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Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing (French: [valeʁi ʒiskaʁ destɛ̃]; born 2 February 1926), also known as Giscard or VGE, is a French elder statesman who served as President of the French Republic from 1974 to 1981.

Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
Valéry Giscard d’Estaing 1978.jpg
Giscard d'Estaing in 1978
President of the French Republic
In office
27 May 1974 – 21 May 1981
Prime MinisterJacques Chirac
Raymond Barre
Preceded byGeorges Pompidou
Succeeded byFrançois Mitterrand
President of the Regional Council
of Auvergne
In office
21 March 1986 – 2 April 2004
Preceded byMaurice Pourchon
Succeeded byPierre-Joël Bonté
Minister of the Economy and Finance
In office
20 June 1969 – 27 May 1974
Prime MinisterJacques Chaban-Delmas
Pierre Messmer
Preceded byFrançois-Xavier Ortoli
Succeeded byJean-Pierre Fourcade
In office
18 January 1962 – 8 January 1966
Prime MinisterMichel Debré
Georges Pompidou
Preceded byWilfrid Baumgartner
Succeeded byMichel Debré
Mayor of Chamalières
In office
15 September 1967 – 19 May 1974
Preceded byPierre Chatrousse
Succeeded byClaude Wolff
Personal details
Born
Valéry Marie René Georges Giscard d'Estaing

(1926-02-02) 2 February 1926 (age 93)
Koblenz, French-occupied Germany
Political partyCNIP (1956–1962)
FNRI (1966–1977)
PR (1977–1995)
UDF (1978–2002)
PPDF (1995–1997)
DL (1997–1998)
UMP (2002–2004)
Spouse(s)
Children4, including Henri and Louis
Alma materÉcole Polytechnique
École nationale d'administration
Signature
Military career
Allegiance Free France
Service/branch French Army
Years of service1944–1945
RankBrigadier-chef
Battles/warsSecond World War
AwardsCroix de guerre

As Minister of Finance under prime ministers Jacques Chaban-Delmas and Pierre Messmer, he won the presidential election of 1974 with 50.8% of the vote against François Mitterrand of the Socialist Party. His tenure was marked by a more liberal attitude on social issues—such as divorce, contraception and abortion—and attempts to modernise the country and the office of the presidency, notably launching such far-reaching infrastructure projects as the TGV and the turn towards reliance on nuclear power as France's main energy source. However, his popularity suffered from the economic downturn that followed the 1973 energy crisis, marking the end of the "thirty glorious years" after World War II. Giscard d'Estaing faced political opposition from both sides of the spectrum: from the newly unified left of François Mitterrand and a rising Jacques Chirac, who resurrected Gaullism on a right-wing opposition line. In 1981, despite a high approval rating, he missed out on reelection in a runoff against Mitterrand, with 48.2% of the vote.

As a former President of France, he is a member of the Constitutional Council. He also served as President of the Regional Council of Auvergne from 1986 to 2004. Involved with the European Union, he notably presided over the Convention on the Future of Europe that drafted the ill-fated Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. In 2003, he was elected to the Académie française, taking the seat that his friend and former President of Senegal Léopold Sédar Senghor had held. At age 93, Giscard is the longest-lived French President in history.

Contents

EducationEdit

Valéry Marie René Giscard d'Estaing was born on 2 February 1926 in Koblenz, Germany, during the French occupation of the Rhineland[1]. He is the elder son of Jean Edmond Lucien Giscard d'Estaing (29 March 1894 – 3 August 1982), a high-ranking civil servant, and his wife, Marthe Clémence Jacqueline Marie (May) Bardoux (6 May 1901 – 13 March 2003).

His mother was a daughter of senator and academic Achille Octave Marie Jacques Bardoux, making her a great-granddaughter of minister of state education Agénor Bardoux. She was also, through her own mother, a granddaughter of historian Georges Picot, a niece of diplomat François Georges-Picot, and a great-great-great-granddaughter of King Louis XV of France by one of his mistresses, Catherine Eléonore Bernard (1740–1769), through her great-grandfather Marthe Camille Bachasson, Count of Montalivet, by whom Giscard d'Estaing was a multiple descendant of Charlemagne.

