Riga (//; Latvian: Rīga [ˈriːɡa] (listen); Livonian: Rīgõ) is the capital of Latvia and is home to 632,614 inhabitants (2019), which is a third of Latvia's population. Being significantly larger than other cities of Latvia, Riga is the country's primate city. It is also the largest city in the three Baltic states and is home to one tenth of the three Baltic states' combined population. The city lies on the Gulf of Riga at the mouth of the Daugava river where it meets the Baltic Sea. Riga's territory covers 307.17 km2 (118.60 sq mi) and lies 1–10 m (3 ft 3 in–32 ft 10 in) above sea level, on a flat and sandy plain.
|• Type||City council|
|• Mayor||Oļegs Burovs|
|• Capital city||324 km2 (125 sq mi)|
|• Land||275.5 km2 (106.4 sq mi)|
|• Water||48.60 km2 (18.76 sq mi) 15.8%|
|• Metro||7,292.8 km2 (2,815.8 sq mi)|
|• Capital city||615,369|
|• Density||1,900/km2 (4,900/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||146.7/km2 (380/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Calling codes||66 and 67|
|- Total||€13.5 billion ($27 billion, PPP)|
|- Per capita||€21,000($42,500, PPP)|
|HDI (2017)||0.878 – very high|
|UNESCO World Heritage Site|
The old town of Riga
|Criteria||Cultural: i, ii|
|Inscription||1997 (21st Session)|
|Buffer zone||1,574.2 ha|
Riga was founded in 1201 and is a former Hanseatic League member. Riga's historical centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, noted for its Art Nouveau/Jugendstil architecture and 19th century wooden architecture. Riga was the European Capital of Culture in 2014, along with Umeå in Sweden. Riga hosted the 2006 NATO Summit, the Eurovision Song Contest 2003, the 2006 IIHF Men's World Ice Hockey Championships and the 2013 World Women's Curling Championship. It is home to the European Union's office of European Regulators for Electronic Communications (BEREC).
In 2016, Riga received over 1.4 million visitors. The city is served by Riga International Airport, the largest and busiest airport in the Baltic states. Riga is a member of Eurocities, the Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC) and Union of Capitals of the European Union (UCEU).
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Economy
- 7 Culture
- 8 Architecture
- 9 Sports
- 10 Transport
- 11 Universities
- 12 Notable residents
- 13 Twin towns — sister cities
- 14 See also
- 15 References
- 16 Bibliography
- 17 External links
One theory about the origin of the name Riga is that it is a corrupted borrowing from the Liv ringa meaning loop, referring to the ancient natural harbour formed by the tributary loop of the Daugava River. Another is that Riga owes its name to this already-established role in commerce between East and West, as a borrowing of the Latvian rija, for threshing barn, the "j" becoming a "g" in German — notably, Riga is called Rie by English geographer Richard Hakluyt (1589), and German historian Dionysius Fabricius (1610) confirms the origin of Riga from rija. Another theory could be that Riga was named after Riege, the German name for the River Rīdzene, a tributary of the Daugava.
Another theory is that Riga's name was introduced by the bishop Albert, initiator of christening and conquest of Livonian and Baltic people. He also introduced an explanation of the city name as derived from Latin rigata ("irrigated") that symbolizes an "irrigation of dry pagan souls by Christianity".
Imperial Free City 1561–1582
Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth 1582–1629
Swedish Empire 1629–1721
Russian Empire 1721–1917
German Empire 1917–1918
Republic of Latvia 1918–1940
Soviet Union 1940–1941
Nazi Germany 1941–1944
Soviet Union 1944–1991
The river Daugava has been a trade route since antiquity, part of the Vikings' Dvina-Dnieper navigation route to Byzantium. A sheltered natural harbour 15 km (9.3 mi) upriver from the mouth of the Daugava — the site of today's Riga — has been recorded, as Duna Urbs, as early as the 2nd century. It was settled by the Livs, an ancient Finnic tribe.
Riga began to develop as a centre of Viking trade during the early Middle Ages. Riga's inhabitants occupied themselves mainly with fishing, animal husbandry, and trading, later developing crafts (in bone, wood, amber, and iron).
The Livonian Chronicle of Henry testifies to Riga having long been a trading centre by the 12th century, referring to it as portus antiquus (ancient port), and describes dwellings and warehouses used to store mostly flax, and hides. German traders began visiting Riga, establishing a nearby outpost in 1158.
Along with German traders the monk Meinhard of Segeberg also arrived to convert the Livonian pagans to Christianity. Catholic and Orthodox Christianity had already arrived in Latvia more than a century earlier, and many Latvians baptised. Meinhard settled among the Livs, building a castle and church at Uexküll (now known as Ikšķile), upstream from Riga, and established his bishopric there. The Livs, however, continued to practice paganism and Meinhard died in Uexküll in 1196, having failed in his mission. In 1198, the Bishop Berthold arrived with a contingent of crusaders and commenced a campaign of forced Christianization. Berthold died soon afterwards and his forces were defeated.
The Church mobilised to avenge the issuance of a bull by Pope Innocent III declaring a crusade against the Livonians. Bishop Albert was proclaimed Bishop of Livonia by his uncle Hartwig of Uthlede, Prince-Archbishop of Bremen and Hamburg in 1199. Albert landed in Riga in 1200 with 23 ships and 500 Westphalian crusaders. In 1201, he transferred the seat of the Livonian bishopric from Uexküll to Riga, extorting agreement to do this from the elders of Riga by force.
