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Boyko Metodiev Borisov (Bulgarian: Бойко Методиев Борисов, IPA: [ˈbɔjko mɛˈtɔdiɛf boˈrisof]; born 13 June 1959) is a Bulgarian politician who has been serving as Prime Minister of Bulgaria since May 2017.[1] He was previously Prime Minister on two other occasions, from 2009 to 2013, and from 2014 to January 2017, making him Bulgaria's third-longest serving Prime Minister to date.

Boyko Borisov
Boyko Borissov (crop 2019).jpg
Prime Minister of Bulgaria
Assumed office
4 May 2017
PresidentRumen Radev
DeputyTomislav Donchev
Krasimir Karakachanov
Ekaterina Zakharieva
Preceded byOgnyan Gerdzhikov (acting)
In office
7 November 2014 – 27 January 2017
PresidentRosen Plevneliev
DeputySimeon Djankov
Tsvetan Tsvetanov
Preceded byGeorgi Bliznashki (acting)
Succeeded byOgnyan Gerdzhikov (acting)
In office
27 July 2009 – 13 March 2013
PresidentGeorgi Parvanov
Rosen Plevneliev
DeputySimeon Djankov
Tsvetan Tsvetanov
Preceded bySergei Stanishev
Succeeded byMarin Raykov
Chairman of GERB
Assumed office
3 December 2006
Preceded byOffice Created
Mayor of Sofia
In office
10 November 2005 – 27 July 2009
Preceded byStefan Sofiyanski
Succeeded byYordanka Fandakova
Personal details
Born (1959-06-13) 13 June 1959 (age 60)
Bankya, Bulgaria
NationalityBulgarian
Political partyCommunist Party (Before 1990)
National Movement Simeon II (2001–2006)
GERB (2006–present)
Spouse(s)Stela Borisova (divorced)
Domestic partnerTsvetelina Borislavova (separated)
Children1
Signature
WebsiteOfficial website
Association football career
Playing position Forward
Senior career*
Years Team Apps (Gls)
2007–2014 Vitosha Bistritsa 23 (27)
* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only

Borisov was elected Mayor of Sofia in 2005. In December 2006, he was the founding chairman of the conservative political party Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria (GERB), becoming the new party's lead candidate for the 2009 general election. Borisov led GERB to a landslide victory in 2009, defeating the incumbent Socialist Party, and resigned as Mayor of Sofia in order to be sworn in as Prime Minister. Borisov resigned in 2013, after nationwide protests against the government's energy policy, but after leading GERB to victory in the 2014 general election, he became Prime Minister for a second time. His second term ended similarly to his first, after Borisov resigned in January 2017, this time following GERB's defeat in the 2016 presidential election. As before, Borisov led GERB to election victory again in the snap 2017 general election, becoming Prime Minister for a third time.

Borisov has occasionally played as a forward for the football club FC Vitosha Bistritsa. In 2013, whilst Prime Minister, he became the oldest player ever to play for a Bulgarian professional club when he appeared for Vitosha in the B Group, the second division of Bulgarian football.[2]

Early life and familyEdit

Borisov was born in 1959 in Bankya (then a village, today a town that is part of greater Sofia) to Ministry of Internal Affairs official Metodi Borisov and elementary school teacher Veneta Borisova. Borisov has claimed that his grandfather was executed by the communists for being a Nikola Petkov supporter in the wake of the Bulgarian coup d'état of 1944. This has been disputed, however, as Nikola Petkov was still an ally of the communist insurgents in 1944. Furthermore, Borisov's later rise within the ranks of communist-era security services would be unlikely with such family background.[3] Other sources point that Borisov's grandfather either died during a criminal incident,[4] or that both his grandfathers died peacefully in the 1960s and 1970s.[3]

In 1977, Borisov graduated from Bankya's high school with excellent grades.[5] Between 1982 and 1990, he assumed different positions in the Ministry of Internal Affairs as a firefighter and later as a professor at the Police Academy in Sofia.[6] As a National Security Office member, Borisov took part in the protection of crops and haylofts during the name-changing campaign towards ethnic Turks in the 1980s.[7] From 1985 to 1990, Borisov was a lecturer at the Higher Institute for Police Officers Training and Scientific Research of the Ministry of Interior.