Giscard had an older sister, Sylvie (1924–2008). He has a younger brother, Olivier (born 1927), as well as two younger sisters: Isabelle (born 1935) and Marie-Laure (born 1939). Despite the addition of "d'Estaing" to the family name by his grandfather, Giscard is not descended from the extinct noble family of Vice-Admiral d'Estaing, that name being adopted by his grandfather in 1922 by reason of a distant connection to another branch of that family,[2] from which they were descended with two breaks in the male line from an illegitimate line of the Viscounts d'Estaing.

He joined the French Resistance and participated in the Liberation of Paris; during the liberation he was tasked with protecting Alexandre Parodi. He then joined the French First Army and served until the end of the war. He was later awarded the Croix de guerre for his military service.

In 1948, he spent a year in Montreal, Canada, where he worked as a teacher at Collège Stanislas.[3]

He studied at Lycée Blaise-Pascal in Clermont-Ferrand, École Gerson and Lycées Janson-de-Sailly and Louis-le-Grand in Paris. He graduated from the École Polytechnique and the École nationale d'administration (1949–1951) and chose to enter the prestigious Inspection des finances. He acceded to the Tax and Revenue Service, then joined the staff of Prime Minister Edgar Faure (1955–1956). He is fluent in German.[4]

Early political careerEdit

First offices: 1956–1962Edit

In 1956, he was elected to Parliament as a deputy for the Puy-de-Dôme département, in the domain of his maternal family. He joined the National Centre of Independents and Peasants (CNIP), a conservative grouping. After the proclamation of the Fifth Republic, the CNIP leader Antoine Pinay became Minister of Economy and Finance and chose him as Secretary of State for Finances from 1959 to 1962.

Member of the Gaullist majority: 1962–1974Edit

 
Giscard with US President John F. Kennedy at the White House, in Washington, D.C., 1962

In 1962, while Giscard had been nominated Minister of Economy and Finance, his party broke with the Gaullists and left the majority coalition. The CNIP reproached President Charles de Gaulle for his euro-scepticism. But Giscard refused to resign and founded the Independent Republicans (RI), which became the junior partner of the Gaullists in the "presidential majority".

However, in 1966, he was dismissed from the cabinet. He transformed the RI into a political party, the National Federation of the Independent Republicans (FNRI), and founded the Perspectives and Realities Clubs. He did not leave the majority, but became more critical. In this, he criticised the "solitary practice of the power" and summarised his position towards De Gaulle's policy by a "yes, but ...". As chairman of the National Assembly Committee on Finances, he harassed his successor in the cabinet.

For that reason the Gaullists refused to re-elect him to that position after the 1968 legislative election. In 1969, unlike most of FNRI's elected officials, Giscard advocated a "no" vote in the constitutional referendum concerning the regions and the Senate, while De Gaulle had announced his intention to resign if the "no" won. The Gaullists accused him of being largely responsible for De Gaulle's departure.

During the 1969 presidential campaign he supported the winning candidate Georges Pompidou, after which he returned to the Ministry of Economy and Finance. On the French political scene, he appeared as a young brilliant politician, and a preeminent expert in economic issues. He was representative of a new generation of politicians emerging from the senior civil service, seen as "technocrats".

