Foreign relations of Ukraine

Ukraine has formal relations with many nations and in recent decades has been establishing diplomatic relations with an expanding circle of nations. The foreign relations of Ukraine are guided by a number of key priorities outlined in the foreign policy of Ukraine.

Western relationsEdit

Ukraine considers Euro-Atlantic integration its primary foreign policy objective, but in practice balances its relationship with Europe and the United States with strong ties to Russia. The European Union's Partnership and Cooperation Agreement (PCA) with Ukraine went into force on March 1, 1998. The European Union (EU) has encouraged Ukraine to implement the PCA fully before discussions begin on an association agreement. The EU Common Strategy toward Ukraine, issued at the EU Summit in December 1999 in Helsinki, recognizes Ukraine's long-term aspirations but does not discuss association. On January 31, 1992, Ukraine joined the then-Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe (now the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe—OSCE), and on March 10, 1992, it became a member of the North Atlantic Cooperation Council. Ukraine also has a close relationship with NATO and has declared interest in eventual membership. It is the most active member of the Partnership for Peace (PfP). Former President Viktor Yushchenko indicated that he supports Ukraine joining the EU in the future. Plans for Ukrainian membership to NATO were shelved by Ukraine following the 2010 Ukrainian presidential election in which Viktor Yanukovych was elected President.[1] Yanukovych opted to keep Ukraine a non-aligned state.[2] This materialized on June 3, 2010 when the Ukrainian parliament (Verkhovna Rada) excluded, with 226 votes, the goal of "integration into Euro-Atlantic security and NATO membership" from the country's national security strategy giving the country a non-aligned status.[3][4] "European integration" has remained part of Ukraine's national security strategy and co-operation with NATO was not excluded.[4] Ukraine then considered relations with NATO as a partnership.[5][6] Ukraine and NATO continued to hold joint seminars and joint tactical and strategical exercises.[7][8] After February 2014's Yanukovych ouster and following the Russian military intervention in Ukraine (which Russia denies) Ukraine renewed its drive for NATO membership.[3] On 23 December 2014 the Verkhovna Rada abolished, with 303 votes, Ukraine's non-aligned status.[3]

 
Diplomatic missions of Ukraine

Relations with CIS statesEdit

Ukraine maintains peaceful and constructive relations with all its neighbors[citation needed]; it had especially close ties with Russia and Poland. Relations with the former are complicated by energy dependence and by payment arrears. However, relations have improved with the 1998 ratification of the bilateral Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation. Also, the two sides have signed a series of agreements on the final division and disposition of the former Soviet Black Sea Fleet that have helped to reduce tensions. Ukraine became a (non-official) member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) on December 8, 1991, but in January 1993 it refused to endorse a draft charter strengthening political, economic, and defense ties among CIS members, and completely ceased to participate as a member in March 2014. Ukraine was a founding member of GUAM (Georgia-Ukraine-Azerbaijan-Moldova).

In 1999–2001, Ukraine served as a non-permanent member of the UN Security Council. Historically, Soviet Ukraine joined the United Nations in 1945 as one of the original members following a Western compromise with the Soviet Union, which had asked for seats for all 15 of its union republics. Ukraine has consistently supported peaceful, negotiated settlements to disputes. It has participated in the quadripartite talks on the conflict in Moldova and promoted a peaceful resolution to conflict in the post-Soviet state of Georgia. Ukraine also has made a substantial contribution to UN peacekeeping operations since 1992.

Leonid Derkach (chairman of the SBU, which is Ukraine's security service, successor to the KGB) was fired due to Western pressure after he organized the sale of radar systems to Iraq while such sales were embargoed.[9]

International disputesEdit

BelarusEdit

The 1997 boundary treaty with Belarus remains un-ratified due to unresolved financial claims, stalling demarcation and reducing border security.

RussiaEdit

Delimitation of the land boundary with Russia is incomplete, but the parties have agreed to defer demarcation. The maritime boundary through the Sea of Azov and the Kerch Strait remains unresolved despite a December 2003 framework agreement and on-going expert-level discussions. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin allegedly declared at a NATO-Russia summit in 2008 that if Ukraine would join NATO his country can contend to annex the Ukrainian East and Crimea.[10]

Starting in November 2013, the decision by Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych to back out of signing an integration agreement with the European Union started a period of civil unrest between Ukrainians who favored integration with the European Union and those who wanted closer ties with Russia. This culminated in the 2014 Ukrainian Revolution. Russia took advantage of this political instability to annex Crimea in March 2014, though Ukraine still claims sovereignty over the territory. Russia has also allegedly supported separatist forces in the War in Donbass. In December 2015 Russian hackers reportedly hacked Ukraine's power grids leading to a blackout and widespread terror.

