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Rudolphus Franciscus Marie "Ruud" Lubbers (Dutch pronunciation: [ˈryt ˈlʏbərs] (listen); 7 May 1939 – 14 February 2018) was a Dutch businessman, politician and diplomat of the defunct Catholic People's Party (KVP) and later the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA) party who served as Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 4 November 1982 to 22 August 1994 and as United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees from 1 January 2001 until 20 February 2005.
Ruud Lubbers in 1985
|Prime Minister of the Netherlands|
4 November 1982 – 22 August 1994
|Preceded by||Dries van Agt|
|Succeeded by||Wim Kok|
|United Nations High |
Commissioner for Refugees
1 January 2001 – 20 February 2005
|Preceded by||Sadako Ogata|
|Succeeded by||António Guterres|
|Leader of the Christian |
25 October 1982 – 29 January 1994
|Preceded by||Dries van Agt|
|Succeeded by||Elco Brinkman|
|Minister for Netherlands |
Antilles and Aruba Affairs
27 May 1994 – 22 August 1994
|Preceded by||Ernst Hirsch Ballin|
|Succeeded by||Joris Voorhoeve|
7 November 1989 – 14 November 1989
|Preceded by||Jan de Koning|
|Succeeded by||Ernst Hirsch Ballin|
|Parliamentary leader in the |
House of Representatives
14 September 1989 – 7 November 1989
|Preceded by||Bert de Vries|
|Succeeded by||Elco Brinkman|
3 June 1986 – 14 July 1986
|Preceded by||Bert de Vries|
|Succeeded by||Bert de Vries|
24 Augustus 1981 – 4 November 1982
|Preceded by||Dries van Agt|
|Succeeded by||Bert de Vries|
7 November 1978 – 10 June 1981
|Preceded by||Willem Aantjes|
|Succeeded by||Dries van Agt|
|Parliamentary group||Christian Democratic Appeal|
|Member of the House of Representatives|
14 September 1989 – 7 November 1989
3 June 1986 – 14 July 1986
22 December 1977 – 4 November 1982
8 June 1977 – 8 September 1977
|Parliamentary group||Christian Democratic Appeal |
Catholic People's Party
|Minister of Economic Affairs|
11 May 1973 – 19 December 1977
|Prime Minister||Joop den Uyl|
|Preceded by||Harrie Langman|
|Succeeded by||Gijs van Aardenne|
Rudolphus Franciscus Marie Lubbers
7 May 1939
|Died||14 February 2018 (aged 78)|
|Political party||Christian Democratic Appeal (from 1980)|
|Catholic People's Party (1964–1980)|
Ria Hoogeweegen (m. 1962)
|Alma mater||Erasmus University Rotterdam |
(Bachelor of Economics, Master of Economics)
|Branch/service||Royal Netherlands Air Force|
|Years of service||1962–1963 (Conscription) |
Lubbers studied at the Rotterdam School of Economics in September 1957 majoring in Economics and obtained a Bachelor of Economics degree in November 1958 before graduating with a Master of Economics degree in April 1962. Lubbers worked as a corporate director for the manufacturing company Hollandia in Rotterdam from April 1963 until May 1973. Lubbers also worked as a trade association executive for the Christian Employers'association (NCW) from January 1965 until May 1973 and as a media administrator for the Catholic Radio Broadcasting (KRO) from April 1966 until May 1973.
After the election of 1972 Lubbers was appointed as Minister of Economic Affairs in the Cabinet Den Uyl, taking office on 11 May 1973. The Cabinet Den Uyl fell on 22 March 1977 after four years of tensions in the coalition and continued to serve in a demissionary capacity. Lubbers was elected as a Member of the House of Representatives after the election of 1972, taking office on 8 June 1977, but as he was still serving in the cabinet and because of dualism customs in the constitutional convention of Dutch politics, he couldn't serve a dual mandate and he subsequently resigned as Member of the House of Representatives on 8 September 1977. Following the cabinet formation of 1977 Lubbers was not given a cabinet post in the new cabinet; the Cabinet Den Uyl was replaced by the Cabinet Van Agt–Wiegel on 19 December 1977. Lubbers subsequently returned as a Member of the House of Representatives after Roelof Kruisinga was appointed as Minister of Defence in the Cabinet Van Agt–Wiegel, taking office on 22 December 1977 serving as a frontbencher. On 7 November 1978, the Parliamentary leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal in the House of Representatives Willem Aantjes resigned and Lubbers was selected as his successor as Parliamentary leader. After the election of 1981, the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal and incumbent Prime Minister Dries van Agt returned as Parliamentary leader on 10 June 1981 and following the cabinet formation of 1981 and the formation of the Cabinet Van Agt II, Lubbers again took over as Parliamentary leader on 24 Augustus 1981. Shortly after the election of 1982, Van Agt unexpectedly announced he was stepping down as Leader and wouldn't serve another term as Prime Minister. The Chairman of the Christian Democratic Appeal Piet Bukman approached Lubbers as his successor; Lubbers accepted and became the Leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal and the presumed de facto next Prime Minister. He was appointed as Formateur on 25 October 1982 and the following cabinet formation of 1982 resulted in a coalition agreement between the Christian Democratic Appeal and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) which formed the Cabinet Lubbers I with Lubbers becoming Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of General Affairs, taking office on 4 November 1982.