Borisov quit the Ministry in 1991, after formally refusing to "depoliticise" /which, according to the applicable law, become mandatory at that time/, with a rank of a major. In 1991, he founded a private security company, Ipon-1. After, he guarded “Bulgaria's communist dictator Todor Zhivkov after he was pushed from power in 1989”,[8] as well as for Simeon II. Borisov has been claiming participation in karate championships since 1978, serving as the coach of the Bulgarian national team and a referee of international matches. He said to United States President Barack Obama that he has a 7th dan black belt in karate, but his coach argued this being not true, and claimed that Borisov has never been even a karate competitor, but only an administrator of the team.[9][10] He is the chairman of the Bulgarian Karate Federation. Borisov has also been a coach for the Bulgarian national karate team for many years.

Borisov is divorced, but for a number of years lived with Tsvetelina Borislavova, head of Bulgarian American Credit Bank. Borisov has a daughter, Veneta, from his former marriage to the physician Stela. Borisov also has a sister, Krasimira Ivanova.

Civil servantEdit

Boyko Borisov was the Chief Secretary of the Bulgarian Ministry of Interior between 2001 and 2005, with the rank of General.[11][12][13][14][15][16] During that period, he became famous for getting the notorious mobster Sreten Jocić apprehended.[17][18]

In the 2005 parliamentary elections he was a parliamentary candidate of the National Movement Simeon II; he was elected in two regions but decided to retain his job as Chief Secretary of the Ministry. Later in 2005 he resigned from that post, instead standing as a candidate in the mayoral election in Sofia. He was elected as Mayor and succeeded Stefan Sofiyanski.[19] He was re-elected in the 2007 election.

Founding of GERBEdit

Borisov founded a new conservative political party, GERB in December 2006 (in English Coat of Arms, derived from "Grazhdani za evropeisko razvitie na Bulgariya" or "Citizens for European Development of Bulgaria"). GERB won the first Bulgarian European Parliament elections on 20 May 2007, despite a very low poll attendance and turnout of 28.6%,[20] which prompted Borisov to voice his wish for early parliamentary elections. Following a party congress in January 2010, Borisov became the official leader of GERB (of which he had been only an "informal leader"),[21] thus replacing Tsvetan Tsvetanov, who had served under Borisov at the Ministry of Internal Affairs, and later as a vice-mayor of Sofia.

First term as Prime Minister of BulgariaEdit

Form more information on the cabinet, see First Borisov Government.

Borisov's party GERB also won the parliamentary election on 5 July 2009 by collecting 39.72% of the popular vote and 117 of the 240 seats in parliament.[22][23]

 
Borisov in 2009

Since 27 July 2009 Borisov served as Prime Minister of Bulgaria in a GERB-dominated centre-right minority government[24][25] with parliamentary support from three other parliamentary groups, including the nationalist party "Ataka". He invited several non-party affiliated experts to the government, most prominent among them Simeon Djankov, a former high-ranking World Bank official, and Rosen Plevneliev, manager of a large German subsidiary in Bulgaria.

Domestic policyEdit

Borisov's stated policies were mostly aimed at curbing corruption in the public administration[26] and building an adequate infrastructure. One of the main goals in this direction was the expansion of the national motorway network, of which Lyulin was the first motorway to be completed.[27] The government has also approved a strategy for the development of the energy sector until 2020, which includes the completion of gas interconnectors with Greece, Romania, and Turkey and expanding renewable energy capacities. The Borisov government stopped the Belene Nuclear Power Plant project[28][29] after the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster. The acquisition of European funds has also increased from 2.6%[30] to 20%.[31]

