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Jan Eduard de Quay (26 August 1901 – 4 July 1985) was a Dutch politician of the defunct Catholic People's Party (KVP) now merged into the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) party and psychologist who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 19 May 1959 until 24 July 1963.[1]

Jan de Quay
Jan de Quay 1962 (1).jpg
Jan de Quay in 1962
Prime Minister of the Netherlands
In office
19 May 1959 – 24 July 1963
MonarchJuliana
Deputy
Preceded byLouis Beel
Succeeded byVictor Marijnen
Deputy Prime Minister
In office
22 November 1966 – 5 April 1967
Serving with Barend Biesheuvel
Prime MinisterJelle Zijlstra
Preceded byAnne Vondeling
Barend Biesheuvel
Succeeded byJohan Witteveen
Joop Bakker
Minister of Transport
and Water Management
In office
22 November 1966 – 5 April 1967
Prime MinisterJelle Zijlstra
Preceded byKo Suurhoff
Succeeded byJoop Bakker
Member of the Senate
In office
13 June 1967 – 16 September 1969
In office
25 June 1963 – 22 November 1966
Parliamentary groupCatholic People's Party
Minister of Defence
In office
1 August 1959 – 4 September 1959
Ad interim
Prime MinisterHimself
Preceded bySidney J. van den Bergh
Succeeded bySim Visser
Queen's Commissioner of
North Brabant
In office
1 November 1946 – 19 May 1959
MonarchWilhelmina (1946–1948)
Juliana (1948–1959)
Preceded byJohannes Smits van Oyen
Succeeded byConstant Kortmann
Minister of War
In office
4 April 1945 – 25 June 1945
Prime MinisterPieter Sjoerds Gerbrandy
Preceded byJim de Booy (Ad interim)
Succeeded byJo Meynen
Personal details
Born
Jan Eduard de Quay

(1901-08-26)26 August 1901
's-Hertogenbosch, Netherlands
Died4 July 1985(1985-07-04) (aged 83)
Beers, Netherlands
NationalityDutch
Political partyChristian Democratic Appeal
(from 1980)
Other political
affiliations
Catholic People's Party
(1945–1980)
Roman Catholic
State Party
(until 1945)
Spouse(s)
Maria van der Lande
(m. 1927; his death 1985)
Children5 sons and 4 daughters
Alma materUtrecht University
(Bachelor of Psychology, Bachelor of Letters, Master of Psychology, Master of Letters, Doctor of Psychology, Doctor of Philosophy)
Stanford University
(Master of Social Science)
OccupationPolitician · Civil servant · Psychologist · Sociologist · Researcher · Management consultant · Academic administrator · Lobbyist · Editor · Author · Professor
Military service
Allegiance Netherlands
Branch/serviceRoyal Netherlands Army
Years of service1939–1940 (Conscription)
1944–1948 (Reserve)
RankNl-landmacht-majoor.svg Major
UnitMedical Services
Battles/warsWorld War II

De Quay applied at the Utrecht University in June 1920 majoring in Psychology and Literature and obtaining an Bachelor of Psychology and Bachelor of Letters degree's in July 1923 before graduating with an Master of Psychology and Master of Letters degree's in July 1926. De Quay applied at the Stanford University in Stanford, California in July 1926 for a postgraduate education and obtained an Master of Social Science degree in December 1926 and later returned to the Utrecht University where worked as a researcher and got doctorates as an Doctor of Psychology and Doctor of Philosophy in Sociology on 1 July 1927. De Quay worked as a associate professor of Psychology at the University of Tilburg from September 1927 until March 1933 and as a professor of Psychology, Business administration and Business theory at the University of Tilburg from March 1933 until August 1939. De Quay also became active in the private sector and public sector and worked as a part-time management consultant for the PTT and C&A from December 1928 until August 1939. De Quay also worked as a managing editor for a local scientific magazine from April April 1935 until August 1939. He also served as Rector Magnificus of the University of Tilburg from 1 January 1938 until 1 January 1939. De Quay was conscripted in the Royal Netherlands Army and was mobilized as a Captain in the Medical Services in August 1939. On 10 May 1940 Nazi Germany invaded the Netherlands and the government fled to London to escape the German occupation. Zijlstra fought in the Battle of the Netherlands and the Battle of France. During World War II De Quay was co-founder of the controversial Netherlands Union in July 1940 but the organisation was disbanded by the German occupation authority in December 1941. In July 1942 De Quay was arrested and detained in the ilag of Haaren and was transferred to ilag of Sint-Michielsgestel in December 1942 and was released on 18 June 1943. Following the Liberation of the Southern-Netherlands in October 1944 De Quay was promoted to Major in the military reserve force of the Royal Netherlands Army.

