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The Tatars (/ˈtɑːtərz/; Tatar: татарлар; Russian: татары) are a Turkic ethnic group[10] living mainly in Tatarstan and the wider Volga-Ural region. They speak Tatar, a Kipchak Turkic language. The vast majority of Tatars today reside in post-Soviet countries, primarily in Russia, Ukraine and Uzbekistan. The vast majority of Tatars are Muslims.[11]

Tatars
Tатарлар
Total population
c. 6,800,000[1]
Regions with significant populations
 Russia5,319,877 (excluding the Republic of Crimea)[citation needed]
 Uzbekistan477,875[citation needed]
 Ukraine319,377 (including Crimea)[2]
 Kazakhstan240,000[citation needed]
 Turkey175,500[citation needed]
 Turkmenistan36,355[citation needed]
 Kyrgyzstan28,334[citation needed]
 Azerbaijan25,900[citation needed]
 Romania20,282[3]
 Mongolia18,567[citation needed]
 Israel15,000[citation needed]
 Belarus7,300[citation needed]
 France7,000[citation needed]
 Lithuania6,800-7,200[citation needed]
 China5,000[citation needed]
 Canada4,825[4]
(Includes those of mixed ancestry)
 Estonia1,981[citation needed]
 Poland1,916[citation needed]
 Bulgaria1,803[citation needed]
 Finland1,000[citation needed]
 Japan600-2,000[5]
 Australia500+[6]
 Czech Republic300+[7]
  Switzerland150[8]
Languages
Russian, Tatar, Siberian Tatar, Crimean Tatar
Religion
Predominantly Sunni Islam
Eastern Orthodox and shamanist minorities[9]
Related ethnic groups
Other Turkic peoples (particularly other descendants of Bulgars such as the Chuvash people)

The name Tatar first appears in written form on the Kul Tigin monument as 𐱃𐱃𐰺‎, Ta-tar and likely was referring to the Tatar confederation. That confederation was eventually incorporated into the Mongol Empire when Genghis Khan unified the various steppe tribes.[12] Historically, the term Tatars (or Tartars) was applied to anyone originating from the vast Northern and Central Asian landmass then known as Tartary, which was dominated by various mostly Turco-Mongol semi-nomadic empires and kingdoms. More recently, however, the term has come to refer more narrowly to related ethnic groups who refer to themselves as Tatars or who speak languages that are commonly referred to as Tatar, namely Tatar by Volga Tatars (Tatars proper), Crimean Tatar by Crimean Tatars and Siberian Tatar by Siberian Tatars.

The largest group amongst the Tatars by far and the one called "Tatars" in Russian, are the Volga Tatars, native to the Volga region (Tatarstan and Bashkortostan), who for this reason are often also simply known as "Tatars". They compose 53% of the population in Tatarstan. Their language is known as the Tatar language. As of 2002, there were an estimated 5 million ethnic Tatars in Russia.

There is a common belief that Russians and Tatars are closely intermingled, illustrated by the famous saying "scratch any Russian just a little and you will discover a Tatar underneath"[13] and the fact that a number of noble families in the Tsardom of Russia had Tatar origins;[14] however, genetics show that majority of Russians form a cluster with Northern and Eastern Europeans (especially Belarusians and Ukrainians), and are relatively far from Tatar peoples.[15][16] In modern-day Tatarstan, however, Russian-Tatar marriages are very common.[17]

NameEdit

 
Ottoman miniature of the Szigetvár campaign showing Ottoman troops and Tatars as vanguard

The name "Tatar" likely originated amongst the nomadic Mongolic-speaking Tatar confederation in the north-eastern Gobi desert in the 5th century.[18] The name "Tatar" was first recorded on the Orkhon inscriptions: Kul Tigin (732 CE) and Bilge Khagan (735 CW) monuments as ‎𐱃𐱃𐰺⁚𐰉𐰆𐰑𐰣‎⁚𐰆𐱃𐰕‎, Otuz Tatar Bodun, 'Thirty Tatar clan'[19] and ‎𐱃𐱃𐰺⁚𐰸𐱃𐰕‎, Tokuz Tatar, 'Nine Tatar'[20][21][22][23] referring to the Tatar confederation.