Specialised police actions have tackled corruption in the administration and a number of high-profile members of the organised crime have been imprisoned, though there has been (as of May 2011) little improvement in the rule of law.[32] At the same time the government has received criticism from other EU members due to the erosion of media freedom, falling attractiveness for investors and continuing mafia activities.[33] These criticisms have been leveled repeatedly against Deputy Prime Minister Tzvetan Tzvetanov, who is formally under investigation for wiretapping members of the government and parliament. During his court trial, his actions were found to be justified. Media leaks raised suspicions that Borisov may have tried to interfere in the case.[34]

According to France24, “Once in power, he toured the country incessantly to inaugurate infrastructure projects but failed to enact structural reforms or to tackle the rampant corruption and organised crime that Brussels has long complained about.”[8] In January 2011 Euractive wrote, “The ineffective judiciary has been largely unable to send to jail any high-profile criminals.”[35]

Borisov is a strong supporter of the total smoking ban. Although initially removing the ban introduced by the previous government, the Borisov Cabinet re-introduced it in 2012[36] with the aim to reduce the number of smokers from 40% of the population to about 15–20%.[37] By 2013, the ban had led to a 3-4% decrease in cigarette sales.[38]

Following public opposition, Borisov's government banned hydraulic fracturing for shale gas exploration and extraction. A permit granted to Chevron for shale gas exploration was revoked, and any violation of the ban is subject to a 100 million leva ($58 million) fine.[39]

 
Borisov in 2014

The first Borisov government also initiated administrative reform by cutting the number of ministries and agencies. Two ministries were subsumed by others already in November 2009. Next was the streamlining of government agencies. In 2010, a full list of these agencies was compiled – 122 in all. After a month's work, 30 were slated for closure. Here the reform team incurred the wrath of labor unions and ex-government officials, who at the same time argued that streamlining was necessary but these were the wrong "victims." The government moved ahead and within one year of the start of reforms the government payroll was reduced by 13,000 (out of 110,000 initially). Still, the number of government entities and bureaucrats remained higher than a decade earlier, which was the desired goal. The next step was to create a common salary and promotion structure for the whole administration, starting in 2011. Prior to that, a patchwork of nearly 90 separate laws regulated the pay of public officials in different parts of the government. As a result, some administrations were paid three times more than others, for comparable tasks and responsibilities. Some administrations had double the paid annual leave of others. Some had a bonus system in place; others paid out only fixed salaries. Putting all this into one law required significant work by Parliament - over 200 pieces of legislation had to be amended.

ResignationEdit

Following the eruption of nationwide protests on 12 February 2013 over high energy costs, low living standards and corruption, Borisov and his government resigned on 20 February. Prior to that, Borisov had accepted the resignation of Finance Minister Simeon Djankov – following a row over farm subsidies – and promised a cut in power prices and punishing foreign-owned companies – a potential risk in damaging Bulgaria-Czech Republic relations – but protests continued. He then said: "I will not participate in a government under which police are beating people." The election due in summer were brought forward to 12 May 2013. The resignation of Simeon Djankov was a blow to the center-right credentials of Boyko Borisov, since Djankov spearheaded the reforms during their term in office. He was also regarded as able manager of the public administration. In 2013 Djankov became an adjunct lecturer in public policy at the Harvard Kennedy School. In 2013 he also was appointed Rector of the New Economic School in Moscow.[40]

The European People's Party has expressed support for Borissov a month before the 2013 parliamentary elections.[41]

Later in April, Borisov's former Agriculture minister Miroslav Naydenov revealed that the government has spied on several cabinet ministers, business figures and the opposition under orders of Tsvetan Tsvetanov, deputy chairman of GERB. Several members of parliament have corroborated these claims, as well as members of the wiretapping unit in the Interior Ministry.[42]

Second term as Prime Minister of BulgariaEdit

Form more information on the cabinet, see Second Borisov Government.