Under Bishop AlbertEdit
The year 1201 also marked the first arrival of German merchants in Novgorod, via the Dvina. To defend territory and trade, Albert established the Order of Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1202, which was open to nobles and merchants.
The Christianization of the Livs continued. In 1207, Albert started to fortify the town. Emperor Philip invested Albert with Livonia as a fief and principality of the Holy Roman Empire. To promote a permanent military presence, territorial ownership was divided between the Church and the Order, with the Church taking Riga and two-thirds of all lands conquered and granting the Order a third. Until then, it had been customary for crusaders to serve for a year and then return home.
Albert had ensured Riga's commercial future by obtaining papal bulls which decreed that all German merchants had to carry on their Baltic trade through Riga. In 1211, Riga minted its first coinage, and Albert laid the cornerstone for the Riga Dom. Riga was not yet secure as an alliance of tribes failed to take Riga. In 1212, Albert led a campaign to compel Polotsk to grant German merchants free river passage. Polotsk conceded Kukenois (Koknese) and Jersika to Albert, also ending the Livs' tribute to Polotsk.
That same year Albert was compelled to recognise Danish rule over lands they had conquered in Estonia and Livonia. Albert had sought the aid of King Valdemar of Denmark to protect Riga and Livonian lands against Liv insurrection when reinforcements could not reach Riga. The Danes landed in Livonia, built a fortress at Reval (Tallinn) and set about conquering Estonian and Livonian lands. The Germans attempted, but failed, to assassinate Valdemar. Albert was able to reach an accommodation with them a year later, however and, in 1222, Valdemar returned all Livonian lands and possessions to Albert's control.
Albert's difficulties with Riga's citizenry continued; with papal intervention, a settlement was reached in 1225 whereby they no longer had to pay tax to the Bishop of Riga, and Riga's citizens acquired the right to elect their magistrates and town councillors. In 1226, Albert consecrated the Dom Cathedral, built St. James's Church, (now a cathedral) and founded a parochial school at the Church of St. George.
In 1282, Riga became a member of the Hanseatic League. The Hansa was instrumental in giving Riga economic and political stability, thus providing the city with a strong foundation which endured the political conflagrations that were to come, down to modern times.
Holy Roman Empire, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, the Swedish and Russian EmpiresEdit
As the influence of the Hanseatic League waned, Riga became the object of foreign military, political, religious and economic aspirations. Riga accepted the Reformation in 1522, ending the power of the archbishops. In 1524, iconoclasts targeted a statue of the Virgin Mary in the Cathedral to make a statement against religious icons. It was accused of being a witch, and given a trial by water in the Daugava River. The statue floated, so it was denounced as a witch and burnt at Kubsberg. With the demise of the Livonian Order during the Livonian War, Riga for twenty years had the status of a Free Imperial City of the Holy Roman Empire before it came under the influence of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth by the Treaty of Drohiczyn, which ended the war for Riga in 1581. In 1621, during the Polish–Swedish War (1621–1625), Riga and the outlying fortress of Daugavgriva came under the rule of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden, who intervened in the Thirty Years' War not only for political and economic gain but also in favour of German Lutheran Protestantism. During the Russo-Swedish War (1656–1658), Riga withstood a siege by Russian forces.
Riga remained the largest city in Sweden until 1710, a period during which the city retained a great deal of autonomous self-government. In that year, in the course of the Great Northern War, Russia under Tsar Peter the Great besieged plague-stricken Riga. Along with the other Livonian towns and gentry, Riga capitulated to Russia, but largely retained their privileges. Riga was made the capital of the Governorate of Riga (later: Livonia). Sweden's northern dominance had ended, and Russia's emergence as the strongest Northern power was formalised through the Treaty of Nystad in 1721. Riga became an industrialised city and the largest port of the Russian empire, in which it remained until World War I. By 1900, Riga was the third largest city in Russia after Moscow and Saint Petersburg in terms of the number of industrial workers, number of banks and number of theatres.
During these many centuries of war and changes of power in the Baltic, and despite demographic changes, the Baltic Germans in Riga had maintained a dominant position. By 1867, Riga's population was 42.9% German. Riga employed German as its official language of administration until the installation of Russian in 1891 as the official language in the Baltic provinces, as part of the policy of Russification of the non-Russian speaking territories of the Russian Empire, including Congress Poland, Finland and the Baltics, undertaken by Tsar Alexander III. More and more Latvians started moving to the city during the mid-19th century. The rise of a Latvian bourgeoisie made Riga a centre of the Latvian National Awakening with the founding of the Riga Latvian Association in 1868 and the organisation of the first national song festival in 1873. The nationalist movement of the Neo-Latvians was followed by the socialist New Current during the city's rapid industrialisation, culminating in the 1905 Revolution led by the Latvian Social Democratic Workers' Party.