Tatar became a name for populations of the former Golden Horde in Europe, such as those of the former Kazan, Crimean, Astrakhan, Qasim, and Siberian Khanates. The form Tartar has its origins in either Latin or French, coming to Western European languages from Turkish and the Persian language (tātār, "mounted messenger"). From the beginning, the extra r was present in the Western forms, and according to the Oxford English Dictionary this was most likely due to an association with Tartarus.[24][25]

The Persian word is first recorded in the 13th century in reference to the hordes of Genghis Khan and is of unknown origin, according to OED "said to be" ultimately from tata, a name of the Mongols for themselves. The Arabic word for Tatars is تتار. Tatars themselves wrote their name as تاتار‎ or طاطار‎. The Chinese term for Tatars was 韃靼; Dádá, especially after the end of the Yuan period (14th century), but also recorded as a term for Mongolian-speaking peoples of the northern steppes during the Tang period (8th century).[26] The name Tatars was used as an alternative term for the Shiwei, a nomadic confederation to which these Tatar people belonged.

Russians and Europeans used the name Tatar to denote Mongols as well as Turkic peoples under Mongol rule (especially in the Golden Horde). Later, it applied to any Turkic or Mongolic-speaking people encountered by Russians. Eventually, however, the name became associated with the Turkic Muslims of Ukraine and Russia, namely the descendants of Muslim Volga Bulgars, Kipchaks, Cumans, and Turkicized Mongols or Turko-Mongols (Nogais), as well as other Turkic-speaking peoples (Siberian Tatars, Qasim Tatars, and Mishar Tatars)[27][28][29][30][31] in the territory of the former Russian Empire (and as such generally includes all Northwestern Turkic-speaking peoples).[32]

Nowadays Tatar is usually used to refer to the people, but Tartar is still almost always used for derived terms such as tartar sauce, steak tartare, and the Tartar missile.[33]

All Turkic peoples living within the Russian Empire were named Tatar (as a Russian exonym). Some of these populations still use Tatar as a self-designation, others do not.[34]

The name Tatar is also an endonym to a number of peoples of Siberia and Russian Far East, namely the Khakas people.

HistoryEdit

 
Drawing of Mongols of the Golden Horde outside Vladimir, presumably demanding submission, before sacking the city
 
Map of Tartaria (1705)

As various nomadic groups became part of Genghis Khan's army in the early 13th century, a fusion of Mongol and Turkic elements took place, and the invaders of Rus' and the Pannonian Basin became known to Europeans as Tatars or Tartars (see Tatar yoke).[18] After the breakup of the Mongol Empire, the Tatars became especially identified with the western part of the empire, known as the Golden Horde.[18]

The various Tatar khanates of the early modern period represent the remnants of the breakup of the Golden Horde and of its successor, the Great Horde. These include:

The Mongol dominance in Central Asia was absolute during the 14th and 15th centuries. The Crimean-Nogai raids into Russia and Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth aimed especially at the capture of slaves, most of whom were exported to the Ottoman Empire. The raids were an important drain of the human and economic resources of both countries. They largely prevented the settlement of the "Wild Fields" – the steppe and forest-steppe land that extends from about 160 km (100 mi) south of Moscow to the Black Sea. The raids were also important in the development of the Cossacks.[36]

The end of absolute Tatar dominance came in the late 15th century, heralded by the Great stand on the Ugra river in 1480. During the 16th through 18th centuries, the gradual expansion of Russia led to the absorption of the Tatar khanates into Russian territory. The Crimean Tatars attacked Russia in 1507, followed by two centuries of Russo-Crimean Wars for the Volga basin. Similarly, the Russo-Kazan Wars lasted for the best part of a century and ended with the Russian conquest of the Kazan khanate.

