The Russian Republic (Russian: Российская республика, tr. Rossiyskaya respublika, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə]) was a short-lived state which controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire after its proclamation by the Russian Provisional Government on 1 September (14 September, N.S.) 1917 in a decree signed by Alexander Kerensky as Minister-President and Alexander Zarudny as Minister of Justice.
|14 Sep – 7 Nov 1917|
Anthem: Worker's Marseillaise
Proclaimed territory of the Russian Republic[a]
• Sep-Nov 1917
Constituent Assembly (planned)
|Historical era||World War I|
|15 March 1917|
• Republic proclaimed
|14 September 1917|
|7 November 1917|
|ISO 3166 code||RU|
The term "Russian Republic" is sometimes used erroneously for the period between the abdication of the Emperor Nicholas II on 2 March 1917 (15 March, N.S) and the declaration of the Republic in September. However, during that period the future status of the monarchy remained unresolved.
Officially, the Republic's government was the Provisional Government, although de facto control of the country was contested between it, the soviets (chiefly the Petrograd Soviet), and various ethnic-based separatists (such as the Central Council of Ukraine). Soviets were political organizations of the proletariat, strongest in industrial regions, and were dominated by left-wing parties. Leftists, whose influence was supplemented with paramilitary forces, were occasionally able to rival the Provisional Government having an ineffective state apparatus.
The Government's control of the military was also tenuous. Seamen of the Baltic Fleet, for example, had notoriously far-left views and openly engaged in political activism in the capital. Right-wing proclivities among the army officers were also a problem – Kerensky's attempt to dismiss Gen. Lavr Kornilov precipitated in a (failed) coup.