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Alash Autonomy (Kazakh: Алаш аутономиясы, Alash aýtonomııasy; Russian: Алашская автономия Alashskaya avtonomiya) was a Kazakh state that existed between December 13, 1917, and 1918, on, approximately, the territory of the present-day Republic of Kazakhstan. The capital city was Semey, then known as "Alash-qala".
Motto: Оян, Қазақ!
Wake up, Kazakh!
Alash Autonomy (yellow) on January 1918
|Historical era||World War I |
Russian Civil War
|December 13 1917|
|ISO 3166 code||KZ|
|Today part of|| Kazakhstan|
Vasile Balabanov was appointed governor and administrator of Kazakhstan (at that time known as Russian Turkestan) in 1905 and continued in that position until 1920. He fled the Russian Red Army in 1920, going to China. China at that time considered him the legitimate governor of Kazakhstan.
The Alash Autonomy of 1917 was in name only. Kazakhstan was controlled by the anti-communist White Army and the appointed administrator, who was in control until the Red Army was able to take over in 1920.
The Alash Autonomy was proclaimed in December 1917. Alash leaders established Alash Orda, a Kazakh government, which was aligned with the White Army and fought against the Bolsheviks. The first legislation of the Alash government of June 11–24, 1918 is the following: "Agreed to invalidate all decrees issued by the Soviet authorities on the territory of the autonomous Alash. Chairman of Alash-Orda: Bokeikhanov, Members: Tynyshpaev, Gabbasov." In 1919, when the White forces were losing, Alash Autonomous government began negotiations with the Bolsheviks. In 1919–20 the Bolsheviks defeated the White Russian forces in the region and occupied Kazakhstan. On August 26, 1920, the Soviet government established the Kyrgyz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, which in 1925 changed its name to Kazak Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic and to Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic in 1936.
Alash Orda (Kazakh: Алаш Орда, Alash Orda, "Kazakh Horde") was the name of the provisional Kazakh government between 13 December 1917 to 1918. The provisional government consisted of 25 members (10 positions reserved for non-Kazakhs) and 15 member candidates. They formed a special educational commission and established militia regiments as their armed forces. They issued a number of legislative resolutions. The first one of 11–24 June 1918 is the following: "Agreed to invalidate all decrees issued by the Soviet authorities on the territory of the autonomous Alash. Chairman of Alash-Orda: Bokeikhanov, Members: Tynyshpaev, Gabbasov."...
- Peimani, Hooman. Conflict and Security in Central Asia and the Caucasus. Santa Barbara: ABC-CLIO, 2009, p. 124
- Galick, David. Responding to the Dual Threat to Kazakhness: The Rise of Alash Orda and its Uniquely Kazakh Path, Vestnik: The Journal of Russian and Asian Studies (March 29, 2014)