The last of the Tatar khanates, the Kazakhs, remained independent until 1822. Their last ruler, Kenesary Khan, was proclaimed khan of the Kazakhs when the Russian Empire was already fully in control of Kazakhstan; Russian law prohibited the Kazakhs from selecting their leader after 1822. The popular rise of Kenesary Khan was in defiance of Russian control of Kazakhstan, and his time as khan was spent on continuous fighting with the Russian imperial forces until his death in 1847.

LanguagesEdit

 
Contemporary distribution of Kipchak languages:  Kipchak–Bolgar   Kipchak–Cuman   Kipchak–Nogay and Kyrgyz–Kipchak 

The Tatar language, together with the Bashkir language, forms the Kypchak-Bolgar (also "Uralo-Caspian") group within the Kipchak languages (also known as Northwestern Turkic).

There are two Tatar dialects – Central and Western.[37] The Western dialect (Misher) is spoken mostly by Mishärs, the Central dialect is spoken by Kazan and Astrakhan Tatars. Both dialects have subdialects. Central Tatar furnishes the base of literary Tatar.

The Siberian Tatar language are independent of Volga–Ural Tatar. The dialects are quite remote from Standard Tatar and from each other, often preventing mutual comprehension. The claim that Siberian Tarar is part of the modern Tatar language is typically supported by linguists in Kazan and denounced by Siberian Tatars.

Crimean Tatar[38] is the indigenous language of the Crimean Tatar people. Because of its common name, Crimean Tatar is sometimes mistakenly seen as a dialect of Kazan Tatar. Although these languages are related (as both are Turkic), the Kypchak languages closest to Crimean Tatar are (as mentioned above) Kumyk and Karachay-Balkar, not Kazan Tatar.

Contemporary groupsEdit

The largest Tatar populations are the Volga Tatars, native to the Volga region, and the Crimean Tatars of Crimea. Smaller groups of Lipka Tatars and Astrakhan Tatars live in Europe and the Siberian Tatars in Asia.

Volga TatarsEdit

 
The areas of settlement of Tatars in Russia according to the National Population Census 2010

The Volga Bulgars, who settled on the Volga river in the 7th century AD and converted to Islam in 922 during the missionary work of Ahmad ibn Fadlan, inhabited the present-day territory of Tatarstan.[citation needed] After the Mongol invasions of 1223–1236, the Golden Horde annexed Volga Bulgaria. Most of the population survived, and there may[original research?] have been a certain degree of mixing between it and the Kipchaks of the Horde during the ensuing period. The group as a whole accepted the exonym "Tatars" (finally in the end of the 19th century; although the name Bulgars persisted in some places; the majority identified themselves simply as the Muslims) and the language of the Kipchaks; on the other hand, the invaders eventually converted to Islam. As the Golden Horde disintegrated in the 15th century, the area became the territory of the Kazan khanate, which Russia ultimately conquered in the 16th century.

Some Volga Tatars speak different dialects of the Tatar language. Accordingly, they form distinct groups such as the Mişär group and the Qasim group:

A minority of Christianized Volga Tatars are known as Keräşens.

 
Volga Tatar operatic soprano Aida Garifullina

The Volga Tatars used the Turkic Old Tatar language for their literature between the 15th and 19th centuries. It was written in the İske imlâ variant of the Arabic script, but actual spelling varied regionally. The older literary language included a large number of Arabic and Persian loanwords. The modern literary language, however, often uses Russian and other European-derived words instead.

Outside of Tatarstan, urban Tatars usually speak Russian as their first language (in cities such as Moscow, Saint-Petersburg, Nizhniy Novgorod, Tashkent, Almaty, and cities of the Ural and western Siberia) and other languages in a worldwide diaspora.