World War IEdit
The 20th century brought World War I and the impact of the Russian Revolution of 1917 to Riga. As a result of the battle of Jugla, the German army marched into Riga on 3 September 1917. On 3 March 1918, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was signed, giving the Baltic countries to Germany. Because of the Armistice with Germany of 11 November 1918, Germany had to renounce that treaty, as did Russia, leaving Latvia and the other Baltic States in a position to claim independence. Latvia, with Riga as its capital city, thus declared its independence on 18 November 1918. Between World War I and World War II (1918–1940), Riga and Latvia shifted their focus from Russia to the countries of Western Europe. The United Kingdom and Germany replaced Russia as Latvia's major trade partners. The majority of the Baltic Germans were resettled in late 1939, prior to the occupation of Estonia and Latvia by the Soviet Union in June 1940.
World War IIEdit
During World War II, Latvia was incorporated in the Soviet Union in June 1940 and then was occupied by Nazi Germany in 1941–1944. On 17 June 1940, the Soviet forces invaded Latvia occupying bridges, post/telephone, telegraph, and broadcasting offices. Three days later, Latvian president Karlis Ulmanis was forced to approve a pro-Soviet government which had taken office. On 14–15 July, rigged elections were held in Latvia and the other Baltic states, The ballots held following instructions: "Only the list of the Latvian Working People's Bloc must be deposited in the ballot box. The ballot must be deposited without any changes." The alleged voter activity index was 97.6%. Most notably, the complete election results were published in Moscow 12 hours before the election closed. Soviet electoral documents found later substantiated that the results were completely fabricated. The Soviet authorities, having regained control over Riga and Latvia imposed a regime of terror, opening the headquarters of the KGB, massive deportations started. Hundreds of men were arrested, including leaders of the former Latvian government. The most notorious deportation, the June deportation took place on 13 and 14 June 1941, estimated at 15,600 men, women, and children, and including 20% of Latvia's last legal government. Similar deportations were repeated after the end of WWII. The building of the KGB located in Brīvības iela 61, known as 'the corner house', is now a museum. Stalin's deportations also included thousands of Latvian Jews. (The mass deportation totalled 131,500 across the Baltics.) During the Nazi occupation, the Jewish community was forced into the Riga Ghetto and a Nazi concentration camp was constructed in Kaiserwald. On 25 October 1941, the Nazis relocated all Jews from Riga and the vicinity to the ghetto. Most of Latvia's Jews (about 24,000) were killed on 30 November and 8 December 1941 in the Rumbula massacre. By the end of the war, the remaining Baltic Germans were expelled to Germany.
The Soviet Red Army re-entered Riga on 13 October 1944. In the following years the massive influx of labourers, administrators, military personnel, and their dependents from Russia and other Soviet republics started. Microdistricts of the large multi-storied housing blocks were built to house immigrant workers.
By the end of the war, Rīga's historical centre was heavily damaged because of constant bombing. After the war, huge efforts were made to reconstruct and renovate most of the famous buildings that were part of the skyline of the city before the war. Such buildings were, amongst others: St. Peter's Church which lost its wooden tower after a fire caused by the Wehrmacht (renovated in 1954). Other example is The House of the Blackheads, completely destroyed, its ruins were subsequently demolished. A facsimile was subsequently constructed in 1995.
In 1989, the percentage of Latvians in Riga had fallen to 36.5%.
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (December 2011)
In November 2013, the roof of a supermarket collapsed, possibly as a result of the weight of materials used in the construction of a garden on the roof. At least 54 people were killed. The Latvian President Andris Berzins described the disaster as "a large scale murder of many defenceless people".
- Central District (3 km2 or 1.2 sq mi)
- Kurzeme District (79 km2 or 31 sq mi)
- Zemgale Suburb (41 km2 or 16 sq mi)
- Northern District (77 km2 or 30 sq mi)
- Vidzeme Suburb (57 km2 or 22 sq mi)
- Latgale Suburb (50 km2 or 19 sq mi)
Riga's administrative divisions consist of six administrative entities: Central, Kurzeme and Northern Districts and the Latgale, Vidzeme and Zemgale Suburbs. Three entities were established on 1 September 1941, and the other three were established in October 1969. There are no official lower level administrative units, but the Riga City Council Development Agency is working on a plan, which officially makes Riga consist of 58 neighbourhoods. The current names were confirmed on 28 December 1990.
The climate of Riga is humid continental (Köppen Dfb). The coldest months are January and February, when the average temperature is −5 °C (23 °F) but temperatures as low as −20 to −25 °C (−4 to −13 °F) can be observed almost every year on the coldest days. The proximity of the sea causes frequent autumn rains and fogs. Continuous snow cover may last eighty days. The summers in Riga are mild and rainy with the average temperature of 18 °C (64 °F), while the temperature on the hottest days can exceed 30 °C (86 °F).
|Climate data for Riga|
|Record high °C (°F)||10.2
|Average high °C (°F)||−2.3
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−5.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−7.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−33.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||33.7
|Average precipitation days||21.5||18.6||15.7||11.0||11.8||12.1||12.8||13.7||13.0||16.0||18.9||20.6||185.7|
|Average relative humidity (%)||87.9||85.2||79.4||69.7||67.7||72.0||74.2||76.7||81.1||85.1||90.2||89.4||79.9|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||31.0||62.2||127.1||183.0||263.5||288.0||263.5||229.4||153.0||93.0||39.0||21.7||1,754.4|
|Average ultraviolet index||0||1||2||3||5||6||5||5||3||1||0||0||3|
|Source: Latvian Environment, Geology and Meteorology Agency (avg high and low), NOAA (sun and extremes) and Weather Atlas|
The city council is a democratically elected institution and is the final decision-making authority in the city. The Council consists of 60 members who are elected every four years. The Presidium of the Riga City Council consists of the Chairman of the Riga City Council and the representatives delegated by the political parties or party blocks elected to the City Council.