Presidential election victoryEdit

In 1974, after the sudden death of President Pompidou, Giscard announced his candidacy for the presidency. His two main challengers were François Mitterrand for the left and Jacques Chaban-Delmas, a former Gaullist Prime Minister. Supported by his FNRI party, he obtained the rallying of the centrist Reforming Movement. Moreover, he benefited from the divisions in the Gaullist party. Jacques Chirac and other Gaullist personalities published the "Call of the 43" where they explained that Giscard was the best candidate to prevent the election of Mitterrand. In the election, Giscard finished well ahead of Chaban-Delmas in the first round, though coming second to Mitterrand. In the run-off on 20 May, however, Giscard narrowly defeated Mitterrand, receiving 50.7% of the vote.[5]

President of FranceEdit

Domestic policyEdit

 
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing meeting with President of West Germany Walter Scheel in 1975

Giscard was finally elected President of France, defeating Socialist candidate François Mitterrand by 425,000 votes—still the closest election in French history. At 48, he was the fourth youngest president in French history at the time, after Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte and Jean Casimir-Perier. In 2017, Emmanuel Macron, at the age of 39, became the youngest President in the history of France.[6] He promised "change in continuity". He made clear his desire to introduce various reforms and modernise French society, which was an important part of his presidency. He for instance reduced from 21 to 18 the age of majority and pushed for the development of the TGV high speed train network and the Minitel, a precursor of the Internet.[7] He promoted nuclear power, as a way to assert French independence. In 1975 he invited the heads of government from West Germany, Italy, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States to a summit in Rambouillet, to form the Group of Six major economic powers (now the G7, including Canada). Economically, Giscard's presidency saw a steady rise in personal incomes, with the buying power of workers going up by 29% and old age pensioners by 65%.[8]

Giscard billed himself as "a conservative who likes change," and initially tried to project a less monarchical image than had been the case for past French presidents. He wore an ordinary business suit to his inauguration and eschewed the traditional motorcade down the Champs-Elysées in favour of strolling down the street. He took a ride on the Métro, ate monthly dinners with ordinary Frenchmen, and even invited garbage men from Paris to have breakfast with him in the Élysée Palace. However, when he learned that most Frenchmen were somewhat cool to this display of informality, Giscard became so aloof and distant that his opponents frequently attacked him as being too far removed from ordinary citizens.[9]

In home policy, the president's reforms worried the conservative electorate and the Gaullist party, especially the law by Simone Veil legalising abortion. Although he said he had "deep aversion against capital punishment", Giscard claimed in his 1974 campaign that he would apply the death penalty to people committing the most heinous crimes.[10] He did not commute three of the death sentences that he had to decide upon during his presidency (although he did so in several other occasions), keeping France as the last country in the European Union to apply the death penalty. These executions would be the last ever in France and, had executions not resumed in the United States, the last in the Western world, as was the case until 1979 when John Spenkelink was executed by Florida. Death sentences were continually handed out in France for the remaining four years of Giscard's term but were all commuted in 1981, when capital punishment was abolished.

A rivalry arose with his Prime Minister Jacques Chirac, who resigned in 1976. Raymond Barre, called the "best economist in France" at the time, succeeded him. He led a policy of strictness in a context of economic crisis ("Plan Barre").

Unexpectedly, the right-wing coalition won the 1978 legislative election. Nevertheless, relations with Chirac, who had founded the Rally for the Republic (RPR), became more tense. Giscard reacted by founding a centre-right confederation, the Union for French Democracy (UDF).

Foreign policyEdit

 
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing with Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran in 1975

In 1975 Giscard pressured the future King of Spain Juan Carlos to leave Chilean dictator Augusto Pinochet out of his coronation by stating that if Pinochet attended he would not. Having been told by Juan Carlos not to attend the coronation, Pinochet left Spain having only attended the funeral of Francisco Franco during his visit.[11] Although France received many Chilean political refugees, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing's government secretly collaborated with Pinochet's and Videla's junta as shown by journalist Marie-Monique Robin.[12]

AfricaEdit

Giscard continued de Gaulle's African policy. It was supported with French military units, and a large naval presence in the Indian Ocean. Over 260,000 Frenchmen worked in Africa, focused especially on delivering oil supplies. There was some effort to build up oil refineries and aluminum smelters, but little effort to develop small-scale local industry, which the French wanted to monopolize for the mainland. Senegal, Ivory Coast, Gabon, and Cameroon were the largest and most reliable African allies, and received most of the investments. [13] In 1977, in the Opération Lamantin, he ordered fighter jets to deploy in Mauritania and suppress the Polisario guerrillas fighting against Mauritania, However the French-installed Mauritanian leader Mokhtar Ould Daddah was overthrown by his own army some time later, and a peace agreement was signed with the Sahrawi movement.

