2023. Retrieved 25 November 2023.