Rail Baltica is an under-construction rail infrastructure project that is intended to integrate the Baltic states in the European rail network.[3] Its purpose is to provide passenger and freight service between participating countries and improve rail connections between Central and Northern Europe, specifically the area southeast of the Baltic Sea. It is also intended as a catalyst for building the economic corridor in Northeastern Europe. The project envisages a continuous rail link from Tallinn (Estonia) to Warsaw (Poland), consisting of links via Riga (Latvia), Kaunas, and Vilnius (Lithuania). Its total length in the Baltic States is 870 kilometres (540 mi), with 213 kilometres (132 mi) in Estonia, 265 kilometres (165 mi) in Latvia, and 392 kilometres (244 mi) in Lithuania.[4] Rail Baltica is one of the priority projects of the European Union (EU). It is part of the North Sea–Baltic Corridor of the Trans-European Transport Networks (TEN-T).

Rail Baltica
Overview
LocaleFinland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland
Websitewww.railbaltica.org
Service
TypePublic high-speed railway
SystemRail Baltica (European gauge railway)
ServicesTallinn–Pärnu–Riga–Riga International Airport–Panevėžys–Kaunas/Vilnius–Lithuania/Polish Border
History
Planned opening
  • Partial:
  • 2028
  • Full:
  • 2030
Technical
Number of tracksDouble track
Track gauge1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) standard gauge (primary)
Electrification25 kV 50 Hz AC overhead line[1]
Operating speed
  • Passenger:
  • 234 km/h (145 mph)[2]
  • Freight:
  • 120 km/h (75 mph)
SignallingERTMS L2

Rail Baltica will add the first large-scale mainline standard gauge railway in the area. Legacy rail networks in Finland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania are mainly in Russian gauge (1,520 mm). These countries' first railways were built in the second half of the 19th century while part of the Russian Empire. While some railways were built or converted to narrow or standard gauge between World War I and World War II in the independent or German-occupied Baltic states, these were later converted back to Russian gauge under Soviet occupation rule after 1945.

According to a study produced by Ernst & Young, the measurable socio-economic benefits are estimated at €16.2 billion.[5]: 186  The assessed GDP multiplier effect the Rail Baltica Global Project would create is an additional €2 billion.[5]: 203  As of January 2020, the high-speed railway connection from Tallinn to the Lithuanian-Polish border was expected to be completed by 2026.[6] As of June 2020, the undersea railway tunnel between Tallinn and Helsinki was envisioned to be completed around mid-2026.[7] At the end of April 2021, governments of Estonia and Finland signed a Memorandum of Understanding committing themselves to cooperation in the area of transport. As of February 2023, the tunnel was still at the investigative stage.

Overview

edit

Proposed environmental impact

edit

Rail Baltica will be an electric railway, motivated by a desire to reduce carbon emissions. The railway has been planned to avoid Natura 2000 protected areas, in addition to minimising impacts on other environmentally sensitive protected areas and existing 1,520 mm gauge railway networking areas. Wherever necessary, noise protection barriers will be installed. Special animal passages will be built through the embankment.[8]

Stations

edit

The railway project will enable intermodality and multimodality, i.e. transportation of freight through two or more methods of transportation. Rail Baltica includes plans for three multimodal freight terminals located in Muuga Harbour (Estonia), Salaspils (Latvia), and Kaunas (Lithuania). This is intended to create synergies with the existing 1,520 mm railway system infrastructure. There will be seven international passenger stations—in Tallinn, Pärnu, Riga, Riga Airport, Panevežys, Kaunas, and Vilnius—with potential regional stations and connections to airports and seaports.[8]

The section from Helsinki to Tallinn will be operated by existing commercial ferries. In the future, a proposed Helsinki to Tallinn Tunnel could provide a rail link between the two cities.[9]

Parameters

edit
 
Rail Baltica max speed in Poland (2018)

Rail Baltica will be built as a new, publicly owned, fast conventional double-track railway. If the railway runs freight trains, it will be quadruple-track. It will be electrified and equipped with the European Rail Traffic Management System (ERTMS) for signalling and communications. The maximum design speed is 249 km/h (155 mph) for passenger trains, while the maximum operational speed will be 234 km/h (145 mph).[10] For freight trains, the maximum design speed is 120 km/h (75 mph). The new railway line will be designed with a 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) gauge. Other key technical parameters include:[11]

  • The maximum freight train length will be 1,050 m (3,440 ft).
  • The maximum axle load will be 25 tonnes (25 long tons; 28 short tons).
  • No level crossings with roads.
  • No flat crossings with the 1,520 mm (4 ft 11+2732 in) (Russian gauge) rail network.
  • For maintenance and emergency services, access to the main line should be every 2–3 km (1.2–1.9 mi) and in specific areas.
  • The railway will have ballasted track.
  • Its energy system should be 25 kV.
  • Its double track side should be right-hand running.
  • It is ERTMS Level 2, Baseline 3.

