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Salzburg (German pronunciation: [ˈzaltsbʊɐ̯k];[note 1] Bavarian: Såizburg; literally: "Salt Fortress") is the fourth-largest city in Austria and the capital of the federal state of Salzburg.

Salzburg, Austria
Salzburg viewed from the Festung Hohensalzburg
Salzburg viewed from the Festung Hohensalzburg
Salzburg, Austria is located in Austria
Salzburg, Austria
Salzburg, Austria
Location within Austria
Coordinates: 47°48′0″N 13°02′0″E / 47.80000°N 13.03333°E / 47.80000; 13.03333Coordinates: 47°48′0″N 13°02′0″E / 47.80000°N 13.03333°E / 47.80000; 13.03333
Country Austria
State Salzburg
District Statutory city
Government
 • Mayor vacant (-)
Area
 • Total 65.678 km2 (25.358 sq mi)
Elevation 424 m (1,391 ft)
Population (1 January 2016)[1]
 • Total 150,887
 • Density 2,300/km2 (6,000/sq mi)
Time zone CET (UTC+1)
 • Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+2)
Postal code 5020
Area code 0662
Vehicle registration S
Website www.stadt-salzburg.at
Salzburg
Salzburg
Salzburgs old town.
UNESCO World Heritage Site
Official name Historic Centre of the City of Salzburg
Location Salzburg, Austria Edit this at Wikidata
Coordinates 47°48′00″N 13°02′00″E / 47.8°N 13.0333°E / 47.8; 13.0333
Area 66 km2 (710,000,000 sq ft)
Includes Q1852160 Edit this on Wikidata
Criteria Cultural: ii, iv, vi
Reference 784
Inscription 1996 (20th Session)
Website www.stadt-salzburg.at
Salzburg is located in Austria
Salzburg
Location of Salzburg

Salzburg's "Old Town" (Altstadt) is internationally renowned for its baroque architecture and is one of the best-preserved city centers north of the Alps. It was listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1997. The city has three universities and a large population of students. Tourists also visit Salzburg to tour the historic center and the scenic Alpine surroundings.

Salzburg was the birthplace of 18th-century composer Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. In the mid‑20th century, the city was the setting for the musical play and film The Sound of Music.

Contents

HistoryEdit

Antiquity to the High Middle AgesEdit

Traces of human settlements have been found in the area, dating to the Neolithic Age. The first settlements in Salzburg continuous with the present were apparently by the Celts around the 5th century BC.

Around 15 BC the Roman Empire merged the settlements into one city. At this time, the city was called "Juvavum" and was awarded the status of a Roman municipium in 45 AD. Juvavum developed into an important town of the Roman province of Noricum. After the Norican frontiers collapse, Juvavum declined so sharply that by the late 7th century it nearly became a ruin.[4]

The Life of Saint Rupert credits the 8th-century saint with the city's rebirth. When Theodo of Bavaria asked Rupert to become bishop c. 700, Rupert reconnoitered the river for the site of his basilica. Rupert chose Juvavum, ordained priests, and annexed the manor Piding. Rupert named the city "Salzburg". He traveled to evangelise among pagans.

The name Salzburg means "Salt Castle" (Latin: Salis Burgium). The name derives from the barges carrying salt on the Salzach River, which were subject to a toll in the 8th century as was customary for many communities and cities on European rivers. The Festung Hohensalzburg, the city's fortress, was built in 1077 by Archbishop Gebhard, who made it his residence.[5] It was greatly expanded during the following centuries.

IndependenceEdit

Independence from Bavaria was secured in the late 14th century. Salzburg was the seat of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, a prince-bishopric of the Holy Roman Empire. As the reformation movement gained steam, riots broke out among peasants in the areas in and around Salzburg. The city was occupied during the German Peasants' War, and the archbishop had to flee to the safety of the fortress[6] It was besieged for three months in 1525.

Eventually, tensions were quelled, and the city's independence led to an increase in wealth and prosperity, culminating in the late 16th to 18th centuries under the Prince Archbishops Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau, Markus Sittikus, and Paris Lodron. It was in the 17th century that Italian architects (and Austrians who had studied the Baroque style) rebuilt the city center as it is today along with many palaces.[7]

Modern eraEdit

Religious conflictEdit

 
Mozart was born in Salzburg, capital of the Archbishopric of Salzburg, a former ecclesiastical principality in what is now Austria, then part of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation

On 31 October 1731, the 214th anniversary of the 95 Theses, Archbishop Count Leopold Anton von Firmian signed an Edict of Expulsion, the Emigrationspatent, directing all Protestant citizens to recant their non-Catholic beliefs. 21,475 citizens refused to recant their beliefs and were expelled from Salzburg. Most of them accepted an offer by King Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia, traveling the length and breadth of Germany to their new homes in East Prussia.[8] The rest settled in other Protestant states in Europe and the British colonies in America.