Domestic policyEdit

 
Boyko Borisov and Angela Merkel

During Borisov's second government, the business climate and promised reforms took a nosedive. “Reforms failed to get off the ground, in particular changes to the justice system and plans to help cash-strapped schools and the creaking health care system.”[8] Additionally, Bulgaria's parliament rejected an anti-corruption law.[8]

The cultivation of genetically modified crops was banned in 2015.[43]

Foreign policyEdit

Borisov's government saw the cancellation of the South Stream gas pipeline project.[44] Russia and Gazprom lobbied for the pipeline's construction, which would have circumvented existing, insecure gas pipelines passing through Ukraine, and would have continued into Central Europe.[45] Borisov's government instead emphasized an interconnector link with Romania, Greece, Turkey and Serbia, to redistribute natural gas from multiple sources.[46]

A fence was built along the border with Turkey to stem the flow of migrants during the European migrant crisis. Border control was also tightened. Some 17,000 people were detained by October 2016, down by more than a third compared to 2015. A riot broke out in a migrant camp near Harmanli in 2016, prompting a police response with water cannons and rubber bullets, and later a closure of the camp.[47]

Third term as Prime Minister of BulgariaEdit

 
Borisov with Ilham Aliyev.
Form more information on the cabinet, see Third Borisov Government.

After the 2017 parliamentary elections, Borisov became Prime Minister again, beginning his third term in this position. On April 27, President Rumen Radev handed Borisov the mandate for the forming of Bulgaria's new government.[48] Reuters wrote, “Bulgaria's centre-right GERB party signed a coalition agreement on Thursday [4/27/17] with a nationalist alliance that will bring former prime minister Boiko Borisov back to power for his third term since 2009.”[49] By 2018, foreign direct investment had collapsed to 2% of GDP, or $1.13 billion. A number of major foreign companies, including E.ON, Modern Times Group, ČEZ Group, Société Générale and Telenor initiated their withdrawal from the Bulgarian market either due to poor profitability or corruption and government interference.[50][51]

In June 2018, a public tender was launched to build the natural gas interconnector link with Turkey. Borisov's plan to build a Balkan Gas Hub near Varna aims to ensure competition between Russian gas supplies from TurkStream, Azerbaijani gas and liquefied natural gas (LNG) delivered via Greece.[52] However, analyst Vasko Nachev noted that the gas connection to Greece is not linked to any transiting gas pipelines, and that the anticipated new delivery routes are "non-existent".[53]

During a regional summit, Borisov announced that Bulgaria will participate in a joint bid for the 2030 FIFA World Cup and the UEFA Euro 2028 with Serbia, Romania and Greece.[54]

Borisov received Order of the Republic of Serbia in February 2019. He thanked the Serbian president in the name of Bulgarian people, promised to further help Serbian EU agenda and the overall relations of the two neighbouring states.[55]

 
Borisov with Israeli President Reuven Rivlin, June 2018

In March 2019, a journalist investigation revealed that real estate company Arteks had sold luxury property at prices sharply lower than the market value to a number of senior government officials. These include justice minister Tsetska Tsacheva, GERB deputy chairman Tsvetan Tsvetanov and deputy sports minister Vanya Koleva, who all subsequently resigned. Deputy Energy minister Krasimir Parvanov, Supreme Judicial Council member Gergana Mutafova and GERB MP Vezhdi Rashidov had also obtained sub-market price real estate from Arteks.[56] Additionally, anti-corruption commission head Plamen Georgiev, National Investigative Service head Borislav Sarafov and tourism minister Nikolina Angelkova were implicated in similar schemes.[57] Another journalist investigation also revealed that, back in 2015, the anti-corruption commission under Plamen Georgiev had terminated an investigation into irregularities in Tsvetan Tsvetanov's declared revenue and real estate evaluations.[58]

Further investigations revealed that Borisov's deputy economy minister, Aleksandar Manolev, built a private dwelling using funds from an EU development program. Numerous similar estates, built as bed and breakfast houses using EU funds, were revealed to have been used as private property in a similar manner. Overall, 749 guesthouses were revealed to have been built under the programme since 2007. The Attorney General's office launched an investigation following the reports.[59]