 
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in 1979 with Helmut Schmidt, Jimmy Carter and James Callaghan in Guadeloupe

Most controversial was his involvement with the regime of Jean-Bédel Bokassa in the Central African Republic. Giscard was initially a friend of Bokassa, and supplied the regime. However, the growing unpopularity of that government led Giscard to begin distancing himself from Bokassa. In 1979, French troops helped drive Bokassa out of power and restore former president David Dacko.[14] This action was also controversial, particularly since Dacko was Bokassa's cousin and had appointed Bokassa as head of the military, and unrest continued in the Central African Republic leading to Dacko being overthrown in another coup in 1981.

1981 presidential electionEdit

In the 1981 presidential election, Giscard took a severe blow to his support when Chirac ran against him in the first round. Chirac finished third and refused to recommend that his supporters back Giscard in the runoff, though he declared that he himself would vote for Giscard. Giscard lost to Mitterrand by 3 points in the runoff[15], and since then has blamed Chirac for his defeat.[16] To this day, it is widely said that Giscard loathes Chirac. Certainly on many occasions Giscard has criticised Chirac's policies despite supporting Chirac's governing coalition.

Post-presidencyEdit

Return to politics: 1984–2004Edit

 
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in 1986

After his defeat, Giscard retired temporarily from politics. In 1984, he regained his seat in Parliament and won the presidency of the regional council of Auvergne. In this position, he tried to encourage tourism to the région, founding the "European Centre of Volcanology" and theme park Vulcania. He was President of the Council of European Municipalities and Regions from 1997 to 2004.

In 1982, along with his friend Gerald Ford, he co-founded the annual AEI World Forum. He took part, with a prominent role, in the annual Bilderberg private conference. He has also served on the Trilateral Commission after being president, writing papers with Henry Kissinger.

He hoped to become Prime Minister of France during the first "cohabitation" (1986–88) or after the re-election of Mitterrand with the theme of "France united", but he was not chosen for this position. During the 1988 presidential campaign, he refused to choose publicly between the two right-wing candidates, his two former Prime Ministers Jacques Chirac and Raymond Barre. This attitude was interpreted as indicating that he wanted to regain the UDF leadership.

Indeed, he served as President of the UDF from 1988 to 1996, but he was faced with the rise of a new generation of politicians called the "renovationmen". Most of the UDF politicians supported the candidacy of the RPR Prime Minister Édouard Balladur at the 1995 presidential election, but Giscard supported his old rival Jacques Chirac, who won the election. That same year Giscard suffered a setback when he lost a close election for the mayoralty of Clermont-Ferrand.[17]

In 2000, he made a parliamentary proposal to reduce the length of a presidential term from 7 to 5 years. President Chirac held a referendum on this issue, and the "yes" side won. He did not run for a new parliamentary term in 2002. His son Louis Giscard d'Estaing was elected in his constituency.

Retired from politics: 2004–presentEdit

 
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in 2014

In 2003, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing was admitted to the Académie française.[18]

Following his narrow defeat in the regional elections of March 2004, marked by the victory of the left wing in 21 of 22 regions, he decided to leave partisan politics and to take his seat on the Constitutional Council as a former president of the Republic[19]. Some of his actions there, such as his campaign in favour of the Treaty establishing the European Constitution, were criticised as unbecoming to a member of this council, which should embody nonpartisanship and should not appear to favour one political option over the other. Indeed, the question of the membership of former presidents in the Council was raised at this point, with some suggesting that it should be replaced by a life membership in the Senate.[20][21]

