A law degree is an academic degree conferred for studies in law. Such degrees are generally preparation for legal careers, but while their names can be similar, each country's law degrees differ in terms of legal training and the types of legal practice they allow. Generally, law degrees include the Bachelor of Laws (LLB), the Master of Laws (LLM), and the Doctor of Laws (LLD or JSD), among others. These degrees are usually obtained through a combination of coursework, research, and practical experiences, such as internships or clinical legal education. Law degrees are recognized as a necessary step towards becoming a licensed lawyer in many jurisdictions, and they also provide a foundation for various other career paths such as academia, policy, or consultancy.

List of common degrees edit

History edit

The first academic degrees were law degrees, and the first law degrees were doctorates. The foundations of the first universities in Europe were the glossators of the 11th century, which were schools of law.[1] The first European university, Bologna, was founded by four legal scholars in the 12th century. The first academic title of "doctor" applied to scholars of law. The degree and title were not applied to scholars of other disciplines until the 13th century.[2]

The University of Bologna served as the model for other law schools of the medieval age.[3] While it was common for students of law to visit and study at schools in other countries, that was not the case with England. This was because of the English rejection of Roman law. Although the University of Oxford and University of Cambridge did teach canon law up until the English Reformation, its importance was always superior to civil law in those institutions.[4]

Types of degrees edit

The type of law degree conferred differs according to the jurisdiction.

A typical Juris Doctor diploma from the United States, here from Suffolk University Law School in 2008.

Austria edit

Magister iuris (Mag. iur.) ("Master of Law") in Austria. It is a master's level degree and the first academic title within both systems. After three years of practice, students can take the "Anwaltsprüfung," an equivalent of the bar exam.

Brazil edit

Bacharel em Direito (Bachelor of Laws) or Bacharel em Ciências Jurídicas e Sociais (Bachelor of Laws and Social Sciences), in Brazil. It is an undergraduate degree. To be a lawyer and be admitted at the Ordem dos Advogados do Brasil (Brazilian Bar Association), the Bachelor must be approved at the Brazilian Bar Exam. If the Selection and Registration Committee accept the new member, they will be considered an Advogado (Attorney at Law/Advocate).

Canada edit

Canada's legal system is composed of both common law and civil law elements. As of 2019,[5] the professional degree required to become a common law lawyer is a Juris Doctor (J.D.). Formerly, this degree was called a Bachelor of Laws (LL.B., Legum Baccalaureatus in Latin), but the name was phased out. LL.B. holders were often given the chance to convert their degrees to the new designation. Despite having the word "Doctor" in the name, the J.D. remains a second-entry undergraduate programme, requiring some years of undergraduate study before applicants are eligible. For Quebec, where provincial law is a hybrid of French-heritage civil law for civil matters and common law for public, criminal, and federal law matters, the professional degree is often called the Bachelor of Civil Law (B.C.L.) in English, and has other designations at various institutions in Quebec. Prior to getting called to the bar in one of Canada's provinces or territories, degree-holders must complete bar exams and articling terms (professional apprenticeships with practising lawyers) or the equivalent thereof.[6]

For graduate academic study in law, the master's level designation is the Master of Laws (LL.M., Legum Magister in Latin). Doctoral-level legal research degrees vary in title by institution, but the designations include the Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D., Scientiae Juridicae Doctor in Latin), Doctor of Philosophy in Law (Ph.D., Philosophiae Doctor in Latin), or Doctor of Laws (LL.D., Legum Doctor in Latin) for common law-based doctorates and the Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.) for civil law-based doctorates.

The degree of Doctor of Laws (LL.D., Legum Doctor in Latin) is reserved at some universities for honorary use.

Croatia edit

Magister iuris (Mag. iur.) ("Master of Law") in Croatia. It is a master's level degree and the first academic title within the system. After three years of practice, students can take the "Pravosudni ispit," an equivalent of the bar exam.

Finland edit

The Finnish title of varatuomari is the basic qualification for the legal profession. It is obtained by a one-year externship at a district court after completing a master's degree in law in a university.

Germany edit

Erstes Juristisches Staatsexamen is partially equivalent to the Bar exam, since the second part (Zweites Juristisches Staatsexamen), is the German equivalent to the Bar exam in the U.S. At some universities you either become a "Lizentiat des Rechts (Licentiatus iuris)", a Magister iuris, or a Diplom-Jurist. It is a master's-level degree.[7]

Italy edit

Laurea di Dottore in Giurisprudenza for graduates before the Bologna Process reforms, or Laurea Magistrale in Giurisprudenza after the Bologna Process reforms ("Juris Doctor"), in Italy. It is a masters level degree,[8] however all graduates of Italian universities are authorized to use the title of "dottore" (Italian for doctor).[9]

Mexico edit

Licenciatura en Derecho ("Bachelor in Law") in Mexico.

Russia edit

In Russia, students attend university to earn a Specialist degree in law. A Russian law degree is graduate-level degree, which allows for PhD research after admission to the PhD department (aspirantura), though formally it is not at the master's level.[10]

Spain edit

Spanish universities confer a Bachelor's Degree in Law. At one time, students earned law degrees as a part of the five-year Bologna Process. The modern Spanish law program consists of four years, with internship and to specialize and it has a graduate level (it is necessary to study a master's degree).

