Campus protest or student protest is a form of student activism that takes the form of protest at university campuses. Such protests encompass a wide range of activities that indicate student dissatisfaction with a given political or academics issue and mobilization to communicate this dissatisfaction to the authorities (university or civil or both) and society in general and hopefully remedy the problem. Protest forms include but are not limited to: sit-ins, occupations of university offices or buildings, strikes etc. More extreme forms include suicide such as the case of Jan Palach's, and Jan Zajíc's protests against the end of the Prague Spring and Kostas Georgakis' protest against the Greek military junta of 1967–1974.[dubious ]
In the West, student protests such as strikes date to the early days of universities in the Middle Ages, with one of the earliest being the University of Paris strike of 1229, which lasted two years, and University of Oxford strike of 1209. In more recent times, student demonstrations occurred in 19th century Europe, for example in Imperial Russia. In 1930s, some Polish students protested against anti-Semitic ghetto benches legislation. In the second half of the 20th century, significant demonstrations occurred in the late 1960s and early 1970s: the French May 1968 events began as a series of student strikes; Polish political crisis that occurred the same year also saw a major student activism. The largest student strike in American history occurred in May and June 1970, in the aftermath of the American invasion of Cambodia and the killings of student protesters at Kent State University in Ohio. An estimated four million students at more than 450 universities, colleges and high schools participated in what became known as the Student Strike of 1970.
It has been argued that student strikes and activism have a similarly long history in Confucian Asia.
Participation and issuesEdit
Early studies of campus protests conducted in the United States in the mid-1960s suggests that students who are more likely to take parts in the protests tend to come from middle class and upper middle class backgrounds, major in social sciences and humanities, and come from families with liberal political views. Later studies from early 1970s, however, suggested that participation in protests is broader, through still more likely for students from social sciences and humanities than more vocational-oriented fields like economy or engineering. Student protesters are also more likely to describe themselves as having liberal or centrist political beliefs, and feeling politically alienated, lacking confidence in the party system and public officials.
Early campus protests in the United States were described as left-leaning and liberal. More recent research shares a similar view, suggesting that right-leaning, conservative students and faculty are less likely to organize or join campus protests. A study of campus protests in the USA in the early 1990s identified major themes for approximately 60% of over two hundred incidents covered by media as multiculturalism and identity struggle, or in more detail as racial and ethnic struggle, women's concerns, or gay rights activities and represent what recent scholars have described both affectionately and pejoratively as "culture/cultural wars," "campus wars," "multicultural unrest," or "identity politics"... The remaining examples of student protest concerned funding (including tuition concerns), governance, world affairs, and environmental causes".
While less common, protests similar to campus protests can also happen at secondary-level education facilities, like high schools.
Repertoire of contention in campus protests can take various forms, from peaceful sit-ins, marches, teach-ins, to more active forms that can spread off-campus and include violent clashes with the authorities. Campus protests can also involve faculty members participating in them in addition to students, through protests led by or organized by faculty, rather than students, are a minority. Just like students can worry about being expelled for participation in the protests, some faculty members are concerned about their job security if they were to become involved in such incidents.
A common tactic of student protest is to go on strike (sometimes called a boycott of classes), which occurs when students enrolled at a teaching institution such as a school, college or university refuse to go to class. It is meant to resemble strike action by organized labour. Whereas a normal strike is intended to inflict economic damage to an employer, a student strike is more of a logistical threat: the concerned institution or government cannot afford to have a large number of students simultaneously fail to graduate. The term "student strike" has been criticized as inaccurate by some unions and commentators in the news media. These groups have indicated that they believe the term boycott is more accurate.
Student protests can often spread off-campus and grow in scale, mobilizing off campus activists and organizations, for example the 2014 Hong Kong class boycott campaign led to the city-wide 2014 Hong Kong protests.
Response and aftermathEdit
Over time, university tolerance of campus protests have grown; while protests occurred before the 20th century they were more likely to be "crushed... with an iron fist... by university leaders" than by mid-20th century, when they have become much more common and tolerated. By the early 21st century, the university response to campus protest in the USA is much more likely to be negotiations, and willingness to yield at least to some of the student demands. There was a resurgence of student activism in the USA in 2015.
University response to student activism and campus protests can still be much harsher in less liberal countries like China or Taiwan. In 1980 student protests in South Korea were violently suppressed by the military (the Gwangju Uprising). As recently as in 1989 a large scale student demonstration in China that moved off-campus, the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, was met with deadly force.
- 2021 Boğaziçi University protests
- 2020 Thai protests
- 2019-2020 Iraq student protestsRef.?
- 2019 JNU Protests in New Delhi – IndiaRef.?
- 2018-2020 "Fridays for Future" School strike for climate – global
- 2018 Bangladesh road safety protests
- 2018 "March for Our Lives" student protest – United States
- 2017–18 Mahatma Gandhi Central University protests – India
- 2017–18 Iranian protests
- 2017 Jallikattu protests – India
- 2016 SATs Strike protest against tests for 6 and 7 year olds – UK
- 2016 Boston Public School students walkout in protest of budget cuts – United StatesRef.?
- 2016 Joint Student protests in Central Universities IndiaRef.?
- 2016 JNU Student Protests in New Delhi – IndiaRef.?
- 2015 "Fees Must Fall" – South Africa
- 2015 University of Missouri protests – United States
- 2015 Bangladesh student protests
- 2015 University of Amsterdam Bungehuis and Maagdenhuis Occupations – Netherlands
- 2014 Jadavpur University protests – India
- 2014 Hong Kong student protest for democracy
- 2014 Sunflower Student Movement – Taiwan
- 2014 Iguala mass kidnapping – Mexico
- 2012 Quebec student protests – Canada
- 2012 Valencia student protests
- 2011 student protests in Chile
- 2010 University of Puerto Rico Strike
- 2010 UK student protests
- 2008 Greek riots
- 2007 Dutch pupil strike
- 2006 student protests in Chile
- 2006 student uprising in Iran
- 2005 Quebec student protests – Canada
- July 1999 Iran student protests
- 1996–1997 protests in Serbia
- 1996 Quebec student protests – Canada
- 1989 Tiananmen Square Protests
- 1976-77 Soweto uprising – South Africa
- November 1973 Athens Polytechnic uprising – Greece
- 1971 Diliman Commune – Philippines
- 1970-1972 Huelga schools, Houston – United States
- 1970 Student Strike – United States
- 1968 Protests
- 1965 Anti-Hindi agitations of Tamil Nadu
- 1964-65 U.C. Berkeley Free Speech Movement – United States
- 1956 Bucharest student movement – Romania
- 1901-1904 Września children strike – Poland
- 1766 Butter rebellion at Harvard University – United States
- 1229 University of Paris strike – France
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geologia Kostas Georgakis, op- positore greco di cultura laica, esasperato dalle minacce e dalle rappresaglie subite da agenti dei servizi segreti greci in Italia, s'im- molò in piazza Matteotti per protestare contro la giunta dei Co- lonnelli.
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