Since then, Giscard has occasionally expressed opinions about current affairs. On 19 April 2007, he endorsed Nicolas Sarkozy for the presidential election. He has supported the creation of the centrist Union of Democrats and Independents in 2012 and the introduction of same-sex marriage in France in 2013. In 2016, he supported former Prime minister François Fillon in The Republicans presidential primaries

A 2014 poll suggested that 64% of the French thought he had been a good president. He is considered to be an honest and competent politician, but also to be a distant man.[22]

On 21 January 2017, with a lifespan of 33,226 days, he surpassed Émile Loubet (1838–1929) in terms of longevity, and is now the oldest former president in French history. In his capacity as a former sovereign Co-Prince of Andorra, Giscard became the oldest living (de facto) monarch on 23 April 2019, following the death of former Grand Duke Jean of Luxembourg (a record falsely accorded to Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, two and half months younger than Giscard d'Estaing).

European activitiesEdit

 
Valéry Giscard d'Estaing at Helmut Schmidt's funeral, 23 November 2015

Giscard has, throughout his political career, always been a proponent of greater European union. In 1978, he was for this reason the obvious target of Jacques Chirac's Call of Cochin, denouncing the "party of the foreigners".[23]

From 1989 to 1993, Giscard served as a member of the European Parliament. From 1989 to 1991, he was also chairman of the Liberal and Democratic Reformist Group.[24]

From 2001 to 2004 he served as President of the Convention on the Future of Europe. On 29 October 2004, the European heads of state, gathered in Rome, approved and signed the European Constitution based on a draft strongly influenced by Giscard's work at the Convention.[25]

Although the Constitution was rejected by French voters in May 2005, Giscard continued to actively lobby for its passage in other European Union states. Giscard d'Estaing attracted international attention at the time of the June 2008 Irish vote on the Lisbon Treaty. In an article for Le Monde[26] in June 2007, he said that "public opinion will be led to adopt, without knowing it, the proposals we dare not present to them directly". Although the quote is accurate, it was part of a critique, taken out of context, of a suggestion made by some unnamed persons. In the next paragraph Giscard goes on to reject the idea of this course of action by saying, "This approach of 'divide and ratify' is clearly unacceptable. Perhaps it is a good exercise in presentation. But it would confirm to European citizens the notion that European construction is a procedure organised behind their backs by lawyers and diplomats." In the following paragraphs he goes on to appeal for an "honest treaty" and "total transparency" to allow citizens to hear the debate for themselves.

Since 2008 he has been the Honorary President of the Permanent Platform of Atomium Culture, an innovative structure composed of some of the most authoritative universities, newspapers and businesses in Europe for the selection, exchange and dissemination of the most innovative European research, to increase the movement of knowledge across borders, across sectors and to the public at large.[27]

On 27 November 2009, Giscard publicly launched the Permanent Platform of Atomium Culture during its first conference, held at the European Parliament,[28] declaring: "European intelligence could be at the very root of the identity of the European people."[29] A few days before he had signed, together with the President of Atomium Culture Michelangelo Baracchi Bonvicini, the European Manifesto of Atomium Culture.[citation needed]

Political careerEdit

President of the French Republic: 1974–1981.

Member of the Constitutional Council of France: Since 1981.

Governmental functions

Secretary of State for Finances: 1959–1962.

Minister of Finances and Economic Affairs: 1962–1966.

Minister of Economy and Finances: 1969–1974.

Minister of State, minister of Economy and Finances: March–May 1974 (Resignation, became President of the French Republic in 1974)

Electoral mandates

European Parliament

Member of European Parliament: 1989–1993 (Reelected member of the National Assembly of France in 1993).

National Assembly of France

Member of the National Assembly of France for Puy-de-Dôme: 1956–1959 (Became minister in 1959) / Reelected in 1962, but he stays minister / 1967–1969 (Became minister in 1969) / Reelected in 1973, but he stays minister / 1984–1989 (Became member of European Parliament in 1989) / 1993–2002. Elected in 1956, re-elected in 1958, 1962, 1967, 1968, 1973.