MoldovaEdit

Moldova and Ukraine have established joint customs posts to monitor transit through Moldova's break-away Transnistria Region which remains under OSCE supervision.

RomaniaEdit

Ukraine and Romania have settled their dispute over the Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and the Black Sea maritime boundary at the International Court of Justice. The CIA World Factbook states that "Romania opposes Ukraine's reopening of a navigation canal from the Danube border through Ukraine to the Black Sea".[11]

Investment promotionEdit

State enterprise InvestUkraine was created[12] under the State Agency for Investment and National Projects (National Projects)[13] to serve as a One Stop Shop for investors and to deliver investment consulting services.

Relations by countryEdit

Multi-nationalEdit

Organization Formal Relations Began Notes
  European Union 2009 See Ukraine–European Union relations

The Eastern Partnership is meant to complement the Northern Dimension by providing an institutionalised forum for discussing visa agreements, free trade deals and strategic partnership agreements with the EU's eastern neighbours.

  United Nations 1945 / 1992 See Economic Commission of Europe, Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
  NATO 1995 See Ukraine–NATO relations, Partnership for Peace program, Euro-Atlantic Partnership Council
  Commonwealth of Independent States 1991 Participating (not as an official member)

AfricaEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Algeria 1993 See Algeria–Ukraine relations
  • Algeria recognized Ukraine's independence in 1992.
  • Algeria has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Algiers (opened in 1999).[14]
  • Diplomatic relations between both countries were established in 1993. Soon (1993–1994) military and trade agreements between two countries were signed.[14]
  Botswana 3 March 2004

Both countries established diplomatic relations on March 3, 2004.[15]

  Cape Verde

Ukraine is represented in Cape-Verde by its embassy in Dakar, Senegal.[16]

  Comoros
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on July 23, 1993.[17]
  • Comoros has an honorary consulate in Kyiv.[18]
  • Ukraine is represented in Comoros by its embassy in Nairobi, Kenya.[19]
  Egypt See Egypt–Ukraine relations

Both countries established foreign relations in 1992. Since 1993, Egypt has an embassy in Kyiv. Since 1993, Ukraine has an embassy in Cairo and an honorary consulate in Alexandria.

  Guinea Ukraine has shown support for military dictatorships in Guinea by supplying the militia of Moussa Dadis Camara.[20]
  Guinea-Bissau

Ukraine is represented in Guinea-Bissau by its embassy in Dakar, Senegal.[16]

  Kenya See Kenya–Ukraine relations
  • Kenya is accredited to Ukraine from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Nairobi.
  Mauritania
  South Africa See South Africa–Ukraine relations
  • South Africa established its embassy in Kyiv in October 1992.[24]
  • Ukraine established its embassy in Pretoria in 1995.[25]
  Tunisia See Tunisia–Ukraine relations
  Uganda
  Zambia See Ukraine–Zambia relations

AmericasEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Argentina 6 January 1992 See Argentina–Ukraine relations
  Belize

Both countries have established diplomatic relations on 1 October 1999.[32]

  Bolivia See Bolivia–Ukraine relations
  Brazil 11 February 1992 See Brazil-Ukraine relations

Brazil and Ukraine are strategic partners and cooperate in trade, space technology, education, energy, healthcare, and defense.[33] Brazil recognized Ukraine's independence on December 26, 1991, and bilateral relations were established on February 11, 1992.[34] The recent development of a joint space industry has strengthened the bilateral ties between the two countries.[33] Ukraine considers Brazil its key trade partner in Latin America and has been a vocal supporter of the Brazilian bid for a permanent seat at the United Nations Security Council.[33][35]

  Canada See Canada–Ukraine relations

Diplomatic relations were established between Canada and Ukraine on January 27, 1992.[36] Canada opened its embassy in Kyiv in April 1992, and the Embassy of Ukraine in Ottawa opened in October of that same year, paid for mostly by donations from the Ukrainian-Canadian community. Ukraine opened a consulate-general in Toronto in 1993 and announced plans to open another in Edmonton in 2008.[37] Canada also has a consulate in L'viv.