On 27 January 1945 the Cabinet Gerbrandy II fell and continued to serve in a demissionary capacity until it was replaced by the Cabinet Gerbrandy III with De Quay appointed as Minister of War, taking office on 4 April 1945. Following the cabinet formation of 1945 De Quay was not giving a cabinet post in the new cabinet, the Cabinet Gerbrandy III was replaced by the Cabinet Schermerhorn–Drees on 25 June 1945. On 22 December 1945 the Roman Catholic State Party was renamed as the Catholic People's Party, De Quay was one of the co-founders. De Quay remained in active politics, in September he was nominated as Queen's Commissioner of North Brabant, taking office on 1 November 1946. On 11 December 1958 Cabinet Drees III fell and continued to serve in a demissionary capacity until it was replaced by the caretaker Cabinet Beel II on 22 December 1958. After the election of 1959 De Quay was approached by the Leader of the Catholic People's Party Carl Romme as a candidate for Prime Minister, De Quay initially refused but after consultation with Queen Juliana accepted and was appointed as Formateur to form a new cabinet. The following cabinet formation of 1959 resulted in a coalition agreement between the Catholic People's Party, the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD), the Anti-Revolutionary Party (ARP) and the Christian Historical Union (CHU) which formed the Cabinet De Quay with De Quay becoming Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of General Affairs, taking office on 19 May 1959.

De Quay served as acting Minister of Defence from 1 August 1959 until 4 September 1959 following the resignation of Sidney J. van den Bergh. In September 1962 De Quay announced that he wouldn't not stand for the election of 1963 but wanted run for the Senate. After the Senate election of 1963 De Quay was elected as a Member of the Senate, taking office on 25 June 1963 serving as a frontbencher. Following the cabinet formation of 1963 De Quay per his own request asked not to be considered for a cabinet post in the new cabinet, the Cabinet De Quay was replaced by the Cabinet Marijnen on 24 July 1963. On 14 October 1966 the Cabinet Cals fell and continued to serve in a demissionary capacity until it was replaced by the caretaker Cabinet Zijlstra with De Quay appointed as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Transport and Water Management, taking office on 22 November 1966. Shortly thereafter De Quay announced that he wouldn't stand for the election of 1967. Following the cabinet formation of 1967 De Quay per his own request asked not to be considered for a cabinet post in the new cabinet, the Cabinet Zijlstra was replaced by the Cabinet De Jong on 5 April 1967. De Quay returned as a Member of the Senate after the resignation of Flip van Campen, taking office on 13 June 1967. In May 1969 De Quay announced that he wouldn't not stand for the Senate election of 1969 and continued to serve until the end of the parliamentary term on 16 September 1969.

De Quay retired from active politics and became active in the private sector and public sector and occupied numerous seats as a corporate director and nonprofit director on several boards of directors and supervisory boards (AKU, Spyker, KPN, Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences) and served on several state commissions and as an diplomat and lobbyist for several economic delegations on behalf of the government.

De Quay was known for his abilities as a team leader and manager. During his premiership, his cabinet was responsible for reforms to education, social security, closing the mines in Limburg and further stimulating Urban development in the Randstad. De Quay continued to comment on political affairs as a statesman until his death at the age of 83. He holds the distinction of leading the first cabinet as Prime Minister that completed a full term after World War II.[2]

Contents

BiographyEdit

Early lifeEdit

Jan Eduard de Quay was born in 's-Hertogenbosch on 26 August 1901. After attending a Jesuit school in Katwijk, he graduated in psychology from the University of Utrecht in 1926. The following year he was awarded a doctorate for his thesis on the contribution of sensory and motor factors to the learning and labour process.

 
Prime Minister of Malaysia Tunku Abdul Rahman and Prime Minister Jan de Quay at Airport Schiphol on 26 May 1960.
 
Vice President of India Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan and Prime Minister Jan de Quay at a meeting at the Ministry of General Affairs on 18 October 1961.