Regional Council

President of the Regional Council of Auvergne (region): 1986–2004. Reelected in 1992, 1998.

Regional councillor of Auvergne (region): 1986–2004. Reelected in 1992, 1998.

General Council

General councillor of Puy-de-Dôme: 1958–1974 (Resignation, became President of the French Republic in 1974) / 1982–1988 (Resignation). Reelected in 1964, 1970, 1982.

Municipal Council

Mayor of Chamalières: 1967–1974 (Resignation, Became President of the French Republic in 1974). Reelected in 1971.

Municipal councillor of Chamalières: 1967–1977. Reelected in 1971.

Political functions

President of the National Federation of the Independent Republicans (Independent Republicans): 1966–1974 (Became President of the French Republic in 1974).

President of the Union for French Democracy: 1988–1996.

Personal lifeEdit

Giscard's name is often shortened to "VGE" by the French media. A less flattering nickname is l'Ex (the Ex), used mostly by the weekly satirical newspaper Le Canard enchaîné.

FamilyEdit

On 17 December 1952, Giscard married his cousin Anne-Aymone Sauvage de Brantes, a daughter of Count François Sauvage de Brantes, who had died in a concentration camp in 1944, and his wife, the former Princess Aymone de Faucigny-Lucinge. Their children are: Valérie-Anne (1953–), Henri (Edmond Marie Valéry), Louis (Joachim Marie François) and Jacinte (Marguerite Marie) (1960–2018). Louis was a French conservative Representative; Henri is the president of the tourism company Club Méditerranée.

Giscard's private life was the source of many rumours at both national and international level. His family did not live in the presidential Élysée Palace, and The Independent reported on his affairs with women.[30] In 1974, Le Monde reported that he used to leave a sealed letter stating his whereabouts in case of emergency.[31]

He is an uncle of artist Aurore Giscard d'Estaing, who was formerly married to American actor Timothy Hutton.

Possession of the Estaing castleEdit

In 2005 he and his brother bought the castle of Estaing, a famous place in the French district of Aveyron and formerly a possession of the above-mentioned admiral d'Estaing who was beheaded in 1794. The castle is not used as a residence but it has symbolic value. The two brothers explained that the purchase, supported by the local municipality, was an act of patronage. However, a number of major newspapers in several countries questioned their motives and some hinted at self-appointed nobility and a usurped historical identity.[32]

Questions about his 2009 novelEdit

Giscard wrote his second romantic novel, published on 1 October 2009 in France, entitled The Princess and The President. It tells the story of a French head of state having a romantic liaison with a character called Patricia, Princess of Cardiff. This fuelled rumours that the piece of fiction was based on a real-life liaison between Giscard and Diana, Princess of Wales.[33] He later stressed that the story was entirely made up and no such affair had happened.[34]

HonoursEdit

National honoursEdit

European honoursEdit

In 2003 he received the Charlemagne Award of the German city of Aachen. He is also a Knight of Malta.

He travels the world giving speeches on the European Union. During a visit to Ireland, d'Estaing was made an Honorary Patron of the University Philosophical Society, Trinity College, Dublin.