IlluminismEdit

In 1772–1803, under archbishop Hieronymus Graf von Colloredo, Salzburg was a centre of late Illuminism.

Electorate of SalzburgEdit

In 1803, the archbishopric was secularised by Emperor Napoleon; he transferred the territory to Ferdinando III of Tuscany, former Grand Duke of Tuscany, as the Electorate of Salzburg.

Austrian annexation of SalzburgEdit

In 1805, Salzburg was annexed to the Austrian Empire, along with the Berchtesgaden Provostry.

Salzburg under Bavarian ruleEdit

In 1809, the territory of Salzburg was transferred to the Kingdom of Bavaria after Austria's defeat at Wagram.

Division of Salzburg and annexation by Austria and BavariaEdit

After the Congress of Vienna with the Treaty of Munich (1816), Salzburg was definitively returned to Austria, but without Rupertigau and Berchtesgaden, which remained with Bavaria. Salzburg was integrated into the Salzach province and Salzburgerland was ruled from Linz.[9]

In 1850, Salzburg's status was restored as the capital of the Duchy of Salzburg, a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The city became part of Austria-Hungary in 1866 as the capital of a crownland into the Austrian Empire. The nostalgia of the Romantic Era led to increased tourism. In 1892, a funicular was installed to facilitate tourism to the fortress of Hohensalzburg[10]

 
Salzburg in 1914

20th centuryEdit

First republicEdit

Following World War I and the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire; Salzburg, as the capital of one of the Austro-Hungarian territories, became part of the new German Austria. In 1918, it represented the residual German-speaking territories of the Austrian heartlands. This was replaced by the First Austrian Republic in 1919, after the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919).

Annexation by the Third ReichEdit

 
Young Austrians at celebrations just after the Anschluss

The Anschluss (the occupation and annexation of Austria, including Salzburg, into the Third Reich) took place the 12 March 1938, one day before a scheduled referendum about Austria's independence. German troops moved into the city. Political opponents, Jewish citizens and other minorities were subsequently arrested and deported to concentration camps. The synagogue was destroyed. After Germany invaded the Soviet Union, several POW camps for prisoners from the Soviet Union and other enemy nations were organized in the city.

During the Nazi occupation, a Romani camp was built in Salzburg-Maxglan. It was an Arbeitserziehungslager (work 'education' camp), which provided slave labour to local industry. It also operated as a Zwischenlager (transit camp), holding Roma before their deportation to German extermination camps or ghettos in German-occupied territories in eastern Europe.[11]

World War IIEdit

Allied bombing destroyed 7,600 houses and killed 550 inhabitants. Fifteen strikes destroyed 46 percent of the city's buildings, especially those around Salzburg train station. Although the town's bridges and the dome of the cathedral were destroyed, much of its Baroque architecture remained intact. As a result, it is one of the few remaining examples of a town of its style. American troops entered Salzburg on 5 May 1945.

In the city of Salzburg, there were several DP Camps following World War II. Among these were Riedenburg, Camp Herzl (Franz-Josefs-Kaserne), Camp Mülln, Bet Bialik, Bet Trumpeldor, and New Palestine. Salzburg was the centre of the American-occupied area in Austria.

Present dayEdit

After World War II, Salzburg became the capital city of the State of Salzburg (Land Salzburg). On 27 January 2006, the 250th anniversary of the birth of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, all 35 churches of Salzburg rang their bells after 8:00 p.m. (local time) to celebrate the occasion. Major celebrations took place throughout the year.

As of 2017 Salzburg has a GDP per capita of €46,100, which is greater than Austria’s, and most European countries’, average.[12]

GeographyEdit

Salzburg is on the banks of the Salzach River, at the northern boundary of the Alps. The mountains to Salzburg's south contrast with the rolling plains to the north. The closest alpine peak, the 1,972‑metre-high Untersberg, is less than 16 kilometres (10 miles) from the city centre. The Altstadt, or "old town", is dominated by its baroque towers and churches and the massive Festung Hohensalzburg. This area is surrounded by two smaller mountains, the Mönchsberg and Kapuzinerberg, which offer green relief within the city. Salzburg is approximately 150 km (93 mi) east of Munich, 281 km (175 mi) northwest of Ljubljana, Slovenia, and 300 km (186 mi) west of Vienna.