The network's parameters are in accordance with the EU Technical Specifications for Interoperability (TSI – P2, F1).[12][13]

The design phase began in 2016, with design activities at the Riga Central Passenger Station and the Riga International Airport passenger station in Latvia to be continued until 2023. Meanwhile, the construction of the Rail Baltica infrastructure started in 2019, the first operations should start on some of the sections by 2028 and the overall corridor should be completed by 2030.[3][14][15]

The overall length of the railway between Tallinn and Warsaw will be at least 950 km (590 mi), while the length within the Baltic States proper will be 870 km (540 mi).

Status

edit

In 2017, all three Baltic parliaments ratified the Inter-Governmental Agreement for the Rail Baltica project, thereby confirming their long-term commitment to the project.[15] In addition, Rail Baltica Global Project's cost-benefit analysis was delivered by Ernst & Young and Atkins International experts, based on the European Union's CBA guidelines. The analysis showed that the project was financially feasible and viable, and its measurable benefits would outweigh the costs.[5]

In August 2016, the spatial planning for the entire Rail Baltica railway line was approved in Latvia by the decision of the Latvian Government. This was followed by the approval of the Lithuanian Government in January 2017 for their respective section from Kaunas to the border with Latvia. The route for the section from Kaunas to the border with Poland, known as Rail Baltica I, is subject to the results of an Upgrade Feasibility Study. On 14 February 2018, the Ministry of Public Administration of the Republic of Estonia approved the spatial plan for the line in Estonia, leading to the setting of the final route and preliminary design of the railway in the country. With Estonia's decision, the spatial territorial planning and preliminary technical design of the Rail Baltica railway in the Baltic States was finalised.[16]

The Rail Baltica project entered the design phase in all three Baltic States with the approval of detailed design guidelines. Certain sections have finished consolidating preliminary technical design, tendering the detailed technical design services, and preparing a BIM strategy. On 20 March 2018, the first Rail Baltica construction design and supervision contract—for Rail Baltica's Riga International Airport railway station, related infrastructure, and viaduct—was signed by Eiropas Dzelzceļa līnijas SIA and PROSIV, the winner of the open international tender and a partnership of suppliers from three countries: Prodex (Slovakia), Sintagma (Italy), and Vektors T (Latvia).[17]

In 2018, studies related to commercialisation and supply materials were finalised, including a long-term business plan, an operational plan, an infrastructure management study, and an upgraded feasibility study of the European gauge railway line from Kaunas to the Lithuanian–Polish border.[18] In 2019, the first cornerstone of Rail Baltica was laid in Estonia to mark the beginning of construction of Saustinõmme viaduct. Also, detailed technical design contracts were signed for the following sections: Tallinn–Rapla and Pärnu–Rapla in Estonia, Kaunas–Ramygala and Ramygala–Latvian/Lithuanian border in Lithuania, and Vangaži–Salaspils–Misa and the main line through Riga in Latvia.[19] With the contracts signed, geotechnical research was started in different sections of the railway in order to gather information about the soil.

In 2020, the development of detailed technical design had progressed to cover 643 km (400 mi) of the main track, which included all railway sections in Estonia and Latvia as well as sections from Kaunas to the Latvian/Lithuanian border in Lithuania.[19]

In Estonia, discussions about environmental impact assessment were started and meetings were planned until the end of 2020. During the discussions, people were invited to ask questions regarding the project's environmental impact, while various technical solutions were presented.[20]

In Latvia, the Riga Central Station construction was officially started with ceremonies on 23 November 2020.[21] On the 3rd of February 2021, the project implementer of Riga Airport Station was also chosen; construction began in May 2021 and is ongoing as of July 2023.[22] Talks with NGOs in Riga were started to discuss technical solutions within the city, especially for infrastructure elements such as crossings and overpasses.[23]