  Cuba
  • Cuba has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Havana.
  Dominica 2019
  • Both countries established diplomatic relations on April 25, 2019.[38][39][40][41]
  • They also signed a visa waver agreement.[42]
  El Salvador See El Salvador–Ukraine relations
  Guyana 2001

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 15 November 2001.[43]

  Honduras See Honduras–Ukraine relations
  Mexico 12 January 1992 See Mexico–Ukraine relations
  Panama 1993

Both countries established diplomatic relations on 21 May 1993.[46]

  Paraguay 1993-02-26 See Paraguay–Ukraine relations
  • Paraguay is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).[47]
  • Ukraine is represented in Paraguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina) and an honorary consulate in Asuncion.
  • There is an important community of people of Ukrainian origins in Paraguay (between 10,000 and 15,000 people), most of whom arrived at the beginning of the 20th century. (See also Ukrainians in Paraguay)
  Peru
  • Peru is accredited to Ukraine from its embassy in Moscow, Russia.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Lima.
  United States See Ukraine–United States relations

The United States enjoys cordially friendly and strategic relations with Ukraine and attaches great importance to the success of Ukraine's transition to a democratic state with a flourishing free market economy.[citation needed]

  Uruguay
  • Ukraine is represented in Uruguay through its embassy in Buenos Aires (Argentina).[48]
  • Uruguay is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Moscow (Russia) and through an honorary consulate in Kyiv.
  • There are around 10,000 people of Ukrainian descent living in Uruguay.
  Venezuela See Ukraine–Venezuela relations

AsiaEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Armenia See Armenia–Ukraine relations
  Azerbaijan 1992 See Azerbaijan–Ukraine relations
  • Azerbaijan plays an important role in the foreign policy of Ukraine due to its strategic role. Both countries are among the founding members of GUAM and after their independence from the Soviet Union, they've remained close. The relations of strategic cooperation, political, economical, and cultural relations between two countries are at a high level.
  • Azerbaijan has an embassy in Kyiv.[50]
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Baku.[51]
  • There are about 32.000 Ukrainians who live in Azerbaijan, and there are over 45,000 Azerbaijanis in Ukraine.
  • The two countries support each other in entering international organizations.[52]
  • Ukraine supports the peaceful resolution of the conflict of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict within the framework of Azerbaijan's territorial integrity and ready to take part in possible peacekeeping operation under the mandate of the United Nations.
  Bahrain See Bahrain–Ukraine relations
  Bangladesh See Bangladesh–Ukraine relations
  China See China–Ukraine relations

China has an embassy in Kyiv and a consulate-general in Odessa. Ukraine has an embassy in Beijing and a consulate-general in Shanghai. Chinese Ukrainian trade relations have intensified since 2008[53] and are growing, for instance various Chinese companies are interested in investing in the construction of a large orbital road around Kyiv and in building a number of bridges across the Dnipro River.[54] China intends to provide a loan of 25 million yuan (about USD 3.7 million) to Ukraine.[55] Ukraine has also begun providing China with jet engines for military aircraft.[56][57]

  Georgia See Georgia–Ukraine relations

Since their independence from the Soviet Union, both countries consider each other as strategic partners and have forged close political and cultural relations. During the Shevardnadze era, the Georgian government maintained its close relations with Ukraine. However, the relationship has further enhanced after Rose Revolution in Georgia and Orange Revolution in Ukraine. During the Orange Revolutions, many Georgians rallied in Kyiv in support of Viktor Yushchenko. Both countries maintain pro-western political orientation and aspire to join NATO and the European Union. The close friendship between Presidents Mikheil Saakashvili and Viktor Yushchenko has also played an important role in recent political and cultural unity of the two countries. However, the cultural and political unity between two nations existed long ago. There are many cultural events in both courtiers, celebrating close relations between Georgian and Ukrainian people. In 2007, Georgians unveiled a statue to Taras Shevchenko in Tbilisi while Ukrainians erected the statue of Georgia's epic poet Shota Rustaveli in Kyiv.

  India See India–Ukraine relations

The Indian Embassy in Kyiv was opened in May 1992 and Ukraine opened its Mission in New Delhi in February 1993. The Consulate General of India in Odessa functioned from 1962 till its closure in March 1999.

  Indonesia See Indonesia–Ukraine relations
  Iran See Iran–Ukraine relations
  • Iran has an embassy in Kyiv.[58]
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Tehran.[59]
  Iraq See Iraq–Ukraine relations

Ukraine has an embassy in Baghdad and Iraq has an embassy in Kyiv. A small contingent of Ukraine operated in Iraq in the wake of the invasion of Iraq mainly concerning police work and reconstruction.

