Presidency of the Council of the European Union
The presidency of the Council of the European Union is responsible for the functioning of the Council of the European Union, the upper house of the EU legislature. It rotates among the member states of the EU every six months. The presidency is not an individual, but rather the position is held by a national government. It is sometimes incorrectly referred to as the "president of the European Union". The presidency's function is to chair meetings of the Council, determine its agendas, set a work programme and facilitate dialogue both at Council meetings and with other EU institutions. The presidency is currently (as of July 2019) held by Finland.
|Presidency of the Council of the European Union|
Emblem of the Council
|Council of the European Union|
|Appointer||Rotation among the EU member states|
|Term length||Six months|
|Constituting instrument||Treaties of the European Union|
|Romania • Finland • Croatia|
When the Council was established, its work was minimal and the presidency rotated between each of the then six members every six months. However, as the work load of the Council grew and the membership increased, the lack of coordination between each successive six-month presidency hindered the development of long-term priorities for the EU.
In order to rectify the lack of coordination, the idea of trio presidencies was put forward where groups of three successive presidencies cooperated on a common political program. This was implemented in 2007 and formally laid down in the EU treaties in 2009 by the Treaty of Lisbon.
Until 2009, the Presidency had assumed political responsibility in all areas of European integration and it played a vital role in brokering high-level political decisions.
The Treaty of Lisbon reduced the importance of the Presidency significantly by officially separating the European Council from the Council of the European Union. Simultaneously it split the foreign affairs Council configuration from the General Affairs configuration and created the position of High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy.
After the United Kingdom's Brexit vote in 2016 and its subsequent relinquishment of its scheduled presidency in the Council of the European Union which was due to take place from July to December 2017, the rotation of presidencies was brought six months forward. Estonia was scheduled to take over the UK's six-month slot instead. The presidency is currently (as of July 2019) held by Finland.
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The Council meets in various formations where its composition depends on the topic discussed. For example, the Agriculture Council is composed of the national ministers responsible for Agriculture.
The primary responsibility of the Presidency is to organise and chair all meetings of the Council, apart from the Foreign Affairs Council which is chaired by the High Representative. So, for instance, the Minister of Agriculture for the state holding the presidency chairs the Agriculture council. This role includes working out compromises capable of resolving difficulties.
The Presidency of Council configurations, other than that of Foreign Affairs, shall be held by Member State representatives in the Council on the basis of equal rotation, in accordance with the conditions established in accordance with Article 236 of the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union
Each three successive presidencies cooperate on a "triple-shared presidency" work together over an 18-month period to accomplish a common agenda by the current president simply continuing the work of the previous "lead-president" after the end of his/her term. This ensures more consistency in comparison to a usual single six-month presidency and each three includes a new member state. This allows new member states to hold the presidency sooner and helps old member states pass their experience to the new members.
The role of the rotating Council Presidency includes:
- agenda-setting powers: in its 6-month programme, it decides on the order to discuss propositions, after they have been submitted by the Commission in its agenda monopoly powers
- brokering inter-institutional compromise: Formal Trilogue meetings between Commission, Parliament and Council are held to reach early consensus in the codecision legislative procedure; the Presidency takes part to the Conciliation Committee between Parliament and Council in the third stage of the codecision legislative procedure
- coordinating national policies and brokering compromise between member states in the Council ("confessional system")
- management and administration of the Council, external and internal representation
Holding the rotating Council Presidency includes both advantages and disadvantages for member states; The opportunities include:
- member states have the possibility to show their negotiating skills, as "honest brokers", thus gaining influence and prestige
- member states gain a privileged access to information: at the end of their term, they know member states' preferences better than anyone else
- the Council programme may enable member states to focus Council discussion on issues of particular national/regional interest (for example Finland and the Northern Dimension initiative)
The burdens include:
- lack of administrative capacities and experience, especially for small and new member states; the concept of trio/troika has been introduced to enable member states to share experiences and ensure coherence on an 18-months base
- expenses in time and money, needed to support the administrative machine
- not being able to push through their own interests, as the role of Council Presidency is seen as an impartial instance; member states trying to push for initiatives of their own national interest are likely to see them failing in the medium run (for example the French 2008 Presidency and the Union for the Mediterranean project), as they need consensus and do not have enough time to reach it. This element is particularly substantial: holding the presidency may be, on balance, a disadvantage for member states
The rotating presidency is probably not needed any more, with the 2009 reforms by the Treaty of Lisbon, but reforming it has proved incredibly difficult: it still enables little states to stand up and try to push forward vital policies; it represents a sharing of administrative burdens, enabling the coordination of policies, the stability of the Council agenda (through the troika) and providing learning and experience for member states' public administrations.