The Russian invasion of Ukraine has raised the importance of this European project, because of the connectivity across Europe that it will create, for civilian and military travel. Lithuania has a new commission to speed construction within the cities (freight terminal facilities and passenger depot). Estonia faces cost increases and construction delays.[24]

As of 2023, the project completion is scheduled for 2030, with a start of services on some of the sections in 2028.[25]

Project implementers

edit

The Rail Baltica project is being implemented by the three Baltic States: Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. Finland announced in February 2019 that it will also join the project.[26][27][28][29]

The beneficiaries of the Rail Baltica project are ministries of the three Baltic States: Estonia's Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communications, Latvia's Ministry of Transport, and Lithuania's Ministry of Transport and Communications. In 2014, they established RB Rail AS, a joint venture that acts as the main coordinator and project implementer for the project. Its main business is the design, construction, and marketing of the railway. RB Rail AS also submits EU financing proposals for the Rail Baltica purchasing body for all parties for the procurement of studies, plans, designs for the Global Project, sub-systems (control, command, and signalling and energy/electrification), raw materials, key components, and cross-border track sections.[30]

Rail Baltic Estonia OU in Estonia, Eiropas Dzelzceļa līnijas SIA in Latvia, and Rail Baltica statyba UAB and LtgInfra in Lithuania are the national implementing bodies.[27] All construction carried out by the implementing bodies is done under the supervision of RB Rail AS and is based on common procurement principles, rules, and contract templates.[31]

Financing

edit
 
Rail Baltica project structure

A feasibility study of Rail Baltica in the three Baltic States carried out by AECOM in May 2011 estimated a cost of €3.6 billion for the railway and proved that Rail Baltica is economically viable. Based on that study, key political and practical decisions—both on the national and EU level—were made to implement Rail Baltica.[32]

Since the AECOM study, the project has grown to include additional elements to the Rail Baltica Global Project for better connectivity, passenger mobility, and inter-modality. These additions include routing the Rail Baltica passenger mainline through the Riga International Airport and the construction of the airport passenger station (Latvia), the Kaunas–Vilnius connection (Lithuania), an improved connection in Kaunas (Lithuania), and the construction of the "Ülemiste–Tallinn airport" tram line (Estonia). Moreover, the preparation of environmental impact assessments, spatial planning, and some preliminary designs has provided better investment estimations for the project.[5]

Thus, in April 2017, the overall cost of the Rail Baltica Global Project implementation in all three countries—including the construction of the Kaunas–Vilnius section—was estimated to be €5.8 billion, according to a cost-benefit study carried out by Ernst & Young.[33] According to the analysis, the project's economic feasibility and social benefits were still proved, providing the necessary updated parameters for continued EU and national co-financing of the project.[5]

The project's profitability lies in its wider socio-economic benefits, which Ernst & Young estimated to be around €16.22 billion.[34] In addition, several immeasurable (mostly catalytic) benefits would be created through regional integration, such as tourism development, new business creation, increased attractiveness to FDI, access to new export markets, technological transfer, and innovation.

The project is financed by the member states, the European Union TEN-T budget, and the Structural and Cohesion Funds provided to the EU New Member States.[35] By the start of 2018, the three Baltic States and RB Rail AS had received two grants totaling €765 million designed under the CEF for the construction of the Rail Baltica railway. On 13 July 2018, a third grant agreement was signed for an additional €130 million, of which €110 million was CEF contribution.[36] In July 2020, another CEF funding was received, amounting to €216 million for construction, technical design, and planning works.[37] In total, the project has received around €1.2 billion from the EU and national funds.

In October 2023 Rail Baltica joint venture of the Baltic States, RB Rail AS, announced the signing of an additional cross-border Grant Agreement for Connecting Europe Facility (CEF) funding, which amounted to 928 million euros CEF support. This substantial funding, combined with national co-financing from the three Baltic States, will exceed 1.1 billion euros, enabling necessary activities for further high-speed infrastructure development.[38]

Route and standard

edit
 
Rail Baltica in Poland

The planning phase of Rail Baltica took place from 2010 to 2017.[citation needed] In 2011, the three Baltic States agreed on a route connecting Tallinn, Pärnu, Riga, Panevėžys, and Kaunas.[39] A feasibility study for this option estimated the line would cost about €3.68 billion in total.[40]