Borisov's government received further criticism for its handling of African swine fever virus outbreaks which caused the culling of tens of thousands of pigs in several regions in July 2019. EU Health and Food Safety commissioner Vytenis Andriukaitis said that Bulgaria "had not done much" to prevent the outbreak and was facing the prospect of losing its entire pig farming industry to the disease.[60] Additionally, culled pigs were hastily buried, sometimes close to bodies of water, instead of incinerated, as the Bulgarian Food Safety Agency had previously closed down an incinerator in the affected region.[61]

In October 2019, Borisov urged European Union to stop its criticism of Turkey,[62] adding that Bulgaria's relations with Turkey are good-neighbourly.[63] Several days later on October 15, Bulgaria turned harsher, condemning the Turkish offensive into north-eastern Syria and firmly insisting that it immediately stop.[64]

ControversiesEdit

Allegations of corruption and connections with organized crimeEdit

Periodically ensuing corruption scandals and controversies has led to reports of high levels of corruption in Borisov's government. According to the Corruption Perceptions Index, compiled by Transparency International, Borisov's government was as corrupt as previous governments, with two of his closest ministers – Tzvetan Tzvetanov and Miroslav Naydenov—investigated by the Prosecutor General and the Tax Authority for taking bribes while in office. This goes against Borisov's declared mission to fight corruption and organized crime while pressing criminal charges against former corrupt politicians.[citation needed] Despite Borisov's initial promise, no representative of previous cabinets has so far been convicted.

In 2007 Boyko Borisov was accused by the magazine U.S. Congressional Quarterly (CQ) of being directly linked to the biggest mobsters in Bulgaria. CQ asserted that, "the most powerful politician in Bulgaria, Washington's newest ally in the global war on terror, is a close associate of known mobsters and linked to almost 30 unsolved murders in the Black Sea republic."[65] According to a confidential report compiled by former top U.S. law enforcement agency officials Borisov had used his position as the Chief Secretary of the Bulgarian Interior Ministry to help organized crime bosses attack their opponents.[66]

On 14 January 2011, journalists from the Bulgarian weekly newspaper Galeria distributed audio records of an alleged conversation between Borisov and Customs Agency Head Vanyo Tanov. The tapes reveal that Borisov instructed customs authorities to immediately stop their investigation of "Ledenika" brewery which had been suspected of illegal activities and tax crimes. However, Finance Minister Simeon Djankov was recorded on tape ordering the Head of Customs to do his work properly and not yield to Borisov's demands.

This created a rift within the government, as it was widely believed that the wiretapping was ordered by Interior Minister Tzvetan Tzvetanov.[67] Later those tapes were declared "manipulated" (not being able to tell if they were fake or not) by two independent examinations.[68][69] In early July, Borisov admitted that the conversation had been genuine, though tampered with, while giving an interview to Bulgarian bloggers in the presence of the Interior Minister.[70][71] A March 2013 investigation by the Prosecutor General suggests that the wire-tapping was ordered by Tzvetan Tzvetanov, Borisov's trusted deputy in the GERB party, with the aim of getting rid of Customs Head Vanyo Tanov.[citation needed]

Allegations of threatening journalistsEdit

 
Michel Barnier and Boyko Borisov at the 2011 EPP summit at Bouchout Castle, Meise.

In early 2011 a number of think-tanks and analysts raised concern about the degradation of media freedom and transparency in Bulgaria.[72] In 2011 reports surfaced that Borisov had paid cash to journalists to portray him favourably, and threatened others who criticized him as early as 2005.[73] In 2012, Bulgaria was ranked as the worst-performing EU member in terms of media freedom, according to Freedom House, and ranked 80th internationally.[74] By 2018, Bulgaria had dropped to 111th globally in the Press Freedom Index, lower than all European Union members and membership candidate states. According to Reporters Without Borders, EU funds have been diverted to sympathetic media outlets while others have been bribed to be less critical on problematic topics. Attacks against individual journalists have also increased.[75][76]