  Israel 1992 See Israel–Ukraine relations
  Japan See Japan–Ukraine relations

Japan extended diplomatic recognition to the Ukrainian state on December 28, 1991, immediately after the breakup of the Soviet Union and full diplomatic relations were established on January 26, 1992. Ukraine maintains an embassy in Tokyo,[62] and Japan maintains an embassy in Kyiv.[63]

  Kazakhstan 1991 See Kazakhstan–Ukraine relations
  Lebanon See Lebanon–Ukraine relations
  Malaysia 1992-03-03 See Malaysia–Ukraine relations
  North Korea Ukraine has been shown to have sold rocket engines used for missiles to North Korea.[56][68]
  Pakistan 1992 See Pakistan–Ukraine relations
  • Pakistan recognized Ukraine's independence in 1991.
  • Pakistan has an embassy in Kyiv.[69]
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Islamabad.[70]
  • Ukraine and Pakistan have been cooperating with each other in educational sector as well as cultural exchanges. Pakistan and Ukraine are also heavily cooperating with each other in aerospace engineering, aerospace technologies, bio-medical sciences and science and technology.
  Saudi Arabia 1993-04 See Saudi Arabia – Ukraine relations
  Singapore 1992-05-31 See Singapore–Ukraine relations
  • Singapore recognized Ukraine's independence on January 2, 1992.
  • Singapore is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Moscow (Russia).[72]
  • Since December 2002, Ukraine has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Singapore.[73]
  • In 2007, the two countries commenced negotiations for a free trade agreement.[74] In 2006, Ukraine was Singapore's 55th largest trading partner last year, with total trade amounting to S$774 million [75]
  • In 2007, the two countries signed a double taxation agreement.[76]
  South Korea 10 February 1992[77] See South Korea–Ukraine relations

The establishment of diplomatic relations between the Republic of Korea and Україна started on 10 February 1992.

  • Ukrainian embassy in Seoul.[78]
  • South Korean embassy in Kyiv.[79]
  Thailand See Thailand–Ukraine relations
  • Thailand is represented in Ukraine through its consulate in Kyiv (Ukraine).[80]
  • Ukraine has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Bangkok.
  Uzbekistan See Ukraine–Uzbekistan relations
  Vietnam See Ukraine–Vietnam relations

EuropeEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Albania See Albania–Ukraine relations
  Austria 1992 See Austria–Ukraine relations

Ukraine includes a great deal of territory (some later part of Poland or Czechoslovakia before 1939) that used to be part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire: Lviv Oblast, Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast, Ternopil Oblast, most of the Chernivtsi Oblast and the Zakarpattia Oblast. Austria has an embassy in Kyiv and 3 honorary consulates (in Donetsk, Kharkiv and Lviv). Ukraine has an embassy in Vienna and 2 honorary consulates (in Klagenfurt and Salzburg).

  Belarus See Belarus–Ukraine relations

Today, the two countries share 891 km of border. Belarus has an embassy in Kyiv and an honorary consulate in Lviv[81] Ukraine has an embassy in Minsk and a general consulate in Brest.[82] Both countries are full members of the Baku Initiative, Common Economic Space and Central European Initiative.

  Belgium 1992 See Belgium–Ukraine relations

Belgium has an embassy in Kyiv; Ukraine has an embassy in Brussels and two honorary consulates (in Antwerp and Mons). Although politically the two nations are not closely connected, they have a long history of economic integration and trade, with Belgian investment playing a role in the contemporary Ukrainian economy. As of 2008, trade revenue generated between the two nations accounted for approximately USD1 billion.

  Bosnia and Herzegovina 1995
  • Bosnia and Herzegovina is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Budapest (Hungary).[83]
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Sarajevo.[84]
  Bulgaria 1992 See Bulgaria–Ukraine relations

Both countries established diplomatic relations in 1992. Bulgaria has an embassy in Kyiv (see Embassy of Bulgaria, Kyiv) and a consulate-general in Odessa.[85] Ukraine has an embassy in Sofia (see Embassy of Ukraine, Sofia) and a consulate-general in Varna. Ukrainian-Bulgarian relations are characterized by a constant active political dialogue at the highest level. Ukraine and Bulgaria actively cooperate and provide mutual support within the framework of regional and international organizations, such as the BSEC, the Central European Initiative, the OSCE, the Council of Europe, the United Nations.