During the planning of the location of the project route in the Baltic States, a conceptual agreement among the three countries was reached that the railway should be as straight as possible, as this provides the highest benefits at the lowest cost. The shorter and more direct the route is, the faster traffic it can ensure, which economically has the highest advantage compared to its alternatives. This was confirmed by an AECOM study in 2013.[citation needed]

Initially, two options were considered. Both options included upgrading the existing standard gauge railway to enable travel speeds of up to 160 km/h (99 mph) along the stretch in Poland from Warsaw via Białystok and Ełk to Trakiszki,[41] followed by a new railway with standard gauge from Trakiszki to Kaunas. For the remainder of the route to Tallinn, two different options were considered:

  1. The first option was to upgrade the existing state-owned Tallinn–Tartu–Riga–Joniškis railway to 160 km/h (maintaining its Russian gauge) and build a new state-owned railway from Joniškis–Kaunas with 160 km/h, also at Russian gauge. However, because of the break of gauge at Kaunas, passengers would have to change trains there. For freight, a reloading facility or a bogie exchange station would be placed near Kaunas. This option was already completed as Rail Baltica I.[citation needed]
  2. The second option was a new standard gauge railway with 200 km/h (120 mph) speed and 3 kV DC power (the same voltage as in Poland) from Kaunas via Joniškis to Riga, as above, but then continuing in a shorter, straighter line via Pärnu to Tallinn.[41] This option was chosen as the preferred route. The existing Lelle–Pärnu line in Estonia was permanently closed for passenger operations on 9 December 2018,[42] as it required a €17 million refurbishment.[43]

The Šiauliai–Latvian border rail section (using broad gauge) was newly built and scheduled to be finished in 2015[needs update] with an estimated cost of €270 million. In Latvia, the existing railway upgrade between Riga and Valka was finished in 2016 at a cost of €97 million. The EU contributed about 25% of the cost for the three parts.[citation needed]

Construction (2017–present)

edit
 
Map of Rail Baltica with stations

In 2017, the parliaments of the three Baltic States ratified the intergovernmental agreement on Rail Baltica, stating that the "route shall be from Tallinn through Pärnu–Riga–Panevėžys–Kaunas to the Lithuanian/Polish state border with a connection of Vilnius–Kaunas as a part of the railway"[15] and defining a design speed of 240 km/h for passenger travel. Thus, the Rail Baltica Global Project route was aligned from Tallinn until Kaunas, with the pre-existing European gauge railway line section from Kaunas to the Lithuanian/Polish border being subject to the results of the Upgrade Feasibility Study.[44] Nevertheless, in April 2018, the Ministries of the three Baltic States approved the design guidelines of Rail Baltica, which state that the maximum design speed will be 249 km/h and maximum operational speed should be 234 km/h.[45]

For the Kaunas (Jiesia)–Lithuanian/Polish border section, a 78.1 km route named "alternative 6A" was approved in May 2022 by the Lithuanian Ministry of Transport and Communications, taking into account the opinion of the majority of the local residents.[4][46] This optimal route is the shortest among the alternatives which were proposed and the most remote from the urban areas.

The Polish section of Rail Baltica is being upgraded to allow passenger trains to run at 200 km/h.[47] The Ełk–state border section may be built to allow 250 km/h and may be electrified using the 25 kV AC system.[48]

On 29 February 2024, construction on the Rail Baltica Riga Central Railway Station reached the rooftop, which was celebrated with a ceremony according to Latvian tradition. This train station is expected to become the busiest in the Baltics once Rail Baltica is fully operational.[49]

Rail Baltica I

edit

The name "Rail Baltica" is also sometimes used to mean the first phase of European gauge railway construction from the Poland/Lithuania border to Kaunas in Lithuania. It was inaugurated on 16 October 2015. The project, which built European standard-gauge one track alongside the existing Russian gauge tracks, cost €380 million. The 119 km line accommodates diesel trains, with passenger trains running at up to 120 km/h and freight trains at up to 80 km/h. Higher speeds will depend on future electrification, a new signal system, and more level crossing gates. In June 2016, Lithuanian Railways and Polregio started weekend passenger train service between Kaunas and Białystok.[50]