ClimateEdit

Salzburg is part of the temperate zone. The Köppen climate classification specifies the climate as either oceanic climate (Cfb) or humid continental (Dfb), depending on which isotherm for winter means are used. With the more regular −3 °C (27 °F) one for the coldest month, Salzburg would be a four-season oceanic climate with significant temperature differences between seasons. Due to the location at the northern rim of the Alps, the amount of precipitation is comparatively high, mainly in the summer months. The specific drizzle is called Schnürlregen in the local dialect. In winter and spring, pronounced foehn winds regularly occur.

Climate data for Salzburg-Flughafen (LOWS)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 20.1
(68.2)
21.7
(71.1)
24.9
(76.8)
27.9
(82.2)
32.2
(90)
35.6
(96.1)
38.6
(101.5)
35.6
(96.1)
32.1
(89.8)
28.2
(82.8)
23.5
(74.3)
18.6
(65.5)
38.6
(101.5)
Average high °C (°F) 3.2
(37.8)
5.6
(42.1)
10.4
(50.7)
14.3
(57.7)
19.9
(67.8)
22.2
(72)
24.4
(75.9)
24.2
(75.6)
20.1
(68.2)
14.8
(58.6)
7.8
(46)
4.0
(39.2)
14.2
(57.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
0.7
(33.3)
4.8
(40.6)
8.5
(47.3)
13.8
(56.8)
16.5
(61.7)
18.6
(65.5)
18.3
(64.9)
14.3
(57.7)
9.3
(48.7)
3.6
(38.5)
0.4
(32.7)
9.0
(48.2)
Average low °C (°F) −4
(25)
−2.9
(26.8)
0.7
(33.3)
3.8
(38.8)
8.4
(47.1)
11.5
(52.7)
13.5
(56.3)
13.5
(56.3)
10.1
(50.2)
5.5
(41.9)
0.6
(33.1)
−2.5
(27.5)
4.9
(40.8)
Record low °C (°F) −25.4
(−13.7)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−21.6
(−6.9)
−3.9
(25)
−2.1
(28.2)
2.0
(35.6)
3.7
(38.7)
4.3
(39.7)
−1.6
(29.1)
−8
(18)
−17.8
(0)
−26.8
(−16.2)
−26.8
(−16.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 59.9
(2.358)
54.7
(2.154)
78.7
(3.098)
83.1
(3.272)
114.5
(4.508)
154.8
(6.094)
157.5
(6.201)
151.3
(5.957)
101.3
(3.988)
72.6
(2.858)
83.0
(3.268)
72.8
(2.866)
1,184.2
(46.622)
Average snowfall cm (inches) 24.0
(9.45)
23.9
(9.41)
21.7
(8.54)
2.9
(1.14)
0.1
(0.04)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
12.1
(4.76)
27.8
(10.94)
112.5
(44.29)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 10.1 9.5 11.9 11.8 12.1 15.0 14.4 13.2 10.8 9.3 10.8 11.8 140.7
Average snowy days (≥ 1.0 cm) 15.4 11.7 6.1 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 5.1 13.1 52.9
Mean monthly sunshine hours 67.0 91.9 130.0 152.6 196.4 193.9 221.1 202.8 167.7 129.7 81.2 62.8 1,697.1
Source: Central Institute for Meteorology and Geodynamics[13]

Population developmentEdit

Year Pop. ±%
1869 27,858 —    
1880 33,241 +19.3%
1890 38,081 +14.6%
1900 48,945 +28.5%
1910 56,423 +15.3%
1923 60,026 +6.4%
1934 69,447 +15.7%
1939 77,170 +11.1%
1951 102,927 +33.4%
1961 108,114 +5.0%
1971 129,919 +20.2%
1981 139,426 +7.3%
1991 143,978 +3.3%
2001 142,662 −0.9%
2011 145,367 +1.9%
2013 145,871 +0.3%
2015 148,420 +1.7%
2016 150,887 +1.7%
Source: Statistik Austria[14]
Largest groups of foreign residents[15]
Nationality Population (2017)
  Yugoslavia 19,345
  Germany 7,128
  Turkey 3,003
  Romania 2,796
  Hungary 1,957
  Syria 1,260
  Soviet Union 1,157
  Italy 995
  United States 764

Salzburg's official population significantly increased in 1935 when the city absorbed adjacent municipalities. After World War II, numerous refugees found a new home in the city. New residential space was constructed for American soldiers of the postwar occupation, and could be used for refugees when they left. Around 1950, Salzburg passed the mark of 100,000 citizens, and in 2006, it reached the mark of 150,000 citizens.