Bulgaria, has confirmed readiness to promote the European and Euro-Atlantic integration of Ukraine. It occupies an important place in the Balkan direction of Ukraine's foreign policy interests, which is due to the geopolitical position of the country in the Balkans, the proximity of interests in the Black Sea and the Danube region. Ukraine and Bulgaria are united by ethnic, linguistic and religious components, traditional economic, trade and cultural-historical ties.

Bulgaria is an important market for Ukrainian products and the largest trade and economic partner of Ukraine in the Balkan region. In 2017, foreign trade between Ukraine and Bulgaria demonstrated growth dynamics.

  Croatia 1992 See Croatia–Ukraine relations
  • Croatia has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Zagreb.
  Cyprus 1992
  Czech Republic 1992 See Czech Republic–Ukraine relations
  • Czech Republic has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Prague.
  Denmark 1992 See Denmark-Ukraine relations
  • Denmark has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Copenhagen.
  Estonia 1992
  Finland 1992 See Finland–Ukraine relations
  • Finland has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Helsinki.
  France 1992 See France–Ukraine relations
  Germany 1918 See Germany–Ukraine relations
  Greece See Greece–Ukraine relations
  Hungary 1991 See Hungary–Ukraine relations
  Iceland 1992
  • Iceland is represented in Ukraine through its embassy in Helsinki (Finland).[94]
  • Ukraine is represented in Iceland through its embassy in Helsinki (Finland) and through an honorary consulate in Reykjavík.[95]
  • Both countries are full members of the Council of Europe.
  Ireland 1992
  Italy 1992 See Italy–Ukraine relations
  Latvia 1992-02-12 See Latvia–Ukraine relations
  Lithuania See Lithuania–Ukraine relations
  Malta See Malta–Ukraine relations

The Maltese embassy in Moscow (Russia) is also accredited as a non resident embassy to Ukraine. Ukraine is represented in Malta through its embassy in Rome (Italy) (see Embassy of Ukraine, Rome).

  Moldova See Moldova–Ukraine relations

Ukraine opened an embassy in Chișinău in[citation needed] and a consulate in Bălți in 2005. The Ukrainian ambassador in Chișinău is Serhiy Pirozhkov. The border between Moldova and Ukraine is 985 kilometers. Ukrainians are the second largest ethnicity group in Moldova after ethnic Moldavians. There are 442,346 of Ukrainians in Moldova, which represents 11.2% of the population. Moldavians are the fourth ethnic minority in Ukraine[citation needed]. As of 2001 Ukrainian Census, there were 258,600 Moldavians in Ukraine[citation needed] – which represents 0,5% of the Ukrainian population. For 70.0% of Moldavian speaking Ukrainians[citation needed], Russian 17.6% and Ukrainian 10.7% are the native languages.

  Montenegro See Montenegro–Ukraine relations

Ukraine recognized the Republic of Montenegro on June 15, 2006.[105] Both countries established diplomatic relations on August 22, 2006. The Ukrainian embassy in Belgrade (Serbia) is accredited as a non resident embassy to Montenegro. In 2008, both countries indicated an intent to open resident embassies.[106]

  Netherlands 1992 See Netherlands–Ukraine relations
  Norway 1992 See Norway–Ukraine relations
  Poland See Poland–Ukraine relations

Poland was the first country in the World to recognize Ukrainian independence. The relations have been improving since, with Poland and Ukraine forming a strong strategic partnership.[111] Various controversies from their shared history occasionally resurface in Polish-Ukrainian relations, but they are not having a major influence on the bilateral relations of Poland and Ukraine.[112]

Both countries share a border of about 529 km.[113] Poland's acceptance of the Schengen Agreement created problems with the Ukrainian border traffic. On July 1, 2009 an agreement on local border traffic between the two country's came into effect. This agreement enables Ukrainian citizens living in border regions to cross the Polish frontier according to a liberalized procedure.[114]

  Portugal 1992 See Portugal–Ukraine relations
  • Portugal recognized Ukraine's independence in 1991.
  • Portugal has an embassy in Kyiv.
  • Ukraine has an embassy and an honorary consulate in Lisbon and a consulate in Porto.[115]
  • There are between 40,000 and 150,000 Ukrainians living in Portugal.[citation needed]
  Romania 1992 See Romania–Ukraine relations
  Russia 1991 See Russia–Ukraine relations