In Estonia and Latvia, implementation of the Rail Baltica I project included upgrades of the existing rail lines in the region.[51] The 66-kilometre-long (41 mi) Russian gauge line from Tartu to Valga (on the Latvian border) in Estonia was renovated between 2008 and 2010. The work was done by the Finnish VR Group for a cost of €40 million.[52][53]

Benefits

edit

The Baltic railway infrastructure will be connected to the European railway corridor, ensuring high-speed passenger travel and freight movement. Rail Baltica creates the possibility to shift the major freight transport in the regions from road to rail, which is currently being transported towards Russia and then north by heavy trucks. In the case of Poland, trucks follow local roads and directly cross the villages of Podlaskie Voivodeship.[citation needed]

 
Rail Baltica timeline

According to the 2017 cost-benefit study by Ernst & Young, the benefits from Rail Baltica are calculated to be:

  • €7.1 billion saved in climate change and noise reduction
  • 30–40% relevant truck traffic flow shifted to railways
  • 13,000 jobs created during the construction phase
  • €5.3 billion saved for passenger and freight travel
  • 5.3 million passenger hours saved
  • 400 human lives saved in 29 years

All in total, measurable socio-economic benefits are estimated at €16.2 billion. The assessed GDP multiplier effect the Rail Baltica Global Project would create is an additional €2 billion. It is also claimed there will be "substantial unmeasurable benefits".[5]

In late April 2022, implementers of the Rail Baltica project presented the progress at the European Parliament where the strategic and geopolitical security importance of the project was stressed repeatedly in reference to the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine.[54]

Criticism

edit

Criticism started after the feasibility study published by AECOM in 2011, with the government of Lithuania keen to include a link to Vilnius.[55] The mayor of Tartu, Estonia's second-largest city, called for the city to be included in the route.[56][57]

In 2013, the Estonian Association for the Club of Rome advised the government to abandon the Rail Baltica route.[58] Problems in the environmental assessment programme have also been claimed.[59]

In 2017, two Estonian environmental groups claimed that the lack of public participation on the decision made by Baltic governments and building of a new line, rather than upgrading the existing network, is in conflict with the Aarhus Convention.[60]

In 2016 and 2017, three open letters were composed in Estonia which called on the Estonian government and parliament to stop the project in its planned form.[61][62][63] The main arguments in these letters were that the new track as a greenfield project will cause too much damage to nature and does not essentially improve travel possibilities.

On 8 June 2017, Priit Humal, Karli Lambot, Illimar Paul, and Raul Vibo, experts on logistics and engineering, published a critical analysis of the Rail Baltica cost-benefit analysis made by Ernst & Young, claiming that €4.1 billion of the stated socio-economic benefits are faulty and therefore the Rail Baltica project was neither feasible nor eligible for EU financing.[64] They asked for comments from RB Rail AS, the Rail Baltica coordinator, who provided answers four months later.[65] The authors of the first study claimed that the issues raised in their previous analysis were not adequately addressed in the official replies and that therefore Rail Baltica will be detrimental to society.[66][67]

The authors of the critical analysis have been accused of having a conflict of interest, as one of the authors owns a logistics company. It has been claimed that Rail Baltica would decrease the volume of business for road transport businesses. The author has denied these claims.[68]