With 632,614 inhabitants in 2019 as according to the Central statistical administration of Latvia, Riga is the largest city in the Baltic States, though its population has decreased from just over 900,000 in 1991. Notable causes include emigration and low birth rates. According to the 2017 data, ethnic Latvians made up 44.03% of the population of Riga, while ethnic Russians formed 37.88%, Belarusians 3.72%, Ukrainians 3.66%, Poles 1.83% and other ethnicities 8.10%. By comparison, 60.1% of Latvia's total population was ethnically Latvian, 26.2% Russian, 3.3% Belarusian, 2.4% Ukrainian, 2.1% Polish, 1.2% are Lithuanian and the rest of other origins.
Upon the restoration of Latvia's independence in 1991, Soviet era immigrants (and any of their offspring born before 1991) were not automatically granted Latvian citizenship because they had migrated to the territory of Latvia during the years when Latvia was part of the Soviet Union. In 2013 citizens of Latvia made up 73.1%, non-citizens 21.9% and citizens of other countries 4.9% of the population of Riga. The proportion of ethnic Latvians in Riga increased from 36.5% in 1989 to 42.4% in 2010. In contrast, the percentage of Russians fell from 47.3% to 40.7% in the same time period. Latvians overtook Russians as the largest ethnic group in 2006. Further projections show that the ethnic Russian population will continue a steady decline, despite higher birth rates, due to emigration.
Historic population figuresEdit
Note. Population in thousands.
Riga is one of the key economic and financial centres of the Baltic States. Roughly half of all the jobs in Latvia are in Riga and the city generates more than 50% of Latvia's GDP as well as around half of Latvia's exports. The biggest exporters are in wood products, IT, food and beverage manufacturing, pharmaceuticals, transport and metallurgy. Riga Port is one of the largest in the Baltics. It handled a record 34 million tons of cargo in 2011 and has potential for future growth with new port developments on Krievu Sala. Tourism is also a large industry in Riga and after a slowdown during the global economic recessions of the late 2000s, grew 22% in 2011 alone.
- The Latvian National Opera was founded in 1918. The repertoire of the theatre embraces all opera masterpieces. The Latvian National Opera is famous not only for its operas, but for its ballet troupe as well.
- The Latvian National Theatre was founded in 1919. The Latvian National Theatre preserves the traditions of Latvian drama school. It is one of the biggest theatres in Latvia.
- The Mikhail Chekhov Riga Russian Theatre is the oldest professional drama theatre in Latvia, established in 1883. The repertoire of the theatre includes classical plays and experimental performances of Russian and other foreign playwrights.
- The Daile Theatre was opened for the first time in 1920. It is one of the most successful theatres in Latvia. This theatre is distinguished by its frequent productions of modern foreign plays.
- Latvian State Puppet Theatre was founded in 1944. This theatre presents shows for children and adults.
- The New Riga Theatre was opened in 1992. It has an intelligent and attractive repertoire of high quality that focused on a modern, educated and socially active audience.
World Choir GamesEdit
Riga hosted the biannual 2014 World Choir Games from 9–19 July 2014 which coincided with the city being named European Capital of Culture for 2014. The event, organised by the choral foundation, Interkultur, takes place at various host cities every two years and was originally known as the "Choir Olympics". The event regularly sees over 15'000 choristers in over 300 choirs from over 60 nations compete for gold, silver and bronze medals in over 20 categories. The competition is further divided into a Champions Competition and an Open Competition to allow choirs from all backgrounds to enter. Choral workshops and festivals are also witnessed in the host cities and are usually open to the public.
The radio and TV tower of Riga is the tallest structure in Latvia and the Baltic States, and one of the tallest in the European Union, reaching 368.5 m (1,209 ft). Riga centre also has many great examples of Art Nouveau architecture, as well as a medieval old town.
It is generally recognized[by whom? – Discuss] that Riga has largest[dubious ] collection of Art Nouveau buildings in the world. This is due to the fact that at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries, when Art Nouveau was at the height of its popularity, Riga experienced an unprecedented financial and demographic boom. In the period from 1857 to 1914 its population grew from 282,000 (256,200 in Riga itself and another 26,200 inhabitants beyond the city limits in patrimonial district and military town of Ust-Dvinsk) to 558,000[better source needed] making it[when?] the 4th[dubious ] largest city in the Russian Empire (after Saint Petersburg, Moscow and Warsaw) and its largest[when?] port. The middle class of Riga used their acquired wealth to build imposing apartment blocks outside the former city walls. Local architects, mostly graduates of Riga Technical University, adopted current European movements and in particular Art Nouveau. Between 1910 and 1913, between 300 and 500 new buildings were built each year in Riga, most[dubious ] of them in Art Nouveau style and most of them outside the old town.