ArchitectureEdit

 
Ensemble view.
 
Sigmund Haffner Gasse – Rathaus.

Romanesque and GothicEdit

The Romanesque and Gothic churches, the monasteries and the early carcass houses dominated the medieval city for a long time. The Cathedral of Archbishop Conrad of Wittelsbach was the largest basilica north of the Alps. The choir of the Franciscan Church Hall, construction was begun by Hans von Burghausen and completed by Stephan Krumenauer, is one of the most prestigious religious gothic constructions of southern Germany. At the end of the Gothic era the Collegiate church "Nonnberg", Margaret Chapel in St. Peter's Cemetery, the St. George's Chapel and the stately halls of the "Hoher Stock" in the Hohensalzburg Castle were constructed.

Renaissance and baroqueEdit

Inspired by Vincenzo Scamozzi, Prince Archbishop Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau began to transform the medieval town to the architectural ideals of the late Renaissance. Plans for a massive cathedral by Scamozzi failed to materialize upon the fall of the archbishop. A second cathedral planned by Santino Solari rose as the first early Baroque church in Salzburg. It served as an example for many other churches in Southern Germany and Austria. Markus Sittikus and Paris von Lodron continued to rebuild the city with major projects such as Hellbrunn Palace, the prince archbishop's residence, the university buildings, fortifications, and many other buildings. Giovanni Antonio Daria managed by order of Prince Archbishop Guido von Thun the construction of the residential well. Giovanni Gaspare Zuccalli, by order of the same archbishop, created the Erhard and the Kajetan church in the south of the town. The city's redesign was completed with buildings designed by Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach, donated by Prince Archbishop Johann Ernst von Thun.

After the era of Ernst von Thun, the city's expansion came to a halt, which is the reason why there are no churches built in the rococo style. Sigismund von Schrattenbach continued with the construction of "Sigmundstor" and the statue of holy Maria on the cathedral square. With the fall and division of the former "Fürsterzbistums Salzburg" (Archbishopric) to Upper Austria, Bavaria (Rupertigau) and Tyrol (Zillertal Matrei) began a long period of urban stagnancy. This era didn't end before the period of promoterism (Gründerzeit) brought new life into urban development. The builder dynasty Jakob Ceconi and Carl Freiherr von Schwarz filled major positions in shaping the city in this era.[16]

Classical modernism and post-war modernismEdit

 
The Red Bull Hangar-7
 
Residential and studio house Lechner in the old town

Buildings of classical modernism and in particular the post-war modernism are frequently encountered in Salzburg. Examples are the Zahnwurzen house (a house in the Linzergasse 22 in the right center of the old town), the "Lepi" (a public baths in Leopoldskron) (built 1964) and the original 1957 constructed congress center of Salzburg, which was replaced by a new building in 2001. An important and famous example of architecture of this era is the 1960 opening of the Großes Festspielhaus by Clemens Holzmeister.

Contemporary architectureEdit

Adding contemporary architecture to Salzburg's old town without risking its UNESCO World Heritage status is problematic. Yet some new structures have been added: the Mozarteum at the baroque Mirabell garden (Architecture Robert Rechenauer),[17] the 2001 Congress house (Architecture: Freemasons), the 2011 Unipark Nonntal (Architecture: Storch Ehlers partners), the 2001 "Makartsteg" bridge (Architecture: HALLE1), and the "Residential and studio house" of the architects Christine and Horst Lechner in the middle of Salzburg's old town (winner of the architecture award of Salzburg 2010).[18][19] Other examples of contemporary architecture lie outside the old town: the Faculty of Science building (Universität Salzburg – Architecture Willhelm Holzbauer) built on the edge of free green space, the blob architecture of Red Bull Hangar‑7 (Architecture: Volkmar Burgstaller[20]) at Salzburg Airport, home to Dietrich Mateschitz's Flying Bulls and the Europark shopping mall. (Architecture: Massimiliano Fuksas)

DistrictsEdit

 
Districts of Salzburg
 
View from Mirabellgarten at night

Salzburg has twenty-four urban districts and three extra-urban populations.