See also

edit

References

edit
  1. ^ "Technical Parameters". RB Rail AS. Retrieved 2017-10-11.
  2. ^ "Technical Parameters". Rail Baltica Global Project.
  3. ^ a b "Rail Baltica – Project of the Century".
  4. ^ a b Route alternative approved for the future construction of the Rail Baltica railway from Kaunas to the border with Poland, railbaltica.org, 12 May 2022.
  5. ^ a b c d e f EY. "Rail Baltica Global Project Cost-Benefit Analysis Final Report" (PDF).
  6. ^ "Implementation of Rail Baltic by 2026 remaining target for RB Rail". The Baltic Times. 7 January 2020. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  7. ^ David Burroughs (18 June 2020). "Finnish regional council delays Finland – Estonia undersea rail tunnel". International Railway Journal. Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  8. ^ a b "Rail Baltica – Project of the Century". www.railbaltica.org. Retrieved 2018-05-24.
  9. ^ "Helsinki-Tallinn Rail Tunnel Link?". YLE News. 31 October 2008. Archived from the original on 4 April 2008. Retrieved 11 May 2008.
  10. ^ "Technical Parameters". Rail Baltica Global Project.
  11. ^ "Rail Baltica - Design Guidelines" (PDF). www.railbaltica.org. 2018-04-11. Retrieved 2022-01-28.
  12. ^ "Rail Baltica Design Guidelines Approved | Rail Baltica". www.railbaltica.org. 2018-05-03. Retrieved 2022-01-28.
  13. ^ "Technical Specifications for Interoperability". European Union Agency for Railways. October 2018. Retrieved 2022-01-28.
  14. ^ "Rail Baltica is your future | Rail Baltica". www.railbaltica.org. Retrieved 2018-05-24.
  15. ^ a b c "AGREEMENT OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE RAIL BALTIC/RAIL BALTICA RAILWAY CONNECTION" (PDF).
  16. ^ "Route setting and spatial territorial planning for Rail Baltica railway finalised in all three Baltic states | Rail Baltica". www.railbaltica.org. Retrieved 2018-05-24.
  17. ^ "The first Rail Baltica construction design and supervision contract signed in the Baltics - Edzl". edzl.lv (in Latvian). Archived from the original on 2018-08-06. Retrieved 2018-05-24.
  18. ^ "Annual Press Conference of the Rail Baltica implementers | Rail Baltica". www.railbaltica.org. Retrieved 2018-05-24.
  19. ^ a b "Interactive map". www.railbaltica.org. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  20. ^ "Kõrvek: Conducting Rail Baltica's environmental impact assessment discussions electronically has proven itself useful | Rail Baltica". www.railbaltica.org. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  21. ^ "The Start of Construction of Rail Baltica Central Hub in Riga | Rail Baltica". www.railbaltica.org. Retrieved 2020-12-01.
  22. ^ "At Riga International Airport, the construction of the Rail Baltica passenger terminal's reinforced concrete structures and railway platforms is underway | Rail Baltica". www.railbaltica.org. 2023-07-05. Retrieved 2023-12-06.
  23. ^ "Publiskā diskusija "Rail Baltica kā projekts Rīgas attīstībai" | Rail Baltica". www.railbaltica.org (in Latvian). Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  24. ^ Tunnicliffe, Andrew (March 7, 2023). "How Rail Baltica is making progress". Railway Technology. Retrieved June 30, 2023. In addition, projected costs for the multi-billion-Euro project continue to rise above initial estimates. At the end of 2022, it was reported costs for the Estonia section alone were expected to be €1.8bn, almost double what had originally been projected. Speaking to Estonia's daily newspaper, Postimees, Anvar Salomets, Chair of the board at RB Eesti, acknowledged the difficulties this section had faced, saying: "It is indeed the case that the design of the main route of the railway has proved difficult."
  25. ^ Rail Baltica – Project of the Century" on the Rail Baltica official website, accessed on 26 April 2023.
  26. ^ Estonian Public Broadcasting, BNS | (2019-02-03). "Finland to formally join Rail Baltica joint venture". ERR. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
  27. ^ a b "Finland to join the Rail Baltica Joint Ventures as a shareholder | Rail Baltica". www.railbaltica.org. 2019-02-05. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
  28. ^ "Finland will take part in Rail Baltica". RailTech.com. 2019-02-04. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
  29. ^ Shah, Shakhil (2019-02-05). "Finland hops on board Rail Baltica". Emerging Europe. Retrieved 2019-02-15.
  30. ^ "Main Coordinator". www.railbaltica.org. Retrieved 2018-05-24.
  31. ^ "Project Implementers". www.railbaltica.org. Retrieved 2018-05-24.
  32. ^ "Rail Baltica Final Report" (PDF).