 
Hillary Clinton with a Volga Tatar woman and President Mintimer Shaimiev of Tatarstan in Kazan, capital of the Russian autonomous Republic of Tatarstan

In the 1910s the Volga Tatars numbered about half a million in the Kazan Governorate in Tatarstan, their historical homeland, about 400,000 in each of the governments of Ufa, 100,000 in Samara and Simbirsk, and about 30,000 in Vyatka, Saratov, Tambov, Penza, Nizhny Novgorod, Perm and Orenburg. An additional 15,000 had migrated to Ryazan or were settled as prisoners in the 16th and 17th centuries in Lithuania (Vilnius, Grodno and Podolia). An additional 2000 resided in St. Petersburg.[12]

Most Kazan Tatars practise Sunni Islam. The Kazan Tatars speak the Tatar language, a Turkic language with a substantial amount of Russian and Arabic loanwords.

Before 1917, polygamy was practiced[39][citation needed] only by the wealthier classes and was a waning institution.[12]

An ethnic nationalist movement among Kazan Tatars that stresses descent from the Bulgars is known as Bulgarism – there have been graffiti on the walls in the streets of Kazan with phrases such as "Bulgaria is alive" (Булгария жива)

A significant number of Volga Tatars emigrated during the Russian Civil War of 1917–1922, mostly to Turkey and to Harbin, China. According to the Chinese government, 5,100 Tatars still live in Xinjiang province.

Crimean TatarsEdit

 
Cossacks fighting Tatars of the Crimean Khanate.

The number of Crimean Tatars is estimated by UNPO to be between 240,000 and 300,000[40]. The Crimean Tatars emerged as a nation at the time of the Crimean Khanate (1441–1783). The Crimean Khanate was a Turkic-speaking Muslim state that was among the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the beginning of the 18th century.[41]

The nobles and rulers of the Crimean Tatars descended from Hacı I Giray, a Jochid descendant of Genghis Khan and of his grandson Batu Khan of the Mongol Golden Horde.[citation needed] The Crimean Tatars mostly adopted Islam in the 14th century and thereafter Crimea became one of the centers of Islamic civilization.[citation needed] The Khanate officially operated as a vassal state of the Ottoman Empire, with great autonomy after 1448. The Russo-Turkish War of 1768 to 1774 resulted in the defeat of the Ottomans by the Russians, and according to the Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca (1774) signed after the war, Crimea became independent and the Ottomans renounced their political right to protect the Crimean Khanate. After a period of political unrest in Crimea, Imperial Russia violated the treaty and annexed the Crimean Khanate in 1783.

The Crimean Tatars comprise three sub-ethnic groups:

  • the Tats (not to be confused with Tat people, living in the Caucasus region) who used to inhabit the Crimean Mountains before 1944 (about 55%)
  • the Yalıboyu who lived on the southern coast of the peninsula (about 30%)
  • the Noğay (about 15%)

Crimean Tatars in Romania and BulgariaEdit

Some Crimean Tatars have lived in the territory of today's Romania and Bulgaria since the 13th century. In Romania, according to the 2002 census, 24,000 people declared their ethnicity as Tatar, most of them being Crimean Tatars living in Constanța County in the region of Dobrogea. The Ottoman Empire re-settled Crimean Tatars there as colonists by the beginning in the 17th century.

Lipka TatarsEdit

 
Swedish King Charles X Gustav in a skirmish with Tatars near Warsaw during the Second Northern War of 1655–1660.

The Lipka Tatars are a group of Turkic-speaking Tatars who originally settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania at the beginning of the 14th century. The first settlers tried to preserve their shamanistic religion and sought asylum amongst the non-Christian Lithuanians.[42] Towards the end of the 14th century Grand Duke Vytautas the Great of Lithuania (ruled 1392–1430) invited another wave of Tatars —Muslims, this time— into the Grand Duchy. These Tatars first settled in Lithuania proper around Vilnius, Trakai, Hrodna and Kaunas[42] and spread to other parts of the Grand Duchy that later became part of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth in 1569. These areas comprise parts of present-day Lithuania, Belarus and Poland. From the very beginning of their settlement in Lithuania they were known as the Lipka Tatars.