Riga has a rich basketball history. In the 1950s Rīgas ASK became the best club in the Soviet Union and also in Europe, winning the first three editions of the European Cup for Men's Champions Clubs from 1958 to 1960.
In 1960, ASK was not the only team from Riga to take the European crown. TTT Riga clinched their first title in the European Cup for Women's Champion Clubs, turning Riga into the capital city of European basketball because for the first and, so far, only time in the history of European basketball, clubs from the same city were concurrent European Men's and Women's club champions.
In 2015, Riga was one of the hosts for EuroBasket 2015.
- BK VEF Rīga – a professional basketball team that is a three-time Latvian champion. VEF also participates in high-level international competition such as Eurocup
- Barons LMT – a men's basketball team, two-time Latvian champion, as well as the 2008 FIBA EuroCup winner
- TTT Riga – a women's basketball team, which between 1960 and 1982 won eighteen FIBA EuroLeague Women titles
- Ice hockey
- Dinamo Riga – a professional ice hockey club established in 2008. It plays in the Kontinental Hockey League. Dinamo was established as a successor to the former hockey team with the same name, which was founded in 1946 but ceased to exist in 1995.
- HK Riga – a junior hockey club, playing in the Minor Hockey League
- Riga FC – Riga Football Club, commonly referred to as Riga FC, were established in 2015 after a merger of two Riga based teams – FC Caramba Riga and Dinamo Rīga. In 2018 they became champions of the Virslīga Latvian Higher League for the first time.
- RFS – FK Rīgas Futbola Skola, known as RFS are based on the Riga Football School (RFS) academy, established in 1962.
- FS Metta-LU – founded in 2006. Metta play their home games at Daugava Stadium.
- JDFS Alberts – Jura Docenko Futbola Skola Alberts, commonly referred to as JDFS Alberts was founded as a football school in 2008 and subsequently became a professional Latvian football league team.
- Riga United FC
- FC New Project
- SK Super Nova
- Dissolved Football Clubs
- Skonto FC – Skonto FC was a football club established in 1991. The club won fourteen successive Latvian Higher League titles. For a long time it provided the core of the Latvian national football team. Following financial problems, the club was demoted to the Latvian First League in 2016 and went bankrupt in December of that year and subsequently dissolved.
- JFK Olimps – JFK Olimps played in the top division of Latvian football. The club was founded in 2005 and dissolved in 2012. According to a study from January 2011, the club was the youngest team in Europe, with an average age of 19.02 years.
- Arena Riga – a multi-purpose arena built in 2006 as the main venue for the 2006 Men's World Ice Hockey Championships. It can hold up to 14,500 people and has hosted ice hockey, basketball and volleyball events, as well as Red Bull X-Fighters
- Skonto Stadium – a football stadium, built in 2000. It is the main stadium used for games of the Latvian national football team and currently the home stadium of Riga FC. The stadium was previously the home stadium of Skonto FC prior to the team's dissolution.
- Daugava Stadium – a stadium built in 1958, used for both football and athletics
- Latvijas Universitates Stadions
- Biķernieku Kompleksā Sporta Bāze – Latvia's leading motorsport complex
Riga, with its central geographic position and concentration of population, has always been the infrastructural hub of Latvia. Several national roads begin in Riga, and European route E22 crosses Riga from the east and west, while the Via Baltica crosses Riga from the south and north.
As a city situated by a river, Riga also has several bridges. The oldest standing bridge is the Railway Bridge, which is also the only railroad-carrying bridge in Riga. The Stone Bridge (Akmens tilts) connects Old Riga and Pārdaugava; the Island Bridge (Salu tilts) connects Maskavas Forštate and Pārdaugava via Zaķusala; and the Shroud Bridge (Vanšu tilts) connects Old Riga and Pārdaugava via Ķīpsala. In 2008, the first stage of the new Southern Bridge (Dienvidu tilts) route across the Daugava was completed, and was opened to traffic on 17 November.
The Southern Bridge was the biggest construction project in the Baltic states in 20 years, and its purpose was to reduce traffic congestion in the city centre. Another major construction project is the planned Riga Northern Transport Corridor; its first segment detailed project was completed in 2015.
Riga has one active airport that serves commercial airlines—the Riga International Airport (RIX), built in 1973. Renovation and modernization of the airport was completed in 2001, coinciding with the 800th anniversary of the city. In 2006, a new terminal extension was opened. Extension of the runway was completed in October 2008, and the airport is now able to accommodate large aircraft such as the Airbus A340, Boeing 747, 757, 767 and 777. Another terminal extension is under construction as of 2014[update]. The annual number of passengers has grown from 310,000 in 1993 to 4.7 million in 2014, making Riga International Airport the largest in the Baltic States.
The former international airport of Riga, Spilve Airport, located 5 km (3.11 mi) from Riga city centre, is currently used for small aircraft, pilot training and recreational aviation. Riga was also home to a military air base during the Cold War — Rumbula Air Base.
Public transportation in the city is provided by Rīgas Satiksme which operates a large number of trams, buses and trolleybuses on an extensive network of routes across the city. In addition, up until 2012 many private owners operated minibus services, after which the City Council established the unified transport company Rīgas mikroautobusu satiksme, establishing a monopoly over the service.