For the election of 1986 Lubbers served as Lijsttrekker (top candidate). The Christian Democratic Appeal made a large win, gaining 9 seats and became the largest party and now had 54 seats in the House of Representatives and Lubbers was again appointed as Formateur. Lubbers returned as a Member of the House of Representatives and Parliamentary leader, taking office on 3 June 1986. The following cabinet formation of 1986 resulted in a continuation of the coalition agreement between the Christian Democratic Appeal and the People's Party for Freedom and Democracy (VVD) which formed the Cabinet Lubbers II with Lubbers remaining as Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of General Affairs, taking office on 14 July 1986. The Cabinet Lubbers II fell on 3 May 1989 and continued to serve in a demissionary capacity. For the election of 1989 Lubbers again served as Lijsttrekker. The Christian Democratic Appeal kept the 54 seats in the House of Representative and retained its place as the largest party and Lubbers was again appointed as Formateur. Lubbers again returned as a Member of the House of Representatives and Parliamentary leader, taking office on 14 September 1989. The following cabinet formation of 1989 resulted in a coalition agreement between the Christian Democratic Appeal and the Labour Party (PvdA) which formed the Cabinet Lubbers III with Lubbers continuing as Prime Minister of the Netherlands and Minister of General Affairs, taking office on 7 November 1989. Lubbers served as acting Minister for Netherlands Antilles and Aruba Affairs from 7 November 1989 until 14 November 1989 until the appointment of Ernst Hirsch Ballin. In October 1993 Lubbers announced he was stepping down as Leader and that he wouldn't stand for the election of 1994. Lubbers again served as Minister for Netherlands Antilles and Aruba Affairs from 27 May 1994 until 22 August 1994 following the resignation of Ernst Hirsch Ballin. The Cabinet Lubbers III was replaced by the Cabinet Kok I following the cabinet formation of 1989 on 22 August 1994.
Lubbers semi-retired from active politics and became active in the public sector and occupied numerous seats as a non-profit director on several boards of directors and supervisory boards (World Wide Fund for Nature, Earth Charter, Organisation for Applied Scientific Research, Club of Rome and the Institute of International Relations Clingendael) and served on several state commissions and councils on behalf of the government (Mine Council and the Council for Culture. Lubbers also served as a distinguished visiting professor of International relations and Globalization at the Tilburg University and the John F. Kennedy School of Government of the Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts from February 1995 until December 2000. In November 2000 Lubbers was nominated as the next United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, serving from 1 January 2001 until 20 February 2005.
Lubbers retired after spending 32 years in national politics but remained active in the public sector and continued to occupied numerous seats as a nonprofit director on several boards of directors and supervisory boards and as an advocate, lobbyist and activist for Humanitarian, Conservation, Environmentalism, Sustainable development and Climate change issues.
Lubbers was known for his abilities as a team leader and consensus builder. During his premiership, his cabinets were responsible for major reforms to Social security, stimulating Privatization and Sustainable development, revitalizing the Economy following the recession in the 1980s and reducing the deficit. Lubbers was granted the honorary title of Minister of State on 31 January 1995 and continued to comment on political affairs as a statesman until his death at the age of 78. He holds the record as the youngest and longest-serving Prime Minister of the Netherlands with 11 years, 291 days and is consistently ranked both by scholars and the public as one of the best Prime Ministers after World War II.
Rudolphus Franciscus Marie Lubbers was born on 7 May 1939 in Rotterdam in the Province of South Holland. He studied economics at the Erasmus University Rotterdam, and was a student of the first Nobel Prize in Economics laureate Jan Tinbergen. As suggested by the title of his 1962 thesis – "The influence of differing productivity trends in various countries on the current account of the balance of payments" – his main interest was in monetary affairs. He originally planned an academic career, but was compelled by family circumstances to join the management of Lubbers' Construction Workshops and Machinery Fabricators Hollandia B.V.