From the 13th to 17th centuries various groups of Tatars settled and/or found refuge within the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. The Grand Dukes of Lithuania especially promoted the migrations because of the Tatars' reputation as skilled warriors. The Tatar settlers were all granted szlachta (nobility) status, a tradition that survived until the end of the Commonwealth in the late-18th century. Such migrants included the Lipka Tatars (13th–14th centuries) as well as Crimean and Nogay Tatars (15th–16th centuries), all of which were notable in Polish military history, as well as Volga Tatars (16th–17th centuries). They all mostly settled in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania.

 
At the Battle of Warsaw in 1656 Tatars fought with the Poles against the Swedes

Various estimates of the Tatars in the Commonwealth in the 17th century place their numbers at about 15,000 persons and 60 villages with mosques. Numerous royal privileges, as well as internal autonomy granted by the monarchs, allowed the Tatars to preserve their religion, traditions, and culture over the centuries. The Tatars were allowed to intermarry with Christians,a practice uncommon in Europe at the time. The May Constitution of 1791 gave the Tatars representation in the Polish Sejm (parliament).

Although by the 18th century the Tatars had adopted the local language, the Islamic religion and many Tatar traditions (e.g. the sacrifice of bulls in their mosques during the main religious festivals) survived. This led to the formation of a distinctive Muslim culture, in which the elements of Muslim orthodoxy mixed with religious tolerance formed a relatively liberal society. For instance, the women in Lipka Tatar society traditionally had the same rights and status as men, and could attend non-segregated schools.

About 5,500 Tatars lived within the inter-war boundaries of Poland (1920–1939), and a Tatar cavalry unit had fought for the country's independence. The Tatars had preserved their cultural identity and sustained a number of Tatar organisations, including Tatar archives and a museum in Vilnius.

The Tatars suffered serious losses during World War II and furthermore, after the border change in 1945, a large part of them found themselves in the Soviet Union. It is estimated[by whom?] that about 3000 Tatars live in present-day Poland, of which about 500 declared Tatar (rather than Polish) nationality in the 2002 census. There are two Tatar villages (Bohoniki and Kruszyniany) in the north-east of present-day Poland, as well as urban Tatar communities in Warsaw, Gdańsk, Białystok, and Gorzów Wielkopolski. Tatars in Poland sometimes have a Muslim surname with a Polish ending: Ryzwanowicz; another surname sometimes adopted by more assimilated Tatars is Tatara or Tataranowicz or Taterczyński, which literally mean "son of a Tatar".

The Tatars played a relatively prominent role for such a small community in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth military as well as in Polish and Lithuanian political and intellectual life.[citation needed] In modern-day Poland, their presence is also widely known, due in part to their noticeable role in the historical novels of Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846–1916), which are universally recognized in Poland. A number of Polish intellectual figures have also been Tatars, e.g. the prominent historian Jerzy Łojek.

A small community of Polish-speaking Tatars settled in Brooklyn, New York City, in the early-20th century. They established a mosque that remained in use as of 2017.[43]

Astrakhan TatarsEdit

 
Tatar cavalry training in their sarai.

The Astrakhan Tatars (around 80,000) are a group of Tatars, descendants of the Astrakhan Khanate's population, who live mostly in Astrakhan Oblast. In the Russian census in 2010, most Astrakhan Tatars declared themselves simply as Tatars and few declared themselves as Astrakhan Tatars. A large number of Volga Tatars live in Astrakhan Oblast and differences between them have been disappearing.

