Russian Republic

The Russian Republic,[d] was a short-lived state which controlled, de jure, the territory of the former Russian Empire after its proclamation by the Russian Provisional Government on 1 September (14 September, N.S.) 1917 in a decree signed by Alexander Kerensky as Minister-Chairman and Alexander Zarudny as Minister of Justice.[1]

Russian Republic
Российская Республика

1917[a]
Government Seal:
1917-VremennoePravitelstvo-Seal.jpg
Proclaimed territory of the Russian Republic
Proclaimed territory of the Russian Republic
CapitalPetrograd
Common languagesRussian
GovernmentDemocratic federal republic
Minister-Chairman 
• Sep–Nov 1917
Alexander Kerensky[b]
LegislatureProvisional Council
(1917)
Constituent Assembly[c]
(1918)
Historical eraWorld War I/Russian
Revolution
8–16 March 1917
• Republic proclaimed
14 September 1917
7 November 1917
• Constituent Assembly
dissolved
19 January 1918
CurrencyRuble
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Russian Provisional Government
Russian SFSR
Russian State
Ukraine
Finland
Alash Autonomy
Khiva
Bukhara
Moldavia
Crimea
Belarus
Idel-Ural
Altai
Turkestan
Estonia

After the seizure of power, the Bolsheviks used the name "Russian Republic" for some time, until the name "Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic" was officially adopted. In 1918, an unsuccessful attempt was made to revive the Russian Republic under the name "Russian Democratic Federative Republic". This decision was made by the All-Russian Constituent Assembly, which adopted a new constitution, but it was not executed, because the Assembly was dissolved the same day, and the territory of Russia was controlled by the Bolsheviks who proclaimed the RSFSR.

The term "Russian Republic" is sometimes used erroneously for the period between the abdication of the Emperor Nicholas II on 3 March 1917 (16 March, N.S) and the declaration of the Republic in September. However, during that period the future status of the monarchy remained unresolved.

PoliticsEdit

Officially, the Republic's government was the Provisional Government, although de facto control of the country was contested between it, the soviets (chiefly the Petrograd Soviet), and various ethnic-based separatists (such as the Central Council of Ukraine). Soviets were political organizations of the proletariat, strongest in industrial regions, and were dominated by left-wing parties. Soviets, whose influence was supplemented with paramilitary forces, were occasionally able to rival the Provisional Government which had an ineffective state apparatus.

The Government's control of the military was also tenuous. Seamen of the Baltic Fleet, for example, had far-left views and openly engaged in political activism in the capital. Right-wing proclivities among the army officers were also a problem – Kerensky's attempt to dismiss Gen. Lavr Kornilov led to a failed coup.

Principal institutionsEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ The Russian Republic Proclaimed at prlib.ru, accessed 12 June 2017

NotesEdit

  1. ^ Effectively ceased to exist after the Bolshevik Coup of November 1917, formally abolished in 1918.
  2. ^ Served as the prime minister of the provisional government since July.
  3. ^ Dissolved after the very first meeting.
  4. ^ Russian: Российская Республика, tr. Rossiyskaya Respublika, IPA: [rɐˈsʲijskəjə rʲɪsˈpublʲɪkə].

External linksEdit

  • The Russian Republic proclaimed. Presidential Library
  • Browder, R. P., Kerensky, A. F. The Russian Provisional Government, 1917: Documents. "Stanford University Press". Stanford, 1961. ISBN 9780804700238