Foreign honoursEdit

As Minister of FinanceEdit

As President of FranceEdit

 
Giscard d'Estaing's coat of arms with the Seraphim Collar

Other honoursEdit

HeraldryEdit

President Giscard d'Estaing was granted a coat of arms by Queen Margrethe II of Denmark upon his appointment to the Order of the Elephant, which was recognised by King Carl XVI Gustav of Sweden (Photo), for his installation as a Knight of the Seraphim.[43]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Profile of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing
  2. ^ See French Wikipedia
  3. ^ Mon tour de jardin, Robert Prévost, p. 96, Septentrion 2002
  4. ^ "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing: "In Wahrheit ist die Bedrohung heute nicht so groß wie damals"". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 15 November 2016. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  5. ^ Lewis, Flora (20 May 1974). "France Elects Giscard President For 7 Years After A Close Contest; Left Turned Back". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 27 February 2014. Retrieved 22 December 2020. Check date values in: |accessdate= (help)
  6. ^ Leicester, John; Corbet, Sylvie. "Emmanuel Macron becomes France's youngest president". Toronto Sun. Associated Press. Retrieved 14 May 2017.
  7. ^ "History of the Minitel". Whitepages.fr. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  8. ^ D. L. Hanley, Miss A P Kerr, N. H. Waites (17 August 2005). "Contemporary France: Politics and Society Since 1945". Retrieved 20 November 2016 – via Google Books.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  9. ^ Thompson, Wayne C. (2013). The World Today 2013: Western Europe. Lanham, Maryland: Stryker-Post Publications. ISBN 978-1-4758-0505-5.
  10. ^ "Ocala Star-Banner – Google News Archive Search".
  11. ^ Cedéo Alvarado, Ernesto (4 February 2008). "Rey Juan Carlos abochornó a Pinochet". Panamá América. Retrieved 4 April 2016.
  12. ^ Conclusion of Marie-Monique Robin's Escadrons de la mort, l'école française ‹See Tfd›(in French)/ Watch here film documentary (French, English, Spanish)
  13. ^ John R. Frears, France in the Giscard Presidency (1981) pp 109-127.
  14. ^ Bradshaw, Richard; Fandos-Rius, Juan (27 May 2016). Historical Dictionary of the Central African Republic. Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 9780810879928.
  15. ^ "Valery Giscard d'Estaing | president of France". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  16. ^ Eder, Richard; Times, Special to the New York (11 May 1981). "MITTERRAND BEATS GISCARD; SOCIALIST VICTORY REVERSES TREND OF 23 YEARS IN FRANCE". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 10 November 2017.
  17. ^ "L'UMP tente un nouvel assaut en Auvergne". Le Figaro. 7 February 2008. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  18. ^ "VGE devient Immortel". Le Nouvel Observateur. 17 December 2003. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  19. ^ VGE page on Oxford Reference.
  20. ^ "La Chiraquie veut protéger son chef quand il quittera l'Elysée", Libération, 14 January 2005
  21. ^ See also the constitutional amendment proposals by senator Patrice Gélard [1] [2]
  22. ^ "Fichier BVA pour Le Parisien" (PDF). Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  23. ^ "Le "parti de l'étranger" et "le bruit et l'odeur", les précédents dérapages de Jacques Chirac". 20 Minutes. 24 November 2009. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  24. ^ "List of all current and former Members". European Parliament. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  25. ^ Sabine Verhest (17 June 2003). "Valéry Giscard d'Estaing l'Européen". La Libre.be. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  26. ^ ""Le Traité simplifié, oui, mutilé, non", par Valéry Giscard d'Estaing". Le Monde. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
  27. ^ [3][dead link]
  28. ^ "The Honorary President of Atomium Culture Valéry Giscard d'Estaing speaks at the public launch and first conference, Atomium Culture". Atomiumculture.eu. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  29. ^ Von Joachim Müller-Jung (27 November 2009). "Atomium Culture: Bienenstock der Intelligenz – Atomium Culture – Wissen". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  30. ^ Lichfield, John (3 February 1998). "French get peek at all the presidents' women". The Independent. Retrieved 17 January 2014.
  31. ^ "Hemeroteca La Vanguardia, November 30th 1974 (Spanish)".
  32. ^ Le Monde 24 December 04, AFP Toulouse 23 December 04, Le Figaro 22 January 05, Neue Zürcher Zeitung 15 February 05, The Sunday Times 16 January 05
  33. ^ "Giscard hints at affair with Diana". Connexion. 21 September 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2009. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  34. ^ "Giscard: I made up Diana love story". Connexion. 24 September 2009. Archived from the original on 5 October 2009. Retrieved 3 June 2011.
  35. ^ a b c Académie française, Valéry GISCARD d’ESTAING
  36. ^ Italian Presidency Website, GISCARD D'ESTAING S.E. Valery, "Cavaliere di Gran Croce Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana", when Minister of Economy and Finance
  37. ^ "Viagem do PR Geisel à França" (PDF). Retrieved 19 January 2019.
  38. ^ borger.dk, Ordensdetaljer, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing Archived 17 December 2012 at Archive.today, Hans Excellence, fhv. præsident for Republikken Frankrig
  39. ^ Coat of arms in the chapel of Frederiksborg Castle
  40. ^ a b Portuguese Presidency Website, Orders search form : type "ESTAING Valéry Giscard" in "nome", then click "Pesquisar"
  41. ^ Spanish Official Gazette
  42. ^ Spanish Official Gazette
  43. ^ a b Heraldry Archived 12 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine of the Order of the Seraphim