Siberian TatarsEdit

The Siberian Tatars occupy three distinct regions:

They originated in the agglomerations of various indigenous North Asian groups which, in the region north of the Altay, reached some degree of culture between the 4th and 5th centuries, but were subdued and enslaved by the Mongols.[12] The 2010 census recorded 6,779 Siberian Tatars in Russia. According to the 2002 census there are 500,000 Tatars in Siberia, but 400,000 of them are Volga Tatars who settled in Siberia during periods of colonization.[44]

GeneticsEdit

Comparison of the proportions of Caucasoid and Mongoloid characteristics in the gene pools of ethnic groups in the Volga-Ural region revealed a heterogenous pattern. Data on the proportions of major racial components in the nuclear genome indicated that the Mongoloid characters were most prevalent in Bashkirs, Maris, Volga Tatars, and Chuvashes, while the Caucasoid component was maximum in Mordovians, Komis, and Udmurts. Data on restriction-deletion polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) also indicated an increased Caucasoid contribution to Mordovian, Udmurt, and Komi gene pools and an increased Mongoloid component in Chuvashes and Volga Tatars. In general, the results obtained agree with ethnic anthropological data indicating the greatest Caucasoid contribution to the Mordovian and Komi gene pools and an increased Mongoloid component in Turkic populations of the Volga-Ural region (Volga Tatars, Bashkirs and Chuvashes).[45]

Y-DNAEdit

Haplogroups of 450 Tatars, summarized from the studies Rootsi 2007, Tambets 2004, Balanovsky in prep., Wells 2001[46]

  • N1c2: 21,0%
  • R1a: 19,0%
  • I1: 13,2%
  • N1c1: 13,0%
  • J2: 8,1%
  • R1b1b2: 6,0%
  • E1b1a: 4,0%
  • O: 3,0%
  • I2a1: 2,8%
  • C: 2,7%
  • I2a2: 1,8%
  • G: 1,0%
  • J1: 1,0%
  • L: 1,0%
  • Q: 1,0%
  • T: 1,0%

Haplogroups in Volga Tatars(122 samples):[47]

  • C2: 2%
  • E: 4% (V13: 3%)
  • G2a: 2%
  • I1: 6%
  • I2a1: 5%
  • I2a2: 2%
  • J2a: 7%
  • J2b: 2%
  • L1: 2%
  • N1c2: 9%
  • N1c1: 16%
  • O3: 2%
  • Q1: 2%
  • R1a: 33% (Z282: 19%, Z93: 14%)

Haplogroups in Crimean Tatars(22 samples):[48]

  • R-M17: 32%
  • R-M173: 9%
  • O-M175: 5%
  • O-M122: 5%
  • J-M172: 14%
  • I-M170: 5%
  • F-M89: 18%
  • C-M130: 9%
  • E-M96: 5%

mtDNAEdit

According to Mylyarchuk et al.:

It was found that mtDNA of the Volga Tatars consists of two parts, but western Eurasian component prevails considerably (84% on average) over eastern Asian one (16%).

among 197 Kazan Tatars and Mishars.[49]

The study of Suslova et al. found indications of two non-Kipchak sources of admixture, Finno-Ugric and Bulgar.

