University of Bologna
The University of Bologna (Italian: Università di Bologna, UNIBO), founded in 1088, is the oldest university in continuous operation, as well as one of the leading academic institutions in Italy and Europe. It is one of the most prestigious Italian universities, commonly ranking in the first places of national rankings.
Università di Bologna
|Latin: Universitas Bononiensis|
|Motto||Petrus ubique pater legum Bononia mater (Latin)|
Motto in English
|St. Peter is everywhere the father of the law, Bologna is its mother|
|Campus||Urban (University Town)|
|Affiliations||Coimbra Group, Guild of European Research-Intensive Universities, Utrecht Network, UNIMED|
It was the first place of study to use the term universitas for the corporations of students and masters, which came to define the institution (especially its famous law school) located in Bologna, Italy. The University's crest carries the motto Alma mater studiorum and the date A.D. 1088, and it has about 86,500 students in its 11 schools. It has campuses in Ravenna, Forlì, Cesena and Rimini and a branch center abroad in Buenos Aires, Argentina. It also has a school of excellence named Collegio Superiore di Bologna. An associate publisher of the University of Bologna is Bononia University Press S.p.A. (BUP).
The date of its founding is uncertain, but believed by most accounts to have been 1088. The university was granted a charter (Authentica habita) by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa in 1158, but in the 19th century, a committee of historians led by Giosuè Carducci traced the founding of the University back to 1088, which would make it the oldest continuously-operating university in the world. However, the development of the institution at Bologna into a university was a gradual process. Paul Grendler writes that “it is not likely that enough instruction and organization existed to merit the term university before the 1150s, and it might not have happened before the 1180s.”
One of the earliest texts produced by the University and used by the rest of Europe in the Middle Ages was Roger Frugard’s Chirurgia published in 1180.
The University arose around mutual aid societies (known as universitates scholarium) of foreign students called "nations" (as they were grouped by nationality) for protection against city laws which imposed collective punishment on foreigners for the crimes and debts of their countrymen. These students then hired scholars from the city's pre-existing lay and ecclesiastical schools to teach them subjects such as liberal arts, notarial law, theology, and ars dictaminis (scrivenery). The lectures were given in informal schools called scholae. In time the various universitates scholarium decided to form a larger association, or Studium—thus, the university. The Studium grew to have a strong position of collective bargaining with the city, since by then it derived significant revenue through visiting foreign students, who would depart if they were not well treated. The foreign students in Bologna received greater rights, and collective punishment was ended. There was also collective bargaining with the scholars who served as professors at the university. By the initiation or threat of a student strike, the students could enforce their demands as to the content of courses and the pay professors would receive. University professors were hired, fired, and had their pay determined by an elected council of two representatives from every student "nation" which governed the institution, with the most important decisions requiring a majority vote from all the students to ratify. The professors could also be fined if they failed to finish classes on time, or complete course material by the end of the semester. A student committee, the "Denouncers of Professors", kept tabs on them and reported any misbehavior. Professors themselves were not powerless, however, forming collegia doctorum (professors’ committees) in each faculty, and securing the rights to set examination fees and degree requirements. Eventually, the city ended this arrangement, paying professors from tax revenues and making it a chartered public university.
The university is historically notable for its teaching of canon and civil law; indeed, it was set up in large part with the aim of studying the Digest, a central text in Roman law, which had been rediscovered in Italy in 1070, and the university was central in the development of medieval Roman law. Until modern times, the only degree granted at that university was the doctorate.
Higher education processes are being harmonised across the European Community. Nowadays the University offers 101 different "Laurea" or "Laurea breve" first-level degrees (three years of courses), followed by 108 "Laurea specialistica" or "Laurea magistrale" second-level degrees (two years). However, other 11 courses have maintained preceding rules of "Laurea specialistica a ciclo unico" or "Laurea magistrale a ciclo unico", with only one cycle of study of five years, except for medicine and dentistry which requires six years of courses. After the "Laurea" one may attain 1st level Master (one-year diploma, similar to a Postgraduate diploma). After second-level degrees are attained, one may proceed to 2nd level Master, specialisation schools (residency), or doctorates of research (PhD).
The 11 Schools (which replace the preexisting 23 faculties) are:
- School of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine
- School of Economics, Management and Statistics
- School of Engineering and Architecture
- School of Foreign Languages and Literature, Interpretation and Translation
- School of Law
- School of Arts, Humanities, and Cultural Heritage
- School of Medicine and Surgery
- School of Pharmacy, Biotechnologies and Sport Sciences
- School of Political Sciences
- School of Psychology and Education Sciences
- School of Sciences
The University is structured in 33 departments (there were 66 until 2012), organized by homogeneous research domains that integrate activities related to one or more Faculty. A new department of Latin History was added in 2015.