Allegations of racism and xenophobiaEdit

On 6 February 2009, Borisov, speaking in Chicago, told Bulgarian expatriates that the human material and the basis of Bulgarian population at that moment included 1 million Roma, 700,000 Turks and 2.5 million retirees. He added that the human material that they are left with as voters and as a pool for recruiting staff is really not that big, as half a million people have left Bulgaria.[77][78][79][80] Vice-president of the Party of European Socialists, Jan Marinus Wiersma, accused Borisov of referring to the Turks, Roma and pensioners in Bulgaria as "bad human material," and claimed that GERB "has already crossed the invisible line between right wing populism and extremism."[81]

Borisov denied these accusations and in turn accused the Bulgarian Socialist Party of attempting to discredit him.[82] Borisov stated in a meeting with NGOs on 5 March 2009 that he intends to include representatives of the Roma ethnicity in all levels of government, including a potential minister,[83] and has reached out to offer inclusivity to Bulgaria's ethnic Turkish population; although these measures and proposals have been seen as politically empty.[7]

ImageEdit

Boyko Borisov's "man of the people" attitude and the failings of the previous government were seen as the main sources of his popularity in 2009.[84] Borisov had also marked a very wide media presence, being regularly cited in most major media outlets and had made a total of 1,157 statements from his election until the end of 2010.[85] This trend continued throughout his first mandate, as Borisov and his party completely dominate the country's media reports,[86] his name being mentioned in more than 8,000 news articles for 2012.[87] He has also been the subject of a number of sycophantic plaudits on the part of his supporters, including a poem lauding his "dignified leadership".[88] In July 2012, he was included as a "historical personality" in history books for high school students, along with former GERB minister Rosen Plevneliev and European commissioner Kristalina Georgieva.[89] Borisov's popularity has been steadily declining due to ongoing scandals surrounding his most-trusted ministers - Tzvetan Tzvetanov and agriculture minister Miroslav Naydenov. After a public row due to leaked wiretapped conversations between Boyko Borisov, Miroslav Naydenov and the deputy prosecutor general, Boyko Borisov distanced himself from the former agriculture minister and he was excluded from GERB.

In December 2011, Borisov, who occasionally plays as a striker for third division side F.C. Vitosha Bistritsa, collected 44% of about 8,000 votes in a fans' poll to crown Bulgaria's Footballer of the Year, ahead of then-Manchester United striker Dimitar Berbatov. Following the result, Borisov called for the award to be annulled, claiming it was a protest vote against the poor conditions of Bulgarian football.[90][91]

Borisov's hardline governing style has received criticism by media outlets, described by some as authoritarian.[92][93][94][95]

Susceptibility to American lobbyismEdit

In January 2019, Bulgarian President and former Air Force Commander Rumen Radev levied heavy criticism against Borisov, saying he "perverted" the tender for the acquisition of new fighter jets intended to replace its ageing MiG-29s.[96] Potential replacements were Eurofighter Typhoons, Saab Gripens, Lockheed Martin F-16s or Boeing F-18s. In December 2018, Borisov's government decided to buy F-16s, ignoring four out of the seven criteria of the tender and exceeding the financial framework. President Radev called this a "triple blow against Bulgaria," adding that the Americans should realise they only won the tender via lobbyism.[96]

I insisted that the [tender] procedure and financial framework be respected, which guarantees the best choice, no matter which aircraft it would be. The government did the opposite – they announced the winner in breach of their own rules and those of the Parliament, and even committed to pay an enormous amount. [...] How can we expect winning the respect of Europe and the world, if we don’t respect our own laws and rules?

— Rumen Radev, 6 January 2019

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Bibliography
Lilov, Grigor (2013). Най-богатите българи (1st ed.). Sofia: "Кайлас" ЕООД. ISBN 978-954-92098-9-1.

External linksEdit

Political offices
Preceded by
Stefan Sofiyanski
Mayor of Sofia
2005–2009
Succeeded by
Yordanka Fandakova
Preceded by
Sergei Stanishev
Prime Minister of Bulgaria
2009–2013
Succeeded by
Marin Raykov
Preceded by
Georgi Bliznashki
Prime Minister of Bulgaria
2014–2017
Succeeded by
Ognyan Gerdzhikov
Preceded by
Ognyan Gerdzhikov
Prime Minister of Bulgaria
2017–present
Incumbent