  33. ^ ERR (3 April 2017). "Rail Baltic to cost €5.8 billion". ERR.
  34. ^ ERR (25 April 2017). "Analysis: Rail Baltic project to have €3.96 billion gap". ERR.
  35. ^ "Trans-European Transport Network (TEN-T): selection of projects for the TEN-T multi-annual programme 2007–2013 and the annual TEN-T programme 2007" (Press release). European Union. 21 November 2007.
  36. ^ "Third CEF Grant Agreement for Rail Baltica Global project signed". Rail Baltica. Retrieved 23 July 2018.
  37. ^ "Rail Baltica receives next round of funding | Rail Baltica". www.railbaltica.org. Retrieved 2020-09-21.
  38. ^ "Rail Baltica cleared to receive another billion euros". Public broadcasting of Latvia. 18 October 2023.
  39. ^ "Rail Baltica's fate to become clearer by the end of May" (PDF). March 2011.
  40. ^ "Project Rail Baltica would cost EUR 3.68 bln". June 2011.
  41. ^ a b European Commission, Directorate-General for Regional Policy (January 2007). "Feasibility study on Rail Baltica railways" (PDF). {{cite web}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  42. ^ "Estonia to close railway line and wait for Rail Baltica". Baltic News Network. 6 November 2018.
  43. ^ ERR News. Tallinn-Pärnu railway line to be closed permanently in December. Retrieved 7 June 2019
  44. ^ "Rail Baltica Route Setting in the Baltics | Rail Baltica". www.railbaltica.org. Retrieved 2018-05-24.
  45. ^ "Rail Baltica Design Guidelines Approved | Rail Baltica". www.railbaltica.org. Retrieved 2018-05-24.
  46. ^ "Tekstiniai Priedai (Text Attachments) (planning document comparing several alternative routes for the Kaunas (Jiesia) - Lithuanian-Polish border section)" (PDF). February 2022. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2022-03-31. Retrieved 2022-05-18 – via Government of Lithuania.
  47. ^ Madrjas, Jakub (24 January 2020). "Zmieniona koncepcja Rail Baltiki w Polsce. Nowy przebieg i obwodnica Białegostoku" [Amended concept of Rail Baltica in Poland. New route and Białystok bypass]. Rynek Kolejowy (in Polish).
  48. ^ Madrjas, Jakub (25 July 2019). "Adamczyk: Zmieniamy projekt Rail Baltica na prośbę Komisji Europejskiej. Będzie 250 km/h?" [Adamczyk: following European Commission request, we amend Rail Baltica project. Will there be 250 km/h?]. Rynek Kolejowy (in Polish).
  49. ^ "The rooftop ceremony of Rail Baltica at Riga Central Station was celebrated". baltictimes.com. 1 March 2024. Retrieved 19 April 2024.
  50. ^ "Lithuanian, Polish railways to launch Kaunas-Bialystok passenger route in June". The Baltic Course. 31 May 2016.
  51. ^ "Priority Project 27". Innovation and Networks Executive Agency - European Commission.
  52. ^ "Mid-Term Review" (PDF). Detailed report from 2010. 2010. pp. 161–172 (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF, 65 MB) on 2012-11-03.
  53. ^ VR Group (28 April 2008). "VR-Track wins superstructure renovation contract for Tartu-Valga track" (Press release). Finland.[permanent dead link]
  54. ^ Rail Baltica global project progress presented at the European Parliament: necessity of swift implementation of Rail Baltica and EU added value clearer than ever (26 April 2022)
  55. ^ Barrow, Keith (11 March 2014). "Governments edge towards consensus on Rail Baltica". International Rail Journal.
  56. ^ "Current Rail Baltic route through Latvia publicly approved". ERR. 30 November 2016.
  57. ^ "Tartu-Valga Rail Baltic Route Should Be Considered, Says Tartu Mayor". ERR. 17 January 2014.
  58. ^ "Eesti Rooma Klubi soovitab Rail Balticust loobuda". ERR (in Estonian). 15 November 2013.
  59. ^ Arumäe, Liisu (7 November 2013). "Expert says Rail Baltica endangers Tallinn drinking water". Postimees.
  60. ^ "Estonian ex-PM: Ratification of Rail Baltic accord will result in litigation". Baltic Times. 15 June 2017.
  61. ^ Open letter of 101 public people requesting the Estonian government stop Rail Baltic
  62. ^ Open letter of 152 public people requesting the Estonian government stop Rail Baltic
  63. ^ Open letter of 222 public people requesting the Estonian government stop Rail Baltic
  64. ^ "Humal, Lambot, Paul, Vibo. Major mistakes in Rail Baltic CBA made by EY" (PDF).
  65. ^ "RB Rail AS Comments on MTÜ ARB's questions" (PDF).
  66. ^ Humal, Lambot, Paul, Vibo. Major mistakes in Rail Baltica Cost-Benefit Analysis made by Ernst & Young Baltic
  67. ^ http://www.railbaltica.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/04/5609474-HR-to-Mr-Humal.pdf [bare URL PDF]
  68. ^ "Tiibmanööver: Valitsusparteid kulutasid katuseraha Rail Balticu kohtus takistamiseks".
edit