Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou (// POMP-id-oo, French: [ʒɔʁʒ pɔ̃pidu] (listen); 5 July 1911 – 2 April 1974) was a French politician who served as President of France from 1969 until his death in 1974. He previously was Prime Minister of France from 1962 to 1968—the longest tenure in the position's history. He had long been a top aide to President Charles de Gaulle.
|President of France|
20 June 1969 – 2 April 1974
|Prime Minister||Jacques Chaban-Delmas|
|Preceded by||Charles de Gaulle|
|Succeeded by||Valéry Giscard d'Estaing|
|Prime Minister of France|
14 April 1962 – 10 July 1968
|President||Charles de Gaulle|
|Preceded by||Michel Debré|
|Succeeded by||Maurice Couve de Murville|
|Member of the Constitutional Council|
5 March 1959 – 14 April 1962
|Appointed by||Charles de Gaulle|
|Preceded by||Position established|
|Succeeded by||Bernard Chenot|
Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou
5 July 1911
|Died||2 April 1974 (aged 62)|
|Resting place||Orvilliers Cimetiere|
|Political party||Union for the New Republic (Before 1968)|
Union of Democrats for the Republic (1968–1974)
|Alma mater||École Normale Supérieure|
|Years of service||1940|
|Unit||141st Alpine Infantry Regiment|
|Battles/wars||Second World War|
|Awards||Croix de Guerre|
Pompidou was born in the commune of Montboudif in the Cantal department and rose up to teach literature in Paris. After, he was hired to work at Rothschild & Co in 1953 before becoming the bank's general manager in 1956. He resigned his position in 1962 to become Prime Minister, holding that post until 1968.
Pompidou was elected President of France in 1969. As head of state, he was a moderate conservative who repaired France's relationship with the United States and maintained positive relations with the newly independent former colonies in Africa. He strengthened his political party, the Union of Democrats for the Republic ("Union des démocrates pour la République" or UDR), to make it a bastion of the Gaullist movement. Pompidou died in office in 1974. His presidency is generally held in high esteem by French political commentators.
The family of Georges Pompidou was of very modest origins: he was the grandson of farmers of modest means in Cantal on both his father's and his mother's side. His parents were teachers. Thus his case is often cited as a typical example of social mobility in the Third Republic, thanks to public schooling.
Georges Jean Raymond Pompidou was born on 5 July 1911 in the commune of Montboudif, in the department of Cantal in central France. After his khâgne at Lycée Louis-le-Grand, where he befriended future Senegalese poet and statesman Léopold Sédar Senghor, he attended the École Normale Supérieure, from which he graduated with a degree of agrégation in literature.
He first taught literature at the lycée Henri IV in Paris until hired in 1953 by Guy de Rothschild to work at Rothschild. In 1956, he was appointed the bank's general manager, a position he held until 1962. Later, he was hired by Charles de Gaulle to manage the Anne de Gaulle Foundation for Down syndrome (de Gaulle's youngest daughter Anne had Down syndrome).
Jacques Chirac served as an aide to Prime Minister Pompidou and recalled:
The man gave the appearance of being secretive, wily, a little cunning – which he was, to a degree. However, it was primarily his intelligence, culture, and competence that conferred indisputable authority on him and commanded respect.... I remember his untamed eyebrows, his penetrating, very kindly gaze, his perceptive smile, full of humour and mischievousness, his voice with its wonderful low, warm, gravelly tone, and a figure that was both powerful and elegant. Naturally reserved, little given to emotional outbursts, Pompidou did not forge very close ties with his colleagues.
He served as prime minister of France under de Gaulle after Michel Debré resigned, from 14 April 1962 to 10 July 1968, and to this day is the longest serving French prime minister under the Fifth Republic. His nomination was controversial because he was not a member of the National Assembly. In October 1962, he was defeated in a vote of no-confidence, but de Gaulle dissolved the National Assembly. The Gaullists won the legislative election and Pompidou was reappointed as Prime Minister. In 1964, he was faced with a miners' strike. He led the 1967 legislative campaign of the Union of Democrats for the Fifth Republic to a narrow victory. Pompidou was widely regarded as being responsible for the peaceful resolution of the student uprising of May 1968. His strategy was to break the coalition of students and workers by negotiating with the trade-unions and employers (Grenelle conference).