In 1928 he was appointed lecturer in psychotechnology at the Catholic college of higher education in Tilburg (now the University of Tilburg) and in 1933 professor of business economics and psychotechnology at the same institution. During the pre-war mobilisation of the Netherlands (1939-1940) De Quay became a lieutenant in the reserve. In July 1940 he formed the Triumvirate of the controversial nationalist Dutch Union with Louis Einthoven and Hans Linthorst Homan. This Union was controversial because its leaders suggested partial collaboration with the German occupiers. In August 1940 De Quay started secret meetings with the fascistic Nationaal Front in oder to fuse the two organisations. During these talks De Quay called himself a fascist, the Union a fascistic organisation and said that he rejected democracy. In May and June of the same year he was government commissioner for labour at the Ministry of Social Affairs. In this position he encouraged the Dutch population to seek employment in Germany. From July 1942 to June 1943 he was interned in Haaren, after which he went into hiding from the occupation authorities. This lasted until June 1943, when he went into hiding. Following the liberation of the area south of the rivers in late 1944, he became chairman of the Board of Commissioners for Agriculture, Industry, Trade and Commerce set up to restore the national economy.[3]

PoliticsEdit

From 5 April until 23 June 1945, De Quay was Minister of War in the second Gerbrandy cabinet. On 1 November 1946 he became Queen's Commissioner of North Brabant until 19 May 1959.

He served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 19 May 1959 until 24 July 1963. The free Saturday was introduced (for civil servants, in 1961), as well as laws for education (mammoetwet), unemployment benefit (bijstandwet) and child benefit (kinderbijslagwet). Natural gas was discovered in Slochteren, which would later turn out to be one of the biggest gas reserves in the world and a major source of income for the Netherlands in the decades to come. On 23 December 1960 the cabinet fell over extra public housing (woningwetwoningen), but Gaius de Gaay Fortman reconciled matters and the cabinet resumed on 2 January 1961. In August/September 1962, New Guinea was handed over to Indonesia, under supervision of the UN.

Shortly after the installation of the new government, minister of defence Ven den Bergh resigned for personal reasons (family affairs with his United States wife and children). In 1962, the new minister of defence Visser also had to resign after protests against his dismissal of a critical civil servant. In 1961 minister Van Rooy of social affairs resigned after criticism of how he dealt with the new child benefit law. His post was taken over by former state secretary Veldkamp, whose now vacant former position in turn was taken over by Gijzels. In 1963, a proposal to install commercial television was not accepted.

He served as a Member of the Senate from 25 June 1963 until 22 November 1966. During the Cabinet Zijlstra he served as Minister of Transport, Public Works and Water Management and Deputy Prime Minister from 22 November 1966 until 5 April 1967. On 13 June 1967 he again was a Member of the Senate until 16 September 1969.

Personal lifeEdit

On 8 August 1927, De Quay married Maria van der Lande (29 August 1901 – 6 November 1988). De Quay died on 4 July 1985 in Beers, he was 83.[4]

DecorationsEdit

Honours
Ribbon bar Honour Country Date Comment
  Knight of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre Holy See
  Grand Officer of the Order of Orange-Nassau Netherlands 27 July 1963 Elevated from Commander (29 April 1959)
  Commander of the Order of the Netherlands Lion Netherlands 27 April 1967 Elevated from Knight (17 September 1946)

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Quay, Jan Eduard de (1901-1985)" (in Dutch). Huygens ING. 12 November 2013. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
  2. ^ "Jan Eduard de Quay (1901-1985)" (in Dutch). Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum. 5 September 2009. Retrieved 21 March 2017.
  3. ^ "Met het CDA op weg naar de fascistische heilstaat" (in Dutch). Vrijspreker.nl. 10 June 2009. Retrieved 12 April 2018.
  4. ^ "Quay, Jan Eduard de" (in Dutch). Uitgeverij A. van den Oord. 19 February 2009. Retrieved 9 January 2019.

External linksEdit

Official
Political offices
Preceded by
Jim de Booy
Ad interim
Minister of War
1945
Succeeded by
Jo Meynen
Preceded by
Johannes Smits
van Oyen
Queen's Commissioner
of North Brabant

1946–1959
Succeeded by
Constant Kortmann
Preceded by
Louis Beel
Minister of General Affairs
1959–1963
Succeeded by
Victor Marijnen
Prime Minister of the Netherlands
1959–1963
Preceded by
Sidney J. van den Bergh
Minister of Defence
Ad interim

1959
Succeeded by
Sim Visser
Preceded by
Anne Vondeling
Deputy Prime Minister
1966–1967
With: Barend Biesheuvel
Succeeded by
Johan Witteveen
Preceded by
Barend Biesheuvel
Succeeded by
Joop Bakker
Preceded by
Ko Suurhoff
Minister of Transport
and Water Management

1966–1967
Academic offices
Preceded by
Martinus Cobbenhagen
Rector Magnificus of the
Tilburg University

1938–1939
Succeeded by
Hendrik Kaag