Russia has an embassy in Kyiv and consulates in Kharkiv, Lviv, Odessa and Simferopol. Ukraine has an embassy in Moscow and consulates in Rostov-on-Don, Saint Petersburg, Tyumen and Vladivostok. Relations between the two country's governments have been unfriendly since the presidency of Leonid Kuchma expired. Prime Minister Vladimir Putin allegedly declared at a NATO-Russia summit in 2008 that if Ukraine would join NATO his country can contend to annex the Ukrainian East and Crimea.[10] Some analysts believe that the current Russian leadership is determined to prevent a Russian equivalent of the Ukrainian Orange Revolution in Russia. This mindset is supposed to explain not only Russian domestic policy but its sensitivity over events abroad as well.[116] Many in Ukraine and beyond believe that Russia has periodically used its vast energy resources to bully its smaller, dependent neighbour, but the Russian Government argues instead that it is internal squabbling amongst Ukraine's political elite that is to blame for the deadlock.[117] Later Putin stated that the government of the Russian Federation respects the sovereignty of Ukraine, while several Russian parliamentaries as well some governors were urging the liquidation of Ukraine. Starting in November 2013, the decision by Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych to back out of signing an integration agreement with the European Union started a period of civil unrest between Ukrainians who favored integration with the European Union and those who wanted closer ties with Russia. This culminated in the 2014 Ukrainian Revolution. Russia took advantage of this political instability to annex Crimea in March 2014, though Ukraine still claims sovereignty over the territory. Russia has also allegedly supported separatist forces in the War in Donbass. In December 2015 Russian hackers reportedly hacked Ukraine's power grids leading to a blackout and widespread terror.

  Serbia 1994-01-01 See Serbia–Ukraine relations
  • Serbia recognized Ukraine in December 1991 by the decision on the recognition of the former republics of the Soviet Union.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Belgrade.
  • Serbia has an embassy in Kyiv.
  Slovakia 1993-01-01 See Slovakia–Ukraine relations
  Slovenia 1992-03-10 See Slovenia–Ukraine relations
  Spain 30 January 1992 See Spain–Ukraine relations
  • Spain recognized Ukraine's independence in 1991.
  • Spain has an embassy in Kyiv.[123]
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Madrid and a consulate-general in Barcelona and a consulate in Málaga.[124]
  Sweden 1992-01-13 See Sweden–Ukraine relations
  • Sweden has an embassy in Kyiv and an honorary consulate in Kakhovka.
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Stockholm.
   Switzerland See Switzerland–Ukraine relations

Contacts between Switzerland and Ukraine go back to Tsarist times. Switzerland recognized Ukraine in 1991 and immediately opened an embassy in Kyiv.[125] Ukraine has an embassy in Bern.[126][127]

  Turkey See Turkey–Ukraine relations

Turkey and Ukraine have a long chronology of historical, geographic, and cultural contact. Diplomatic relations between both countries were established in early 1990s when Turkey became one of the first states in the world to announce officially about recognition of sovereign Ukraine. Turkey has an embassy in Kyiv and a consulate general in Odessa.[128] Ukraine has an embassy in Ankara and a consulate general in Istanbul.[129]

  United Kingdom See Ukraine – United Kingdom relations

OceaniaEdit

Country Formal Relations Began Notes
  Australia See Australia–Ukraine relations
  New Zealand 1992-02-27

New Zealand recognized Ukraine as independent state on 27 February 1992 Diplomatic relations between the two countries were established on March 3, 1992. Since 2015, the New Zealand Embassy in Warsaw (Poland) has been accredited to act as New Zealand's embassy to Ukraine. Since October 2008 the honorary consulate of New Zealand operates in Kyiv. In December 2007 The Embassy of Ukraine in Australia was accredited to act as Ukraine's embassy for New Zealand. In April 2006 New Zealand's Minister for Foreign Affairs paid an official visit Ukraine.[133]

  Solomon Islands

Ukraine is represented in the Solomon Islands by its embassy in Canberra, Australia.[134]

  Vanuatu

Ukraine is represented in Vanuatu by its embassy in Canberra, Australia.[135]

See alsoEdit

External linksEdit

  • Гай-Нижник П. П. Росія проти України (1990–2016 рр.): від політики шантажу і примусу до війни на поглинання та спроби знищення. – К.: «МП Леся», 2017. – 332 с. ISBN 978-617-7530-02-1
  • State Agency for Investment and National Projects website (en)
  • Ukraine: Quo Vadis?, edited by Sabine Fischer, Chaillot Paper No. 108, February 2008, European Union Institute for Security Studies

ReferencesEdit

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    Ukraine Takes Step Toward Joining NATO, The New York Times (23 December 2014)
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