Riga is connected to the rest of Latvia by trains operated by the national carrier Passenger Train, whose headquarters are in Riga. There are also international rail services to Russia and Belarus, and plans to revive passenger rail traffic with Estonia. A TEN-T project called Rail Baltica envisages building a high-speed railway line via Riga connecting Tallinn to Warsaw using standard gauge, expected to be put into operation in 2024.
- University of Latvia (LU)
- Art Academy of Latvia (LMA)
- Riga Technical University (RTU)
- Riga Stradiņš University (RSU)
- Riga Graduate School of Law (RGSL)
- Stockholm School of Economics in Riga (SSE Riga)
- BA School of Business and Finance (BA)
- Transport and Telecommunication Institute (TTI)
- Riga International School of Economics and Business Administration (RISEBA)
- Turiba University
- Rutanya Alda, a Latvian-American actress
- Helmuts Balderis, a Latvian ice hockey player
- Mikhail Baryshnikov, a Russian dancer, choreographer, and actor
- Ernst von Bergmann, a Baltic German surgeon, pioneer of aseptic surgery
- Sir Isaiah Berlin, a British social and political theorist, philosopher and historian of ideas
- Léopold Bernhard Bernstamm, a Russian sculptor
- Andris Biedriņš, a Latvian professional basketball player
- Gunnar Birkerts, a Latvian-American architect
- Leonīds Breikšs, a Latvian poet, author, and newspaper editor
- Tanhum Cohen-Mintz, an Israeli basketball player
- Jacob W. Davis,(born Jacob Youphes), inventor of jeans (pants)
- Valdis Dombrovskis, a Latvian politician, Commissioner for Economic and Monetary Affairs and the Euro of the European Commission
- Kaspars Dubra, a Latvian footballer
- Mikhail Eisenstein, Latvian architect
- Sergei Eisenstein, a Soviet Russian film director and film theorist
- Heinz Erhardt, a Baltic German comedian, musician and entertainer
- Jakob Benjamin Fischer, a Baltic German naturalist and apothecary
- Artur Fonvizin, a Soviet painter of watercolours
- Laila Freivalds, former Swedish Minister for Justice, Minister for Foreign Affairs and Deputy Prime Minister
- Elīna Garanča, a Latvian operatic mezzo-soprano
- Zemgus Girgensons, an ice hockey player for the Buffalo Sabres, the highest-ever drafted Latvian in the NHL Entry Draft
- Philippe Halsman, an American portrait photographer
- Johann Georg Hamann, German philosopher, teacher of J. G. Herder, the ideologue of Sturm und Drang movement
- Juris Hartmanis, a prominent Latvian-American computer scientist and computational theorist, a recipient of the Turing Award
- Nicolai Hartmann, a Baltic German philosopher, one of the most important twentieth century metaphysicians
- Johann Gottfried Herder, a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic
- Lola Hoffmann, a physiologist, psychiatrist and guide to self-development and transformation
- Jergens Hvīds, ice hockey player and IIHF Hall of Fame inductee
- Miervaldis Jursevskis, a Latvian-Canadian chess master
- Aivars Kalējs, a Latvian composer, organist and pianist
- Charles Kalme, an American International Master of chess and mathematician
- Karlis Kaufmanis, astronomer
- Mstislav Keldysh, a Soviet mathematician, an advocate of the creation of the first artificial satellite
- Gidon Kremer, a Latvian violinist and conductor
- Ivan Krylov, a Russian fabulist
- Yeshayahu Leibowitz, an Israeli public intellectual and polymath
- DJ Lethal, an American music producer
- Alan Melikdjanian, a Latvian-American independent filmmaker
- Ernst Munzinger, German Abwehr (Army intelligence) officer, later anti-Nazi
- Jeļena Ostapenko women's professional tennis player "2017 French open winner"
- Wilhelm Ostwald, a Baltic German chemist, Nobel Prize laureate in 1909
- Sandis Ozoliņš, a Latvian ice hockey player, a seven-time NHL All-Star, Stanley Cup champion
- Marians Pahars, a Latvian footballer
- Raimonds Pauls, a Latvian composer and piano player
- Kristjan Jaak Peterson, an Estonian poet
- Valentin Pikul, a Soviet historical novelist
- Alfred Rosenberg, a Baltic German theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party
- Ksenia Solo, a Latvian-Canadian actress and activist
- Johann Steinhauer, an entrepreneur, industrialist and Latvian civil rights pioneer in the 18th century
- Mikhail Tal, Soviet-Latvian chess grandmaster and the eighth World Chess Champion, nicknamed "The Magician from Riga"
- Juris Upatnieks, a Latvian-American physicist and inventor in the field of holography
- Valdis Valters, a Latvian basketball player
- Richard Wagner, a German composer, theatre director, polemicist
- Tatiana Warsher, a Russian archaeologist known for her studies of Pompeii.
- Friedrich Zander, a Baltic German engineer, designer of the first Soviet liquid-fuelled rocket
- Walter Zapp, a Baltic German inventor
- Yosef Mendelevich, a Jewish refusenik from the former Soviet Union, also known as a "Prisoner of Zion" and now a politically unaffiliated rabbi living in Jerusalem who gained fame for his adherence to Judaism and public attempts to emigrate to Israel at a time when it was considered to be against the law in the USSR.