Urban districts (Stadtteile):

  • Aigen
  • Altstadt
  • Elisabeth-Vorstadt
  • Gneis
  • Gneis-Süd
  • Gnigl
  • Itzling
  • Itzling-Nord
  • Kasern
  • Langwied
  • Lehen
  • Leopoldskron-Moos
  • Liefering
  • Maxglan
  • Maxglan-West
  • Morzg
  • Mülln
  • Neustadt
  • Nonntal
  • Parsch
  • Riedenburg
  • Salzburg-Süd
  • Taxham
  • Schallmoos

Extra-urban populations (Landschaftsräume):

  • Gaisberg
  • Hellbrunn
  • Heuberg

Main sightsEdit

 
Gardens in Mirabell Palace, with Salzburg fortress in the distance
 
The famous fountain in Mirabell Gardens (seen in the "Do-Re-Mi" song from The Sound of Music)
 
View of shoppers on Getreidegasse, which is one of the oldest streets in Salzburg
 
The Sunset at the Staatsbrücke

Salzburg is a tourist favourite, with the number of tourists outnumbering locals by a large margin in peak times. In addition to Mozart's birthplace noted above, other notable places include:

Old Town

Outside the Old Town

  • Mirabell Palace, with its wide gardens full of flowers
  • St. Sebastian's cemetery (Sebastiansfriedhof)
  • Schloss Leopoldskron, a rococo palace and national historic monument in Leopoldskron-Moos, a southern district of Salzburg
  • Hellbrunn with its parks and castles
  • The Sound of Music tour companies who operate tours of film locations
  • Hangar-7, a multifunctional building owned by Red Bull, with a collection of historical airplanes, helicopters and Formula One racing cars

Greater Salzburg area

  • Anif Castle, located south of the city in Anif
  • Shrine of Our Lady of Maria Plain, a late Baroque church on the northern edge of Salzburg
  • Salzburger Freilichtmuseum Großgmain, an open-air museum containing old farmhouses from all over the state assembled in an historic setting
  • Schloss Klessheim, a palace and casino, formerly used by Adolf Hitler
  • Berghof, Hitler's mountain retreat near Berchtesgaden
  • Kehlsteinhaus, the only remnant of Hitler's Berghof
  • Salzkammergut, an area of lakes east of the city
  • Untersberg mountain, next to the city on the Germany-Austria border, with panoramic views of Salzburg and the surrounding Alps
  • Skiing is an attraction during winter. Salzburg itself has no skiing facilities, but it acts as a gateway to skiing areas to the south. During the winter months its airport receives charter flights from around Europe.
  • Salzburg Zoo, located south of the city in Anif

EducationEdit

Salzburg is a centre of education and home to three universities, as well as several professional colleges and gymnasiums (high schools).

Universities and higher education institutionsEdit

Notable citizensEdit

 
Mozart's birthplace at Getreidegasse 9

EventsEdit

TransportEdit

The city is served by comprehensive rail connections, with frequent east-west trains serving Vienna, Munich, Innsbruck, and Zürich, including daily high-speed ICE services. The city acts as a hub for south-bound trains through the Alps into Italy.

Salzburg Airport has scheduled flights to European cities such as Frankfurt, Vienna, London, Rotterdam, Amsterdam, Brussels, Düsseldorf, and Zürich, as well as Hamburg, Edinburgh and Dublin. In addition to these, there are numerous charter flights.

In the main city, there is the Salzburg trolleybus system and bus system with a total of more than 20 lines, and service every 10 minutes. Salzburg has an S-Bahn system with four Lines (S1, S2, S3, S11), trains depart from the main station every 30 minutes, and they are part of the ÖBB network. Suburb line number S1 reaches the world-famous Silent Night chapel in Oberndorf in about 25 minutes.

Popular cultureEdit

In the 1960s, the movie The Sound of Music used some locations in and around Salzburg and the state of Salzburg. The movie was based on the true story of Maria von Trapp who took up with an aristocratic family and fled the German Anschluss. Although the film is not particularly popular nor well known among Austrians, the town draws many visitors who wish to visit the filming locations, alone or on tours.