Switzerland edit

Lizentiat der Rechtswissenschaften (German) / Licence en droit (French) until 2004 and Master of Law (MLaw) since 2004 (as a result of the Bologna Process) in Switzerland. It is a masters level degree.

Ukraine edit

Since 2017 the main degree in law in Ukraine is a Master of Laws degree (mahistr prava, 1.5 or 2 years of study after obtaining a Bachelor of Laws degree).

It may be obtained only after obtaining a Bachelor of Laws degree (bakalavr prava, 4 years of study after graduation from high school).

Until 2017 Ukrainian universities also conferred a Specialist in Law degrees (spetsialist prava or iuryst). Until 2002 it required 5 years of study after graduation from high school (according to the system of education inherited from the Soviet era). In 2002–2017, a Specialist in Law degree existed alongside the Master of Laws; in these years Specialist in Law programs lasted 1 year after obtaining Bachelor of Laws degree). In 2016, students were enrolled on the specialist's programs for the last time.

United Kingdom and Ireland edit

Universities in the United Kingdom generally award a Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) for undergraduate legal studies, although some award a Bachelor of Arts as their standard undergraduate law degree, as with the B.A. in jurisprudence at the University of Oxford and the B.A. Tripos in Law at the University of Cambridge. The Bachelor of Civil Law (B.C.L.) degree awarded by the University of Oxford is in fact a postgraduate degree, similar to an LL.M. elsewhere.

In the Republic of Ireland, undergraduate law degrees are offered in the same fashion as in the United Kingdom. While the constituent universities of the National University of Ireland award a Bachelor of Civil Law (B.C.L.) degree as their primary undergraduate law degree, it is in fact a common law degree that is directly equivalent to an LL.B. degree elsewhere. The Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) degree is the degree generally awarded by other universities and colleges in Ireland.

Many universities also offer a Master of Laws. Also referred to as an LL.M. from its Latin name, Legum Magister. It is an advanced academic degree pursued by those holding a professional law degree or a degree in a relevant field.

Others edit

Juris Doctor (J.D.) in the United States and Japan (also offered at some schools in Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia, and Hong Kong). It is a professional degree.[11]

Legum Doctor (known as the LL.D., or in some jurisdictions Doctor of Laws) is in some jurisdictions the highest academic degree in law and is equivalent to a Ph.D., and in others is an honorary degree only.

Doctor of Juridical Science (S.J.D.) is a research doctorate in law awarded mostly in the United States and Canada.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Herbermann, et al. (1915). Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Encyclopedia Press. Accessed May 26, 2008.
  2. ^ Herbermann (1915).
  3. ^ García y García, A. (1992). "The Faculties of Law," A History of the University in Europe, London: Cambridge University Press. Accessed May 26, 2008.
  4. ^ García y García (1992), 390.
  5. ^ "McGill adopts JD designation for common law degree". Faculty of Law. Retrieved 2020-05-23.
  6. ^ "How do I become a lawyer in Ontario?".
  7. ^ Free University of Berlin. Bachelor, Diploma and Staatsexamen Archived 2009-03-31 at the Wayback Machine (in German). Accessed January 5, 2008. See also Staatsexamen
  8. ^ See University of Ferrara. Faculty of Law Archived 2016-03-31 at the Wayback Machine (in Italian). Accessed January 5, 2008.
  9. ^ Regio Decreto 4 giugno 1938, n.1269 Archived 2009-08-09 at the Wayback Machine, Art. 48. (in Italian). Accessed February 10, 2009.
  10. ^ Julia Pogodina and Ruslan Sadovnikov. Legal Education and Legal Careers in Russia Archived 2009-03-26 at the Wayback Machine. Northwestern University School of Law, Career Center. Accessed January 7, 2009.
  11. ^ Association of American Universities Data Exchange. Glossary of Terms for Graduate Education Archived 2009-03-04 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed May 26, 2008; National Science Foundation (2006). "Time to Degree of U.S. Research Doctorate Recipients Archived 2016-03-08 at the Wayback Machine," "InfoBrief, Science Resource Statistics" NSF 06-312, 2006, p. 7. (under "Data notes" mentions that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); San Diego County Bar Association (1969). "Ethics Opinion 1969-5" Archived 2003-04-11 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed May 26, 2008. (under "other references" discusses differences between academic and professional doctorate, and statement that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); University of Utah (2006). University of Utah – The Graduate School – Graduate Handbook Archived 2008-06-26 at the Wayback Machine. Accessed May 28, 2008. (the J.D. degree is listed under doctorate degrees); German Federal Ministry of Education. "U.S. Higher Education / Evaluation of the Almanac Chronicle of Higher Education" Archived 2008-04-13 at the Wayback Machine (in German). Accessed May 26, 2008. (report by the German Federal Ministry of Education analysing the Chronicle of Higher Education from the U.S. and stating that the J.D. is a professional doctorate); Encyclopædia Britannica. (2002). "Encyclopædia Britannica", 3:962:1a. (the J.D. is listed among other doctorate degrees).