However, during the events of May 1968, disagreements arose between Pompidou and de Gaulle. Pompidou did not understand why the President did not inform him of his departure to Baden-Baden on 29 May. Their relationship, until then very good, would be strained from then on. Pompidou led and won the 1968 legislative campaign, overseeing a tremendous victory of the Gaullist Party. He then resigned. Nevertheless, in part due to his actions during the May 1968 crisis, he appeared as the natural successor to de Gaulle. Pompidou announced his candidature for the Presidency in January 1969. Some weeks later, his wife's name was mentioned in the Marković affair, thus appearing to confirm her husband's status as a cuckold. Pompidou was certain that de Gaulle's inner circle was responsible for this smear.
In social policy, Pompidou's tenure as prime minister witnessed the establishment of the National Employment Fund in 1963 to counter the negative effects on employment caused by industrial restructuring.
After the failure of the 1969 constitutional referendum, de Gaulle resigned and Pompidou was elected president of France. In the general election of 15 June 1969, he defeated the centrist President of the Senate and Acting President Alain Poher by a wide margin (57%–42%). Though a Gaullist, Pompidou was more pragmatic than de Gaulle, notably facilitating the accession of the United Kingdom to the European Community on 1 January 1973. He embarked on an industrialisation plan and initiated the Arianespace project, as well as the TGV project, and furthered the French civilian nuclear programme. He was sceptical about the "New Society" programme of his prime minister, Jacques Chaban-Delmas. In 1972, he replaced Chaban-Delmas with Pierre Messmer, a more conservative Gaullist. While the left-wing opposition organised itself and proposed a Common Programme before the 1973 legislative election, Pompidou widened his presidential majority by including Centrist pro-European parties. In addition, he paid special attention to regional and local needs in order to strengthen his political party, the UDR (Union des Democrates pour la Ve République), which he made a central and lasting force in the Gaullist movement.
The United States was eager to restore positive relations with France after de Gaulle's departure from office. New US President Richard Nixon and his top adviser Henry Kissinger admired Pompidou; the politicians were in agreement on most major policy issues. The United States offered to help the French nuclear programme. Economic difficulties, however, arose following the Nixon Shock and the 1973–75 recession, particularly over the role of the American dollar as the medium for world trade.
Pompidou sought to maintain good relations with the newly independent former French colonies in Africa. In 1971, he visited Mauritania, Senegal, Ivory Coast, Cameroon, and Gabon. He brought a message of cooperation and financial assistance, but without the traditional paternalism. More broadly, he made an effort to foster closer relations with North African and Middle Eastern countries in order to develop a hinterland including all nations bordering the Mediterranean.
Pompidou's time in office was marked by constant efforts to modernise France's capital city. He spearheaded construction of a modern art museum, the Centre Beaubourg (renamed Centre Pompidou after his death), on the edge of the Marais area of Paris. Other attempts at modernisation included tearing down the open air markets at Les Halles and replacing them with the shopping mall of the same name, building the Montparnasse Tower, and constructing an expressway on the right bank of the Seine.
Death in officeEdit
While still in office, Pompidou died on 2 April 1974, at 9 PM, while in his apartment, from Waldenström's macroglobulinemia. His body was buried on 4 April, in the churchyard of Orvilliers, where he had bought an old baker's house which he turned into a weekend home. The official memorial service for him was held at Notre-Dame de Paris with 3000 dignitaries in attendance (including 28 heads of state and representatives from 82 countries).
Attendees included :
- United Nations Secretary General Kurt Waldheim
- UNESCO Director General René Maheu
- Europe President of the European Commission Jean Rey
- United Nations Secretary General Joseph Luns
- France (Interim) President Alain Poher
- United States President Richard Nixon
- Canada Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau
- United Kingdom Prime Minister Harold Wilson and predecessor Edward Heath
- West Germany Chancellor Willy Brandt
- East Germany President Manfred Gerlach
- Austria Chancellor Bruno Kreisky
- Switzerland President Hans-Peter Tschudi
- Morocco King Hassan II
- Belgium King Baudouin
- Netherlands Queen Juliana
- Ethiopia Emperor Haile Selassie
- Tunisia President Habib Bourguiba
- Italy President Giovanni Leone
- Turkey Prime Minister İsmet İnönü
- Finland President Urho Kekkonen
- Soviet Union President Nikolai Podgorny
- Yugoslavia Prime Minister Petar Stambolić
- Czechoslovakia President Gustáv Husák
- Denmark Prime Minister Poul Hartling
- Sweden Prime Minister Olof Palme
- Portugal President of Portugal Americo Tomas
- Spain Crown Prince Juan Carlos I of Spain
- Monaco Prince Rainier III
- Luxembourg Grand Duke Jean
- Japan Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka
- South Korea Prime Minister Kim Jong-pil
- North Vietnam Foreign Minister Nguyễn Duy Trinh
- South Vietnam President Nguyễn Văn Thiệu
A controversy arose surrounding the secrecy kept over Pompidou's illness, and the political class "agreed" that future presidents of the Republic will have to provide reports on the state of their health. However, President François Mitterrand, who had pledged during his 1981 campaign to publish regular health bulletins, would also conceal, after his accession to power, the severity of the cancer from which he was suffering.
