The Ukraine Portal - Портал України

Україна (Ukrainian)
ISO 3166 codeUA

Ukraine (Ukrainian: Україна, romanizedUkraïna, pronounced [ʊkrɐˈjinɐ] (listen)) is a country in Eastern Europe. It is the second-largest European country after Russia, which it borders to the east and northeast. Ukraine covers approximately 600,000 square kilometres (230,000 sq mi). Prior to the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War, it was the eighth-most populous country in Europe, with a population of around 41 million people. It is also bordered by Belarus to the north; by Poland, Slovakia, and Hungary to the west; and by Romania and Moldova to the southwest; with a coastline along the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov to the south and southeast. Kyiv is the nation's capital and largest city. Ukraine's official and national language is Ukrainian; most people are also fluent in Russian.

During the Middle Ages, the area was a key centre of East Slavic culture under the state of Kievan Rus', which emerged in the 9th century and was ultimately destroyed by the Mongol invasions of the 13th century. After the Kingdom of Galicia–Volhynia emerged, the area was contested, divided, and ruled by a variety of external powers for the next 600 years, including the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Austrian Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Tsardom of Russia. The Cossack Hetmanate emerged in central Ukraine in the 17th century, but was partitioned between Russia and Poland, and ultimately absorbed by the Russian Empire. After the Russian Revolution, a Ukrainian national movement re-emerged, and formed the Ukrainian People's Republic in 1917. This short-lived state was forcibly reconstituted by the Bolsheviks into the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, which became a founding member of the Soviet Union in 1922. In the 1930s, millions of Ukrainians were killed during the Holodomor, a Stalin-era man-made famine.

Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Ukraine regained independence and declared itself neutral, forming a limited military partnership with the post-Soviet Commonwealth of Independent States, while also joining the Partnership for Peace with NATO in 1994. In 2013, a series of mass demonstrations, known as the Euromaidan, erupted across Ukraine, eventually escalating into the Revolution of Dignity in 2014, which led to the establishment of a new government and pro-Russian unrest. During this period, unmarked Russian troops invaded the Crimean Peninsula, which was later annexed by Russia; and pro-Russia unrest in Ukraine's Donbas culminated in Russia-backed separatists seizing territory throughout the region, sparking the War in Donbas. This series of events marked the beginning of the ongoing Russo-Ukrainian War, and in a major escalation of the conflict in February 2022, Russia launched a full-scale invasion of Ukraine. Since the outbreak of war with Russia in 2014, Ukraine has continued to seek closer economic, political, and military ties with the Western world, including with the United States, European Union, and NATO.

Ukraine is a unitary republic under a semi-presidential system and a developing country, ranking 77th on the Human Development Index. Ukraine is the poorest country in Europe by nominal GDP per capita, and has high levels of corruption. However, due to its extensive fertile land, pre-war Ukraine was one of the largest grain exporters in the world. It is a founding member of the United Nations, as well as a member of the Council of Europe, the World Trade Organization, and the OSCE, and is in the process of joining the European Union and becoming a NATO member. (Full article...)

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Einsatzgruppen murder Jews in Ivanhorod, Ukraine, 1942.jpg
SS paramilitaries murder Jewish civilians, including a mother and her child, in 1942, in Ivanhorod, Ukraine.

The Holocaust in Ukraine took place in the Reichskommissariat Ukraine, the General Government, the Crimean General Government and some areas which were located to the East of Reichskommissariat Ukraine (all of those areas were under the military control of Nazi Germany), in the Transnistria Governorate and Northern Bukovina (both areas under the control of Romania, with the latter being re-annexed) and Carpathian Ruthenia (then part of Hungary) during World War II. The listed areas are currently parts of Ukraine. Between 1941 and 1944, more than a million Jews living in the Soviet Union, almost all from Ukraine and Belarus, were murdered by Nazi Germany's "Final Solution" extermination policies and with the help of local Ukrainian collaborators. Most of them were killed in Ukraine because most pre-WWII Soviet Jews lived in the Pale of Settlement, of which Ukraine was the largest part. The major massacres against Jews mainly occurred during the first phase of the occupation, although they continued until the return of the Red Army of the Soviet Union.

According to Yale historian Timothy D. Snyder, "the Holocaust is integrally and organically connected to the Vernichtungskrieg, the war in 1941, and it is organically and integrally connected to the attempt to conquer Ukraine." According to Wendy Lower, the genocide of the Ukrainian Jews was closely linked to German plans to exploit and colonize Ukraine. (Full article...)
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In the news

2 December 2022 – 2021–2022 global energy crisis, International sanctions during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
2022 Russian oil price cap
Australia, the European Union, and the G7 member states decide to impose a US$60-per-barrel price ceiling on Russian seaborne oil. (AP)
2 December 2022 – Russia–Ukraine relations
Ukrainian President Volodymyr Zelenskyy signs a decree that bans religious organizations with links to Russia and imposes personal sanctions against their representatives. Zelenskyy also announces that the Ukrainian government will draft a law banning churches affiliated with Russia, which he says is necessary in order to counter Russian government efforts to "weaken Ukraine from within." (AP) (Reuters)
30 November 2022 – 2022 Spain letter bomb attacks
A staff member at the Ukrainian embassy in Madrid, Spain, suffers minor injuries when opening a letter bomb that was addressed to ambassador Serhii Pohoreltsev. (Reuters)
24 November 2022 – 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
Southern Ukraine campaign
At least 15 people are killed and 35 others are injured when Russian Armed Forces bombard Kherson. (AFP via NDTV)
24 November 2022 – Modern immigration to the United Kingdom
Net migration to the United Kingdom reaches a record of 504,000 in 2022, according to the Office for National Statistics. The record increase is primarily due to non-EU migration, the resumption of post-pandemic travel, the arrival of Afghan and Ukrainian refugees, and immigration from Hong Kong. (BBC News)
23 November 2022 – Russo-Ukrainian War
2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine
October–November 2022 nationwide missile strikes on Ukraine
Widespread blackouts are reported in Western Ukraine as Russian forces launch another wave of cruise missile strikes, including in the city of Lviv, which is currently experiencing a power outage. Moldova also reports "massive" power outages, although the country has not been directly hit by missiles. (BBC News)

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