The 33 departments are:
- Architecture - DA
- Cultural Heritage - DBC
- Chemistry "Giacomo Ciamician" - CHIM
- Industrial Chemistry "Toso Montanari" - CHIMIND
- Arts - DARvipem
- Pharmacy and Biotechnology - FaBiT
- Classical Philology and Italian Studies - FICLIT
- Philosophy and Communication Studies - FILCOM
- Physics and Astronomy - DIFA
- Computer Science and Engineering - DISI
- Civil, Chemical, Environmental, and Materials Engineering - DICAM
- Electrical, Electronic, and Information Engineering "Guglielmo Marconi" - DEI
- Industrial Engineering - DIN
- Interpreting and Translation - DIT
- Modern Languages, Literatures, and Cultures - LILEC
- Mathematics - MAT
- Experimental Medicine, Diagnostic Medicine and Specialty Medicine - DIMES
- Psychology - PSI
- Agricultural Sciences - DipSA
- Management - DiSA
- Biological, Geological, and Environmental Sciences - BiGeA
- Biomedical and Neuromotor Sciences - DIBINEM
- Education Studies "Giovanni Maria Bertin" - EDU
- Agricultural and Food Sciences - DISTAL
- Economics - DSE
- Legal Studies - DSG
- Medical and Surgical Sciences - DIMEC
- Veterinary Medical Sciences - DIMEVET
- Department for Life Quality Studies - QUVI
- Political and Social Sciences - SPS
- Statistical Sciences "Paolo Fortunati" - STAT
- Sociology and Business Law - SDE
- History and Cultures - DiSCi
Affiliates and other institutionsEdit
In the early 1950s, some students of the University of Bologna were among the founders of the review "il Mulino". On 25 April 1951 the first issue of the review was published in Bologna. In a short time, "il Mulino" became one of the most interesting reference points in Italy for the political and cultural debate, and established important editorial relationships in Italy and abroad. Editorial activities evolved along with the review. In 1954, the il Mulino publishing house (Società editrice il Mulino) was founded, which today represents one of the most relevant Italian publishers. In addition to this were initiated research projects (focusing mostly on the educational institutions and the political system in Italy), that eventually led, in 1964, to the establishment of the Istituto Carlo Cattaneo.
- Irnerius, founder of the School of Glossators
- Henry of Susa (Hostiensis)
- Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket
- Leon Battista Alberti
- Pope Alexander VI
- Pico della Mirandola
- Erasmus of Rotterdam
- Albrecht Dürer
- Nicolaus Copernicus, formulator of the heliocentric universal model
- Paracelsus, founder of the discipline of toxicology
- Pope Innocent IX
- Ulisse Aldrovandi
- Gabriele Paleotti
- Pope Gregory XIII (Ugo Boncompagni)
- Cardinal Alberto Bolognetti
- Cardinal Paolo Burali d'Arezzo
- Saint Charles Borromeo, archbishop of Milan
- Torquato Tasso
- Gasparo Tagliacozzi, pioneer of plastic and reconstructive surgery
- Pope Gregory XV
- Pietro Mengoli
- Marcello Malpighi
- Carlo Goldoni
- Laura Bassi, the world's first woman to earn a university chair in a scientific field of studies
- Lazzaro Spallanzani
- Luigi Galvani
- Augusto Righi, pioneer in the study of electromagnetism
- Manuel Olivencia, lawyer and academic
- Giovanni Pascoli
- Carlo Severini
- Guglielmo Marconi
- Michelangelo Antonioni
- Pier Paolo Pasolini
- Giacomo Matteotti
Faculty and staffEdit
See: Serafino Mazzetti, Repertorio di tutti I professori antichi e moderni della famosa Università...di Bologna (Bologna 1848).
- 11th century
- 12th century
- 13th century
- 14th century
- 15th century
- 16th century
- 17th century
- 18th century
- 19th century
- 20th century
- 21st century
Rankings and reputationEdit
The 2019 QS World University Rankings ranked the University of Bologna 180th in the world, as well as 77th (1st in Italy) with reference to "academic reputation". In the 2019 THE World University Rankings, the University of Bologna was ranked among the world's top 200 universities.
In 2018, the Italian newspaper La Repubblica, in collaboration with CENSIS, has awarded the University of Bologna the 1st place in its academic ranking of Italian mega-universities (>40,000 students) for the ninth year in a row, recording its primacy in the fields of internationalization and academic structures. 
Points of interestEdit
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to University of Bologna.|
- Charters of foundation and early documents of the universities of the Coimbra Group, Hermans, Jos. M. M., ISBN 90-5867-474-6
- Nuria Sanz, Sjur Bergan: "The heritage of European universities", 2nd edition, Higher Education Series No. 7, Council of Europe, 2006, ISBN, p. 136
- "Censis, la classifica delle università: Bologna ancora prima".
- Alma Mater superstar: stacca le concorrenti tra le mega università, by Ilaria Venturi.
- "Europe - Ranking Web of Universities". www.webometrics.info.
- Nove secoli di storia - Università di Bologna
- "Schools". University of Bologna. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- "Campuses and Structures". University of Bologna. Retrieved 22 December 2015.
- Top Universities Archived 2008-01-15 at the Wayback Machine. World University Rankings Retrieved 2010-1-6
- Our History - Università di Bologna
- Paul L. Gaston (2012). The Challenge of Bologna: What United States Higher Education Has to Learn from Europe, and Why It Matters That We Learn It. Stylus Publishing, LLC. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-57922-502-5.
- Paul F. Grendler, The Universities of the Italian Renaissance (JHU Press, 2002), 6.
- David A. Lines, “The University and the City: Cultural Interactions”, in A Companion to Medieval and Renaissance Bologna, ed. Sarah Rubin Blanshei (Leiden: Brill, 2017), 437–8.
- A University Built by the Invisible Hand, by Roderick T. Long. This article was published in the Spring 1994 issue of Formulations, by the Free Nation Foundation.
- "University of Bologna | History & Development". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 2017-08-21.
- Berman, Law and Revolution, ch. 3; Stein, Roman Law in European History, part 3.
- See Corpus Juris Civilis: Recovery in the West
- List of the Departments of the University of Bologna
- "ARWU World University Rankings 2018 - Academic Ranking of World Universities 2017 - Top 500 universities - Shanghai Ranking - 2018". www.shanghairanking.com.
- "QS World University Rankings 2018". topuniversities.com. 6 June 2018.
- "World University Rankings". timeshighereducation.com. 26 September 2018.
- "QS World University Rankings 2019".
- "THE World University Rankings 2019".