GalleryEdit

FlagsEdit

PicturesEdit

PaintingsEdit

LanguageEdit

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Tatars facts, information, pictures - Encyclopedia.com articles about Tatars". www.encyclopedia.com.
  2. ^ "About number and composition population of Ukraine by data All-Ukrainian census of the population 2001". Ukraine Census 2001. State Statistics Committee of Ukraine. Retrieved 27 September 2012.
  3. ^ "Ethnic composition of Romania 2011".
  4. ^ "Census Profile, 2016 Census - Canada [Country] and Canada [Country]". 2017-02-08.
  5. ^ Представитель культурной ассоциации «Идель-Урал» считал, что количество татар в Японии в 1930-е годы могло достигать 10000 человек (in Russian)
  6. ^ http://www.australiantatars.com/tatarsau/default.aspx
  7. ^ "Президент РТ".
  8. ^ "Rustam Minnikhanov meets representatives of the Tatar Diaspora in Switzerland".
  9. ^ "Tatars". World Culture Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  10. ^ "Tatar - people".
  11. ^ "Tatars". World Culture Encyclopedia. Retrieved 14 March 2018.
  12. ^ a b c d   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainKropotkin, Peter; Eliot, Charles (1911). "Tatars". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. 28 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 448–449.
  13. ^ Matthias Kappler, Intercultural Aspects in and Around Turkic Literatures: Proceedings of the International Conference Held on October 11th-12th, 2003 in Nicosia, Otto Harrassowitz Verlag (2006), p. 165
  14. ^ Thomas Riha, Readings in Russian Civilization, Volume 1: Russia Before Peter the Great, 900-1700, University of Chicago Press (2009), p. 186
  15. ^ Orekhov, V; Poltoraus, A; Zhivotovsky, LA; Spitsyn, V; Ivanov, P; Yankovsky, N (1999). "Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in Russians". FEBS Lett. 445 (1): 197–201. doi:10.1016/s0014-5793(99)00115-5. PMID 10069400.
  16. ^ Balanovsky, Oleg (2008). "Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context". The American Journal of Human Genetics. 82 (1): 236–250. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2007.09.019. PMC 2253976. PMID 18179905.
  17. ^ "Взаимоотношения супругов в моно- и полиэтнических браках русских и татар". 2010. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  18. ^ a b c Tatar. (2006). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved October 28, 2006, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://search.eb.com/eb/article-9071375
  19. ^ "Kül Tiğin (Gültekin) Yazıtı Tam Metni (Full text of Kul Tigin monument with Turkish transcription)". Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  20. ^ "Bilge Kağan Yazıtı Tam Metni (Full text of Bilge Khagan monument with Turkish transcription)". Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  21. ^ "The Kultegin's Memorial Complex". Retrieved 5 April 2014.
  22. ^ Ross, E. Denison; Vilhelm Thomsen (1930). "The Orkhon Inscriptions: Being a Translation of Professor Vilhelm Thomsen's Final Danish Rendering". Bulletin of the School of Oriental Studies, University of London. 5 (4, 1930): 861–876. doi:10.1017/S0041977X00090558. JSTOR 607024.
  23. ^ Thomsen, Vilhelm Ludvig Peter (1896). Inscriptions de l'Orkhon déchiffrées. Helsingfors, Impr. de la Société de littérature finnoise. p. 140.
  24. ^ citing a letter to St Louis of Frances dated 1270 which makes the connection explicit, "In the present danger of the Tartars either we shall push them back into the Tartarus whence they are come, or they will bring us all into heaven"
  25. ^ Wedgwood, Hensleigh (1855). "On False Etymologies". Transactions of the Philological Society (6): 72.
  26. ^ Chen Dezhi 陳得芝, Jia Jingyan 賈敬顔 (1992). "Dada 達靼", in: Zhongguo da baike quanshu 中國大百科全書, Zhongguo lishi 中國歷史, vol. 1, pp. 132–133. Cited after "Dada 韃靼 Tatars" by Ulrich Theobald, chinaknowledge.de.
  27. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Tatar, also spelled Tartar, any member of several Turkic-speaking peoples ... [1]
  28. ^ The Columbia Encyclopedia: Tatars (tä´tərz) or Tartars (tär´tərz), Turkic-speaking peoples living primarily in Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. [2]
