Pärnu (Estonian pronunciation: [ˈpærˑnu]) is the fourth largest city in Estonia. Situated in southwest Estonia, Pärnu is located 128 kilometres (80 mi) south of the Estonian capital, Tallinn, and 176 kilometres (109 mi) west of Estonia's second largest city, Tartu. The city sits off the coast of Pärnu Bay, an inlet of the Gulf of Riga, which is a part of the Baltic Sea. In the city, the Pärnu River drains into the Gulf of Riga.

Pärnu
Pärnu linn
City of Pärnu
City
Pärnu kesklinn - Aerial photo of Pärnu in Estonia (2).jpg
Pärnu - Punane torn (Red tower).JPG
Pärnu Eliisabeti kirik.jpg
Pärnu
Pärnu is located in Estonia
Pärnu
Pärnu
Location of Pärnu in Estonia
Pärnu is located in Baltic Sea
Pärnu
Pärnu
Pärnu (Baltic Sea)
Pärnu is located in Europe
Pärnu
Pärnu
Pärnu (Europe)
Coordinates: 58°23′N 24°30′E / 58.383°N 24.500°E / 58.383; 24.500Coordinates: 58°23′N 24°30′E / 58.383°N 24.500°E / 58.383; 24.500
CountryEstonia
CountyPärnu County
MunicipalityPärnu
Founded1251
Area
 • Total32.22 km2 (12.44 sq mi)
Elevation
10 m (30 ft)
Population
 (2022)[1]
 • Total40,228
 • Rank4th
 • Density1,200/km2 (3,200/sq mi)
Ethnicity
 • Estonians83%
 • Russians12%
 • other5%
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Area code(+372) 44
Vehicle registrationF

Pärnu is a popular summer holiday resort town among Estonians with many hotels, restaurants and large beaches. The city is served by Pärnu Airport.

HistoryEdit

 
Pärnu in 1554

Perona (German: Alt-Pernau, Estonian: Vana-Pärnu), which was founded by the bishop of Ösel–Wiek c. 1251, suffered heavily under pressure of the concurrent town, and was finally destroyed c. 1600. Another town, Embeke (later German: Neu-Pernau, Estonian: Uus-Pärnu) was founded by the Livonian Order, who began building an Ordensburg nearby in 1265. The latter town, then known by the German name of Pernau, was a member of the Hanseatic League and an important ice-free harbor for Livonia. The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth took control of town between 1560 and 1617; the Poles and Lithuanians fought the Swedes nearby in 1609. Sweden took control of the town during the 16th-century Livonian War as part of Swedish Livonia, although it was not formally ceded by Poland-Lithuania until the 1660 Treaty of Oliva. Sweden then lost Livonia to the Russian Empire in the 1710 Capitulation of Estonia and Livonia and the 1721 Treaty of Nystad, following the Great Northern War. It belonged to the Imperial Russian Governorate of Livonia until 1917, when it was transferred to the short-lived Autonomous Governorate of Estonia. The city is occasionally referred to as Pyarnu, an incorrect reverse-transliteration from the Russian Пярну.

The town became part of independent Estonia in 1918 following World War I and the Estonian War of Independence.

The city was occupied by the Soviet Red Army along with the rest of Estonia in 1940 during World War II, and its German population fled the town. It was briefly occupied by Germany from 1941 until 1944 before it was reoccupied by the Soviet Union during its counteroffensives. Pärnu then continued as being part of the Estonian Soviet Socialist Republic from 1944 to 1991, when Estonia restored its independence.

During the Great Northern War, the University of Dorpat (Tartu) was relocated to Pärnu from 1699 to 1710. The university has still maintained a branch campus in Pärnu to this day (1,000 students in the 2004/2005 school year).[2]

GeographyEdit

Districts of PärnuEdit

Drone video of Pärnu coastal meadow hiking trail, beach and town in June 2022

There are seven districts in Pärnu: Ülejõe, Rääma, Vana-Pärnu, Kesklinn, Rannarajoon, Eeslinn and Raeküla.[3]

ClimateEdit

Pärnu lies within the temperate humid continental climate zone.

Climate data for Pärnu (normals 1991–2020, extremes 1842–present)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 9.0
(48.2)
8.3
(46.9)
18.1
(64.6)
26.2
(79.2)
31.2
(88.2)
32.6
(90.7)
34.1
(93.4)
33.4
(92.1)
28.0
(82.4)
22.4
(72.3)
12.6
(54.7)
10.3
(50.5)
34.1
(93.4)
Average high °C (°F) −0.8
(30.6)
−1
(30)
3.0
(37.4)
10.2
(50.4)
16.7
(62.1)
20.2
(68.4)
23.0
(73.4)
21.8
(71.2)
16.6
(61.9)
9.9
(49.8)
4.3
(39.7)
1.1
(34.0)
10.4
(50.7)
Daily mean °C (°F) −3.0
(26.6)
−3.7
(25.3)
−0.5
(31.1)
5.4
(41.7)
11.4
(52.5)
15.4
(59.7)
18.3
(64.9)
17.2
(63.0)
12.5
(54.5)
6.8
(44.2)
2.2
(36.0)
−0.9
(30.4)
6.8
(44.2)
Average low °C (°F) −5.5
(22.1)
−6.6
(20.1)
−3.7
(25.3)
1.2
(34.2)
6.1
(43.0)
10.7
(51.3)
13.6
(56.5)
12.8
(55.0)
8.6
(47.5)
3.8
(38.8)
0.0
(32.0)
−3.1
(26.4)
3.2
(37.8)
Record low °C (°F) −34.8
(−30.6)
−34.3
(−29.7)
−28.5
(−19.3)
−19.7
(−3.5)
−5.3
(22.5)
−0.1
(31.8)
3.4
(38.1)
2.6
(36.7)
−4.7
(23.5)
−10.9
(12.4)
−22.2
(−8.0)
−34.5
(−30.1)
−34.8
(−30.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 61
(2.4)
49
(1.9)
43
(1.7)
40
(1.6)
39
(1.5)
78
(3.1)
74
(2.9)
84
(3.3)
61
(2.4)
83
(3.3)
73
(2.9)
71
(2.8)
761
(30.0)
Average precipitation days (≥ 1.0 mm) 12 9 10 8 7 9 10 10 11 12 14 14 125
Average relative humidity (%) 88 87 81 73 68 73 75 78 82 86 89 89 81
Mean monthly sunshine hours 38.8 69.6 148.2 210.1 300.3 293.5 306.4 258.6 172.8 95.5 36.5 24.3 1,950.2
Source: Estonian Weather Service (precipitation days 1971–2000)[4][5][6][7][8][9]