Twin towns — sister citiesEdit
- Aalborg, Denmark
- Almaty, Kazakhstan
- Amsterdam, Netherlands
- Beijing, China
- Bordeaux, France
- Bremen, Germany
- Cairns, Australia
- Dallas, United States
- Florence, Italy
- Kaunas, Lithuania
- Kiev, Ukraine
- Kobe, Japan
- Minsk, Belarus
- Moscow, Russia
- Norrköping, Sweden
- Nur-Sultan, Kazakhstan
- Rostock, Germany
- Saint Petersburg, Russia
- Santiago, Chile
- Stockholm, Sweden
- Suzhou, China
- Taipei, Taiwan
- Tallinn, Estonia
- Tartu, Estonia
- Tashkent, Uzbekistan
- Tbilisi, Georgia
- Vilnius, Lithuania
- Warsaw, Poland
- Yerevan, Armenia
- "Riga City Council". Riga City Council. Retrieved 22 July 2009.
- "Riga in Figures". Riga City Council. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
- "RESIDENT POPULATION BY STATISTICAL REGION, CITY AND COUNTY". Centrālā statistikas pārvalde. Retrieved 7 January 2019.
- RESIDENT POPULATION BY ETHNICITY AND BY STATISTICAL REGION AND CITY AT THE BEGINNING OF THE YEAR, Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia, 06 June 2019
- "2.1. Gross Domestic Product – Stratēģijas Uzraudzības Sistēma". sus.lv.
- "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". www.imf.org.
- "Sub-national HDI – Subnational HDI – Global Data Lab". globaldatalab.org.
- "Latvia in Brief". Latvian Institute. 2011. Retrieved 5 November 2011.
- "Riga Municipality Portal". Copyright © 2003–2009, www.riga.lv/LV/Channels/ Riga Municipality. Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "Historic Centre of Riga – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". UNESCO. 1997. Retrieved 18 December 2012.
- "Tourism in Latvia 2017" (PDF). www.csb.gov.lv. Central Statistical Bureau of Latvia. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 February 2018. Retrieved 9 February 2018.
- "EUROCITIES – the network of major European cities". Eurocities. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- "Union of the Baltic Cities". Union of the Baltic Cities (UBC). Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- "Union of Capitals of the European Union". Union of Capitals of the European Union (UCEU). Archived from the original on 20 October 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011.
- "Teritorija un administratīvās robežas vēsturiskā skatījumā" (in Latvian). Cities Environmental Reports on the Internet. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
- Endzelīns, Did Celts Inhabit the Baltics (1911 Dzimtene's Vēstnesis (Homeland Messenger) No. 227) Archived 9 December 2008 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 24 July 2009.
- Vauchez et al. Encyclopedia of the Middle Ages. Routledge, 2001
- Bilmanis, A. Latvia as an Independent State. Latvian Legation. 1947.
- Pronouncing the "i" and "e" separately, REE-eh, is the best approximation to the Latvian rija, as "Ria" would result in an "i" not "ee" sound.
- Fabrius, D. Livonicae Historiae Compendiosa Series, 1610: Riga nomen sortita est suum ab aedificiis vel horreis quorum a litus Dunae magna fuit copia, quas livones sua lingua Rias vocare soliti. (in Latin)
- "Riga municipality portal". www.riga.lv. Archived from the original on 23 February 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- "Coat of arms of Riga". www.riga.lv. Archived from the original on 11 July 2007. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
- Germanis, U. The Latvian Saga. 10th ed. 1998. Memento, Stockholm.
- Laffort, R. (censor), Catholic Encyclopedia, Robert Appleton Co., 1907
- Tolstoy-Miloslavsky, D. The Tolstoys: Genealogy and Origin. A2Z, 1991
- Dollinger, P. The Emergence of International Business 1200–1800, 1964; translated Macmillan and Co edition, 1970
- Reiner et al. Riga. Axel Menges, Stuttgart. 1999.
- Zarina, D. Old Riga: Tourist Guide, Spriditis, 1992
- Moeller et al. History of the Christian Church. MacMillan & Co. 1893.
- Palmieri, A. Catholic Origin of Latvia, ed. Cororan, J.A. et al. The American Catholic Quarterly Review, Volume XLVI, January–October 1921. Philadelphia.
- Doma vēsture (history). Retrieved 29 July 2009.
- Kooper, E. The Medieval Chronicle V. Radopi, 2008.
- Wright, C.T.H. The Edinburgh Review, The Letts, 1917
- Murray, A., Crusade and Conversion on the Baltic Frontier, 1150–1500. Ashgate, London. 2001.
- "The Ecclesiastical Review", Vol. LVI. American Ecclesiastical Review. Dolphin Press. 1917.
- Fonnesberg-Schmidt, I. The Popes and the Baltic Crusades, 1147–1254. Brill. 2006.
- Švābe, A., ed. Latvju Enciklopēdija. Trīs Zvaigznes, Stockholm. 1953–1955 (in Latvian)
- Fletcher, R.A., The Conversion of Europe: From Paganism to Christianity, 371–1386AD. Harper Collins. 1991.
- Michell, Thomas. Handbook for Travelers in Russia, Poland, and Finland. London, John Murray, 1888.