  29. ^ Merriam-Webster: Tatar – a member of any of a group of Turkic peoples found mainly in the Tatar Republic of Russia and parts of Siberia and central Asia [3]
  30. ^ Oxford Dictionaries: Tatar – a member of a Turkic people living in Tatarstan and various other parts of Russia and Ukraine.[4]
  31. ^ Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa: Turks are an ethnolinguistic group living in a broad geographic expanse extending from southeastern Europe through Anatolia and the Caucasus Mountains and throughout Central Asia. Thus Turks include the Turks of Turkey, the Azeris of Azerbaijan, and the Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tatars, Turkmen, and Uzbeks of Central Asia, as well as many smaller groups in Asia speaking Turkic languages. [5]
  32. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica: Tatar, also spelled Tartar, any member of several Turkic-speaking peoples ... [6] The Columbia Encyclopedia: Tatars (tä´tərz) or Tartars (tär´tərz), Turkic-speaking peoples living primarily in Russia, Ukraine, and Uzbekistan. [7] Merriam-Webster: Tatar – a member of any of a group of Turkic peoples found mainly in the Tatar Republic of Russia and parts of Siberia and central Asia [8] Oxford Dictionaries: Tatar – a member of a Turkic people living in Tatarstan and various other parts of Russia and Ukraine. They are the descendants of the Tartars who ruled central Asia in the 14th century. [9] Encyclopedia of the Modern Middle East and North Africa: Turks are an ethnolinguistic group living in a broad geographic expanse extending from southeastern Europe through Anatolia and the Caucasus Mountains and throughout Central Asia. Thus Turks include the Turks of Turkey, the Azeris of Azerbaijan, and the Kazakhs, Kyrgyz, Tatars, Turkmen, and Uzbeks of Central Asia, as well as many smaller groups in Asia speaking Turkic languages. [10]
  33. ^ "Tartar, Tatar, n.2 (a.)". (1989). In Oxford English Dictionary. Retrieved 11 September 2008, from Oxford English Dictionary Online.
  34. ^ Татары (in Russian). Энциклопедия «Вокруг света». Retrieved 29 May 2014.
  35. ^ The name originating from the name of Spruce-fir Taiga forests in Russian language: черневая тайга
  36. ^ Mikhail, Kizilov (2007). "Slave Trade in the Early Modern Crimea From the Perspective of Christian, Muslim, and Jewish Sources". Journal of Early Modern History. 11 (1): 1–31. doi:10.1163/157006507780385125.
  37. ^ Akhatov G. "Tatar dialectology". Kazan, 1984. (Tatar language)
  38. ^ also called Crimean language or Crimean Turkish
  39. ^ Culture of Tartars (PDF).
  40. ^ "UNPO: Crimean Tatars". unpo.org. Retrieved 2019-11-13.
  41. ^ Halil İnalcik, 1942[page needed]
  42. ^ a b (in Lithuanian) Lietuvos totoriai ir jų šventoji knyga – Koranas Archived 2007-10-29 at the Wayback Machine
  43. ^ Amid Tatar Renaissance In Europe, An American Mosque Turns To Its Roots - "A Lipka Tatar -- a Muslim ethnic group native to the Baltic region -- Jakub Szynkiewicz was selected to be Poland's first mufti in 1925, around the time that his community's U.S. diaspora was moving into the very mosque in Brooklyn where his portrait still hangs."
  44. ^ Siberian Tatars Archived 2002-02-27 at the Wayback Machine
  45. ^ Khusnutdinova EK, Viktorova TV, Fatkhlislamova RI, Galeeva AR, [11], Evaluation of the relative contribution of Caucasoid and Mongoloid components in the formation of ethnic groups of the Volga-Ural region according to data of DNA polymorphism, Genetics 35:8, pages 1132–1137, August 1999.
  46. ^ "Балановский О.П., Пшеничнов А.С., Сычев Р.С., Евсеева И.В., Балановская Е.В. Y-base: частоты гаплогрупп Y хромосомы у народов мира, 2010
  47. ^ "Data". pereformat.ru.
  48. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-11-14. Retrieved 2016-11-13.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  49. ^ Malyarchuk, Boris; Derenko, Miroslava; Denisova, Galina; Kravtsova, Olga (1 October 2010). "Mitogenomic Diversity in Tatars from the Volga-Ural Region of Russia". Molecular Biology and Evolution. 27 (10): 2220–2226. doi:10.1093/molbev/msq065. ISSN 0737-4038. PMID 20457583.

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