- Anthologie de la Poésie Française, Livre de Poche/Hachette, 1961
- Le Nœud gordien, éd. Plon, 1974
- Entretiens et discours, deux vol., éd. Plon, 1975
- Pour rétablir une vérité, éd. Flammarion, 1982
- Legion of Honour :
- Grand-croix de l'Ordre national du Mérite (France);
- Grand Cross of Order of St. Olav (Norway) (1962);
- Grand Cordon of Order of Leopold (Belgium).
- Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath (United Kingdom) (1972)
- Knight Grand Cross with Collar of Order of Merit of the Italian Republic (1973).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Georges Pompidou.|
- Centenaire de la naissance du président Georges Pompidou 1911-2011, Repères biographiques de Georges Pompidou (p. 18), Centre Pompidou, direction de la communication, dossier de presse.
- "Fichier des décès – années 1970 à 1979" [Death file – years 1970 to 1979] (in French). National Institute of Statistics and Economic Studies. Retrieved 26 January 2021.
- Wall, E. H. (1976). "Pompidou, Georges Jean Raymond". In William D. Halsey (ed.). Collier's Encyclopedia. 19. Macmillan Educational Corporation. p. 236.
- Jacques Chirac, M Life and Politics" (2011) p 24
- Kresl, Peter Karl; Gallais, Sylvain (1 January 2002). France Encounters Globalization. Edward Elgar Publishing. ISBN 9781782543800.
- Robert J. Jackson, "The Succession of Georges Pompidou: The French Presidential Election of 1969, Political Quarterly (1970) 41#2 pp 156-168
- Berstein, Serge; Rioux, Jean-Pierre (2000). The Cambridge History of Modern France: The Pompidou Years, 1969–1974. Cambridge University Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 9780521580618.
- Frank L. Wilson, "Gaullism without de Gaulle," Western Political Quarterly (1973) 26#3 pp. 485-506 in JSTOR
- Trachtenberg, 2001
- Edward A. Kolodziej, French Foreign Policy under de Gaulle and Pompidou: The Politics of Grandeur (1974).
- Robertson, Nan (3 April 1974). "President Pompidou Dead after almost Five Years as De Gaulle's Successor". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- Kamm, Henry (5 April 1974). "Pompidou is Buried in Village Cemetery". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- "Georges Pompidou Notre Dame Pictures and Images". Getty Images. 5 April 1974. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- "김 총리 오늘 향불". 4 April 1974.
- Philippe Kohly, documentary La France maladie du pouvoir, in Histoire immédiate, 2012.
- "Claude Pompidou". The Daily Telegraph. 5 July 2007. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- "Brighton 1974". Eurovision. 2002–19. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
- He owns this decoration by right as President of the Republic.
- "https://twitter.com/monarchiebe/status/1063461459966025730". Twitter. Retrieved 4 August 2021. External link in
- "Le onorificenze della Repubblica Italiana".
- Bell, David et al. eds. Biographical Dictionary of French Political Leaders Since 1870 (1990) pp 346–349.
- Bell, David. Presidential Power in Fifth Republic France (2000) pp 105–26.
- Berstein, Serge; Jean-Pierre Rioux (2000). The Pompidou Years, 1969-1974. Cambridge UP. ISBN 9780521580618.
- Demossier, Marion, et al., eds. The Routledge Handbook of French Politics and Culture (Routledge, 2019).
- Hibbs, Douglas A.; Vasilatos, Nicholas (1981). "Economics and Politics in France: Economic Performance and Mass Political Support for Presidents Pompidou and Giscard d'Estaing" (PDF). European Journal of Political Research. 9#2 (2): 133–145. doi:10.1111/j.1475-6765.1981.tb00595.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 June 2015. Retrieved 17 June 2015.
- Kolodziej, Edward A. (1974). French international policy under de Gaulle and Pompidou: the politics of grandeur. Cornell Univ Press.
- Lauber, Volkmar (1983). The political economy of France: from Pompidou to Mitterrand.
- Trachtenberg, Marc (2011). "The French Factor in US Foreign Policy during the Nixon-Pompidou Period, 1969–1974" (PDF). Journal of Cold War Studies. 13 (1): 4–59. doi:10.1162/JCWS_a_00073. S2CID 57559412.