- Fonnesberg-Schmidt, I., The Popes and the Baltic Crusades, 1147–1254. Brill, 2007
- MacCulloch, Diarmaid (2003). The Reformation: A History. Penguin. p. 150. ISBN 978-0-670-03296-9. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- "National History Museum of Latvia". history-museum.lv. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- "Russian Retreat 1917". Greatwardifferent.com. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
- Ezergailis, The Holocaust in Latvia, p. 348
- "Population – Database". csb.gov.lv. Archived from the original on 21 February 2012. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- Charles, Jonathan (30 June 2005). "Latvia prepares for a tourist invasion". BBC News. Retrieved 2 August 2007.
- "Remaining Riga mall roof caves in". BBC News.
- "Riga, Latvia". riga.com. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- "Eastern Partnership summit, Riga, 21-22/05/2015". European Council. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- Mikk Lõhmus & Illar Tõnisson. "Evolvement of Administrative Division of Tallinn, Riga and Vilnius" (PDF). Tallinn University of Technology. pp. 55, 77. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- "Apkaimju projekts" (in Latvian). Riga City Council Development Agency. Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- "Changes in the Administrative Division of the Territory of Riga after the Loss of Independence (1940–1991)". Riga City Environment Centre "Agenda 21". Retrieved 29 June 2010.
- "World Weather Information Service – Riga". World Meteorological Organization. Archived from the original on 7 November 2017. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- "Riga Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2 February 2013.
- d.o.o, Yu Media Group. "Riga, Latvia – Detailed climate information and monthly weather forecast". Weather Atlas. Retrieved 6 July 2019.
- "Population Census 2011 – Key Indicators" (PDF). csb.gov.lv.
- The Office of Citizenship and Migration Affairs (Latvian) Retrieved 19 April 2013
- "/ Uzņēmējdarbība / Nosaukti desmit lielākie eksportējošie uzņēmumi Rīgā un Rīgas reģionā". Bizness.lv. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Alla Petrova, BC, Riga, 11 January 2012.Print version (17 October 2012). "Riga Freeport handles record-breaking 34.07 mln tons of cargo in 2011 :: The Baltic Course | Baltic States news & analytics". The Baltic Course. Retrieved 12 March 2013.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- "Latvia Shipping Report Q3 2012 by Business Monitor International in Latvia, Ports & Harbors, Logistics & Shipping". Marketresearch.com. 17 July 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Tūristu skaits Latvijā pērn pieaudzis par 21%, Rīgā – par 22% – Izklaide". nra.lv. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Latvian National Opera". Opera.lv. Archived from the original on 26 December 2007. Retrieved 6 May 2009.
- "Home » Latvijas Nacionālais teātris". teatris.lv. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- Nordik IT <http://it.nordik.lv>. "The Daile Theatre – Repertory". Dailesteatris.lv. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 25 July 2009.
- "Latvijas Leļļu teātris". puppet.lv.
- "Event Calendar of the 8th World Choir Games 2014, Rīga, Latvia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 February 2013. Retrieved 5 January 2013.
- "Riga – European Capital of Culture 2014 :: LIVE RīGA". Liveriga.com. Archived from the original on 7 December 2012. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "History – World Choir Games". interkultur.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- "Workshops – World Choir Games Riga 2014". interkultur.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2013. Retrieved 12 March 2013.
- Grosa, Silvija (2003). Art Nouveau in Riga. Jumava. p. 3. ISBN 9984-05-601-5.
- Krastins, Janis (2006). "Architecture and Urban Development of Art Nouveau – Metropolis Riga". International Review of Sociology. Routledge. 16 (2): 395–425. doi:10.1080/03906700600709327.
- 10 YEARS FIBA EUROPE Federation Focus: Latvia. fibaeurope.com, 24 September 2012.
- Riga: A Closer Look Archived 7 June 2015 at the Wayback Machine eurobasket2015.org
- IT, 2015, SIA Grafton. "Riga United FC". Riga United FC. Retrieved 14 May 2019.
- IFF. "IFF". floorball.org.
- "Explanatory Note on Planning and Building of the Southern Bridge Route". rdpad.lv. Archived from the original on 28 September 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2007.
- "Dienvidu Tilts; Project of the Bridge". dienvidutilts.lv. Archived from the original on 15 September 2007. Retrieved 21 August 2007.
- "Dienvidu tilta maģistrālie pievedceļi" (in Latvian). rdsd.lv. Retrieved 27 July 2009.
- "Northern Corridor; About project". ziemelukoridors.lv. Retrieved 21 August 2007.[dead link]
- "Izstrādāts Rīgas Ziemeļu transporta koridora 1.posma tehniskais projekts / būvprojekts" (in Latvian). rdpad.lv. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- "Lidostā "Rīga" svinīgi atklāj jaunās piestātnes ēkas būvniecības sākšanu" (in Latvian). Starptautiskā lidosta "Rīga". Archived from the original on 9 February 2015. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- "The trans-European transport network policy connecting East and West". Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- "The Rail Baltica II Joint venture of the Baltic States is established". Republic of Latvia Ministry of Transport. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 27 January 2015.
- "Rīgas Sadraudzības pilsētas". riga.lv (in Latvian). Rīga. Retrieved 30 August 2019.[permanent dead link]
- "Miesto partneriai". kaunas.lt (in Lithuanian). Kaunas. Archived from the original on 24 July 2019. Retrieved 30 August 2019.