List of rotationsEdit
|Period||Trio||Holder||Head of government [note 1]||Website|
|1958||January–June||Belgium||Achille Van Acker
Gaston Eyskens (from 26 June)
|1959||January-June||France||Charles de Gaulle*|
|July–December||Netherlands||Jan de Quay|
|1961||January-June||Belgium||Gaston Eyskens |
Théo Lefèvre (from 25 April)
|1962||January-June||France||Charles de Gaulle*|
|July–December||Netherlands||Jan de Quay|
Victor Marijnen (from 24 July)
|1965||January-June||France||Charles de Gaulle*|
Jelle Zijlstra (from 22 November)
|1967||January-June||Belgium||Paul Vanden Boeynants|
|July–December||Germany||Kurt Georg Kiesinger|
|1968||January-June||France||Charles de Gaulle*|
Mariano Rumor (from 12 December)
|July–December||Netherlands||Piet de Jong|
Edmond Leburton (from 26 January)
Poul Hartling (from 19 December)
Walter Scheel (7–16 May)
Helmut Schmidt (from 16 May)
|July–December||France||Valéry Giscard d'Estaing*|
|July–December||Netherlands||Joop den Uyl|
|1977||January–June||United Kingdom||James Callaghan|
|1979||January–June||France||Valéry Giscard d'Estaing*|
(from 11 December)
|1981||January–June||Netherlands||Dries van Agt|
|July–December||United Kingdom||Margaret Thatcher|
Poul Schlüter (from 10 September)
|July–December||United Kingdom||Margaret Thatcher|
|1992||January–June||Portugal||Aníbal Cavaco Silva|
|July–December||United Kingdom||John Major|
|1993||January–June||Denmark||Poul Schlüter |
Poul Nyrup Rasmussen (from 25 January)
Jacques Chirac* (from 17 May)
Romano Prodi (from 17 May)
|1998||January–June||United Kingdom||Tony Blair||presid.fco.gov.uk (Archived)|
|July–December||Austria||Viktor Klima||presidency.gv.at (Archived)|
|July–December||Finland||Paavo Lipponen||presidency.finland.fi (Archived)|
|2000||January–June||Portugal||António Guterres||www.portugal.ue-2000.pt[dead link] (Archived)|
|2001||January–June||Sweden||Göran Persson||eu2001.se (Archived)|
|July–December||Belgium||Guy Verhofstadt||eu2001.be[dead link] (Archived)|
|2002||January–June||Spain||José María Aznar||ue2002.es[dead link] (Archived)|
|July–December||Denmark||Anders Fogh Rasmussen||eu2002.dk[dead link] (Archived)|
|July–December||Italy||Silvio Berlusconi||ueitalia2003.it[dead link] (Archived)|
|2004||January–June||Ireland||Bertie Ahern||eu2004.ie[dead link] (Archived)|
|July–December||Netherlands||Jan Peter Balkenende||eu2004.nl[dead link] (Archived)|
|July–December||United Kingdom||Tony Blair||eu2005.gov.uk (Archived)|
|July–December||Finland[note 2]||Matti Vanhanen||eu2006.fi (Archived)|
|2007||January–June||T1||Germany||Angela Merkel||eu2007.de[dead link]|
|July–December||Portugal||José Sócrates||eu2007.pt[dead link] (Archived)|
|July–December||T2||France||Nicolas Sarkozy*||ue2008.fr[dead link] (Archived)|
|2009||January–June||Czech Republic||Mirek Topolánek
Jan Fischer (from 8 May)
|July–December||Sweden||Fredrik Reinfeldt||se2009.eu (Archived)|
|2010||January–June||T3||Spain||José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero||eu2010.es[dead link] (Archived)|
eutrio.es[dead link] (Archived)
|July–December||Belgium||Yves Leterme||eutrio.be[dead link]|
|2011||January–June||Hungary||Viktor Orbán||eu2011.hu (Archived)|
|July–December||T4||Poland||Donald Tusk||pl2011.eu[dead link] (Archived)|
|2012||January–June||Denmark||Helle Thorning-Schmidt||eu2012.dk[dead link]|
|July–December||Lithuania||Algirdas Butkevičius||eu2013.lt[dead link]|
|2014||January–June||Greece||Antonis Samaras||gr2014.eu[dead link] (Archived)|
|2016||January–June||T7||Netherlands||Mark Rutte||eu2016.nl (in Dutch) (Archived)|
|July–December||T8||Estonia[note 3]||Jüri Ratas||eu2017.ee|
- Asterisk: Head of government is also head of state. This is the case for France and Cyprus
- Germany was due to succeed Austria in 2006 but stepped aside as general elections were scheduled for that period. Finland, as next in line, took Germany's place. Eventually the German elections took place in 2005 due to a loss of confidence vote, but the re-arrangement remained.
- It was originally intended for the United Kingdom to hold the presidency from 1 July to 31 December 2017, but after a referendum in June 2016 to leave the EU, the UK government informed the European Union that it would abandon its presidency for late 2017 and was replaced by Estonia
- "The presidency of the Council of the EU". Council of the EU.
- "Council of the European Union". Council of the EU. Retrieved 14 May 2016.
- "Council rotating presidencies: decision on revised order" (Press release). Council of the European Union. 26 July 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- "Council of the European Union configurations". Council of the EU.[dead link]
- Presidency of the Council of the European Union
- Logos of the Council Presidencies EuroEsprit.org
- Council Decision of 1 January 2007 determining the order in which the office of President of the Council shall be held (2007/5/EC, Euratom) Official Journal of the European Union
- Implications of the Polish Presidency of the EU for Europe and Transatlantic Affairs, lecture by Maciej Pisarski (Deputy Chief of Mission of the Embassy of the Republic of Poland in Washington, DC), delivered at the University of Illinois, 2 December 2011; European Union Center at the University of Illinois
- Cyprus takes over EU presidency amid doubts The Guardian, 4 July 2012