WaterbodiesEdit

Pärnu River, Sauga River, Reiu River, Pärnu Moat, Pärnu Bay.

Pärnu Moat was previously a part of Pärnu Fortress. Nowadays, it is mainly used as a venue for different events.[10]

DemographyEdit

Population changeEdit

Year 1881 1897 1922 1934 1959 1970 1979 1989 2000 2011 2012 2017 2022
Population 12,966 12,898 18,499 20,334 22,367 50,224 54,051 53,885 45,500 39,728 40,401 40,700 40,228

Ethnic groupsEdit

Population of Pärnu by ethnicity
Nationality 2000 census 2011 census[11]
Number % Number %
Estonians 36,112 79.37 33,000 83.07
Russians 6,951 15.28 5,076 12.78
Ukrainians 966 2.12 671 1.69
Finns 331 0.73 254 0.64
Belarusians 297 0.65 179 0.45
Total 45,500 39,728
Population of Pärnu by first language
Language 2000 census[12] 2011 census[11]
Number % Number %
Estonian 35,928 78.96 32,762 82.47
Russian 8,360 18.37 6,263 15.77
Ukrainian 426 0.94 245 0.62
Finnish 163 0.36 129 0.33
Belarusian 100 0.22 32 0.08
Total 45,500 39,728


EconomyEdit

 
Rüütli street in Pärnu.

Today Pärnu is an economically balanced region with a comprehensive range of industries. Foreign investments and new businesses with up-to-date technologies have enhanced job creation and higher competitiveness of the businesses in the world markets. Several enterprises of Pärnu region stand out as the best in Estonia.

Significant flows of exports from Pärnu region and South-Estonia pass through the Port of Pärnu which lies at the mouth of the Pärnu River. In recent years, the port has developed into an important regional harbour for south-western and southern Estonia. Pärnu's fame as a rehabilitation and holiday resort dates back to the middle of the 19th century. The foundation of the first bathing facility in 1838 is considered the birth date of Pärnu resort. Today Pärnu has all desirable qualities of a modern holiday resort – it has spas and rehabilitation centres, hotels, conference and concert venues, golf courses and tennis courts, restaurants and pubs. Long tradition of as a resort has made Pärnu well known in Finland and Scandinavian countries.

TourismEdit

 
Pärnu mud baths

The majority of the tourists in Pärnu are Finns, Swedes and Russians. German, Latvian, and Norwegian tourists have also become more common.

In 1837, a tavern near the beach was made into a bathing establishment. The establishment accommodated 5–6 bathrooms that provided hot seawater baths in summer and operated as a sauna in winter. The wooden building was burnt down in the course of World War I. In 1927, the present stone building of Pärnu Mud Baths was erected at the same site.

Since 1996 Pärnu has been known as Estonia's Summer Capital.[13][14]

Starting from 2015 the city of Pärnu hosts the annual Weekend Festival, the largest dance music festival in the Nordic and Baltic region. Stages are headlined by DJs from across the electronic dance music spectrum, with audiovisual support. Some of the past and upcoming artists to perform include Martin Garrix, David Guetta, Avicii, Steve Aoki, The Chainsmokers, Tiësto, Armin van Buuren, Hardwell, Robin Schulz, Afrojack, deadmau5, Knife Party, Desiigner and many more. Pärnu is also known for its seawall. According to legend, if a couple holds hands while journeying along the wall and kisses at its endpoint they will stay together forever.[15]

Pärnu beach

GalleryEdit

Honorary citizens of PärnuEdit

Notable residentsEdit

 
Memorial monument of Lydia Koidula (1843–1886), the national poet of Estonia, created by Amandus Adamson.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Population by sex, age and place of residence after the 2017 administrative reform, 1 January. Statistics Estonia.
  2. ^ University of Tartu Pärnu College
  3. ^ "LINNAOSADE JA -JAGUDE LÜHENDID". www.eki.ee (in Estonian). Retrieved 18 March 2020.
  4. ^ "Climate normals-Temperature". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  5. ^ "Climate normals-Precipitation". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  6. ^ "Climate normals-Humidity". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  7. ^ "Climate normals-Sunshine". Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  8. ^ "Rekordid" (in Estonian). Estonian Weather Service. Retrieved 19 March 2021.
  9. ^ "Kliimanormid-Sademed, õhuniiskus" (in Estonian). Estonian Weather Service. Archived from the original on 22 February 2012. Retrieved 1 February 2021.
  10. ^ "Pärnu moat, Estonia". Visitestonia.com. Retrieved 23 December 2020.
  11. ^ a b "Statistika andmebaas - Vali tabel".
  12. ^ "Statistika andmebaas - Vali tabel".
  13. ^ suvepealinn
  14. ^ Short history – VisitPärnu.com
  15. ^ "Pärnu Seawall".

External linksEdit