Further readingEdit

  • Bell, David. Presidential Power in Fifth Republic France (2000) pp 127-48.
  • Frears, J. R. France in the Giscard Presidency (1981) 224p. covers 1974 to 1981
  • Ryan, W. Francis. "France under Giscard" Current History (May 1981) 80#466, pp 201-6.
  • Wilsford, David, ed. Political leaders of contemporary Western Europe: a biographical dictionary (Greenwood, 1995) pp 170–176.

External linksEdit

National Assembly of France
Preceded by
Proportional representation
(1956)
New constituency
(1986)
Member for Puy-de-Dôme
1956–1958
1986–1988
Succeeded by
Constituency abolished
(1958, 1988)
Preceded by
New constituency
(1958)
Guy Fric
(1962, 1967)
Jean Morellon
(1973)
Claude Wolff
(1984)
Member of the National Assembly
for Puy-de-Dôme's 2nd constituency

1958–1959
1962–1963
1967–1969
1973
1984–1986
Succeeded by
Guy Fric
(1959, 1963)
Jean Morellon
(1969, 1973)
Constituency abolished
(1986)
Preceded by
New constituency
(1988)
Claude Wolff
(1993)
Member of the National Assembly
for Puy-de-Dôme's 3rd constituency

1988–1989
1993–2002
Succeeded by
Claude Wolff
(1989)
Louis Giscard d'Estaing
(2002)
European Parliament
Proportional representation Member of the European Parliament
for France

1989–1993
Proportional representation
Political offices
New office Secretary of State for Finance
1959–1962
Succeeded by
Max Fléchet
Preceded by
Pierre Chatrousse
Mayor of Chamalières
1967–1974
Succeeded by
Claude Wolff
Preceded by
Wilfrid Baumgartner
François-Xavier Ortoli
Minister of Finance
1962–1966
1969–1974
Succeeded by
Michel Debré
Jean-Pierre Fourcade
Preceded by
Georges Pompidou
President of France
1974–1981
Succeeded by
François Mitterrand
Preceded by
Maurice Pourchon
President of the Regional Council of Auvergne
1986–2004
Succeeded by
Pierre-Joël Bonté
Party political offices
New political party President of the
Independent Republicans

1966–1974
Succeeded by
Michel Poniatowski
Preceded by
Jean Lecanuet
President of the
Union for French Democracy

1988–1996
Succeeded by
François Léotard
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Alain Poher
Acting
Co-Prince of Andorra
1974–1981
Served alongside: Joan Martí Alanis
Succeeded by
François Mitterrand
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Alain Poher
Acting
Honorary Canon of the
Archbasilica of St. John Lateran

1974–1981
Succeeded by
François Mitterrand
Diplomatic posts
New office Chair of the G6
1975
Succeeded by
Gerald Ford
Academic offices
Preceded by
Aleksander Kwaśniewski
Invocation Speaker of the
College of Europe

2002
Succeeded by
Joschka Fischer
Order of precedence
Preceded by
Claude Bartolone
as President of the National Assembly
French order of precedence
as Former President of the Republic
Succeeded by
Jacques Chirac
as Former President of the Republic