Salzburg is the setting for the Austrian crime series Stockinger.

In the 2010 film Knight & Day, Salzburg serves as the backdrop for a large portion of the film.

LanguageEdit

Austrian German is widely written. Austro-Bavarian is the German dialect of this territory and widely spoken.

SportsEdit

FootballEdit

The former SV Austria Salzburg reached the UEFA Cup final in 1994. On 6 April 2005 Red Bull bought the club and changed its name into FC Red Bull Salzburg. The home stadium of Red Bull Salzburg is the Wals Siezenheim Stadium in a suburb in the agglomeration of Salzburg and was one of the venues for the 2008 European Football Championship. The FC Red Bull Salzburg plays in the Austrian Bundesliga.

After Red Bull had bought the SV Austria Salzburg and changed its name and team colors, some supporters of the club decided to leave and form a new club with the old name and old colors, wanting to preserve the traditions of their club. The reformed SV Austria Salzburg was founded in 2005 and currently plays in the Erste Liga, only one tier below the Bundesliga.

Ice hockeyEdit

Red Bull also sponsors the local ice hockey team, the EC Salzburg Red Bulls. The team plays in the Erste Bank Eishockey Liga, an Austria-headquartered crossborder league featuring the best teams from Austria, Hungary, Slovenia and Italy, as well as one Czech team.

Other sportsEdit

Salzburg was a candidate city for the 2010 & 2014 Winter Olympics, but lost to Vancouver and Sochi respectively.

International relationsEdit

Twin towns—sister citiesEdit

Salzburg is twinned with:[22]

GalleryEdit

A night time long exposure of Salzburg
Salzburg old town with a typical narrow alleyway
Salzburg Altstadt Panorama
Salzburg panorama as seen from the Hohensalzburg Castle

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Statistik Austria - Bevölkerung zu Jahresbeginn 2002-2016 nach Gemeinden (Gebietsstand 1.1.2016) for Salzburg, Austria.
  2. ^ "Saltsburg" in the American Heritage Dictionary Archived September 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ "Salzburg" in the Oxford English Dictionary
  4. ^ de Fabianis, Valeria, ed. Castles of the World. Metro Books, 2013, p. 167. ISBN 978-1-4351-4845-1
  5. ^ de Fabianis, p. 167.
  6. ^ de Fabianis, p. 167
  7. ^ Visit Salzburg, Salzburg's History: Coming a Long Way.
  8. ^ Frank L. Perry, Jr., Catholics Cleanse Salzburg of Protestants, The Georgia Salzburger Society.
  9. ^ Times Atlas of European History, 3rd Ed., 2002
  10. ^ de Fabianis, Valeria, ed. Castles of the World. Metro Books, 2013, p. 168. ISBN 978-1-4351-4845-1
  11. ^ "AEIOU Österreich-Lexikon – Konzentrationslager, KZ". Austria-Forum.org. Retrieved 2013-06-24. 
  12. ^ E.B. (26 September 2017). "The Salzburg Festival is a boon to the local economy". The Economist. 
  13. ^ "Klimadaten von Österreich 1971 – 2000 – Salzburg-Flughafen". Retrieved 2010-06-14. 
  14. ^ [1]
  15. ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch der Landeshauptstadt Salzburg" (PDF). Stadt Salzburg. Retrieved 2016-11-03. 
  16. ^ "Architecture : Salzburg Sights by Period". Visit-salzburg.net. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  17. ^ [2] Archived May 6, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
  18. ^ Preisträger Salzburg Archived 2013-06-30 at the Wayback Machine.
  19. ^ "flow – der VERBUND Blog". Verbund.com. 2012-10-15. Archived from the original on 2013-02-09. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  20. ^ "Red Bull′s Hangar-7 at Salzburg Airport". Visit Salzburg. Retrieved 2013-03-12. 
  21. ^ "Theodor Herzl (1860–1904)". Jewish Agency for Israel. Archived from the original on September 30, 2009. Retrieved 2009-08-08. He received a doctorate in law in 1884 and worked for a short while in courts in Vienna and Salzburg. 
  22. ^ "Salzburger Städtepartnerschaften" (in German). Stadt Salzburg. Retrieved 2015-05-29. 
  23. ^ "Dresden — Partner Cities". © 2008 Landeshauptstadt Dresden. Archived from the original on October 16, 2008. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 

BibliographyEdit

External linksEdit

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