From 11 May 1973 to 19 December 1977, Ruud Lubbers was Minister of Economic Affairs in the Den Uyl-government and a member of the Catholic People's Party (KVP). He was an effective, if sometimes somewhat bad-tempered minister. He chose to return to Parliament on the formation of the Van Agt-government in 1977, becoming senior deputy parliamentary leader of the Christian Democratic Appeal (CDA), the alliance between the KVP and the other two main Christian parties. His career got an unexpected boost when the leader of the parliamentary faction of the CDA, Willem Aantjes, had to resign in 1978 because of accusations that he had served in the Germanic-SS during the Second World War. Lubbers succeeded him and suddenly found himself in a powerful political position.
In 1982, after the general election won by Prime Minister Dries van Agt, a similar thing happened when Van Agt suddenly announced he would not serve for a third term. Lubbers took over the post. He was the youngest prime minister in Dutch history; he had turned 43 only six months earlier. Major aspects of his time in office included extensive cutbacks in public spending, the launch of far-reaching deregulation and privatisation programs, and a massive demonstration in The Hague (1983) against the planned installation in the Netherlands of nuclear-armed U.S. cruise missiles (which was cancelled after all due to arms reduction talks between the US and the Soviet Union).
After leaving office in 1994, Lubbers was put forward as a candidate for the head of NATO, but the U.S. vetoed his appointment. He was on the advisory board of the Official Monetary and Financial Institutions Forum (OMFIF), where he was regularly involved in meetings regarding the financial and monetary system.
Lubbers was regarded by many during his time in office as an ideological heir to Margaret Thatcher. One of his campaign slogans was: "Meer markt, minder overheid" (more market, less government).
In the follow-up of the Earth Summit in 1992, Lubbers engaged with the Earth Charter Initiative in cooperation with Mikhail Gorbachev and Maurice Strong. The Earth Charter document was launched in the Peace Palace in The Hague in June 2000. Lubbers was an active member of the international Earth Charter Commission and reached out, especially to youth in the Netherland, with the message of the Earth Charter for a sustainable and peaceful world.
From 1995 to 2000, he taught Globalization Studies at Tilburg University in the Netherlands and at the John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University in the United States. He was also vice-chairman of the Independent World Commission on the Oceans and chair of Globus, the Institute for Globalization and Development based in Tilburg.
UN High Commissioner for RefugeesEdit
From 1 January 2001, Lubbers headed the UNHCR, which comprised over 5,000 employees who work across the globe, and which was concerned with an estimated 21 million refugees and internally displaced in over 120 countries worldwide. During his tenure, the number of refugees worldwide decreased by almost 22%, from 21.8 million in 2001 to close to 17.1 million at the beginning of 2004.
Lubbers also favoured a generous refugee policy for the Netherlands, and he was critical of the Foreign Citizens Law (Vreemdelingenwet). He also stabilised the UNHCR's financial situation and greatly increased the financial means for the sheltering of refugees.
He annually donated some $300,000 to the refugee agency since he assumed his post in 2001, thereby covering his own $167,000 annual salary and travel expenses.
Sexual harassment complaintEdit
In May 2004, Lubbers was accused by Cynthia Brzak, an American UNHCR employee, of sexual harassment following a meeting in his office that was attended by two other UNHCR staff members. The complaint was reported in the media, prompting Lubbers to inform UNHCR staff about the accusation. On this occasion, he denied any wrongdoing and rejected the allegation against him. On 2 June 2004, the United Nations Office of Internal Oversight Services (OIOS), which was tasked with investigating the accusation, sent its report to UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan. In its public annual report to the UN Secretary-General (presented to the UN General Assembly), the OIOS reported concerning the case that it had "submitted a report to the Secretary-General supporting the allegations and recommended that appropriate actions be taken accordingly."
Lubbers responded to the OIOS report in a letter setting out to (a) deny acts of sexual harassment or abuse took place; (b) establish that such evidence of the alleged misconduct as is said to exist is insufficient and flawed; and (c) conclude that the report itself would appear to be based on an irregular statutory basis and also flawed by errors of law and reasoning."
Lubbers asked Max van der Stoel, former High Commissioner on National Minorities, to comment on the confidential report. He concluded that "the OIOS report is deficient in objectivity and impartiality." He added "that the only two other persons in the room did not provide evidence confirming the version given by the complainant." Furthermore, he accused UN officials of leaking information to the press and recommended that an investigation of the leaks be undertaken.
The Secretary-General reviewed the report and the responses of the High Commissioner and the senior manager to the report, and decided that the complaint could not be substantiated by the evidence and therefore closed the matter." He is also reported to have consulted with Stephen Schwebel, an American judge and former President of the International Court of Justice. The Secretary-General failed to order an investigation of the deliberate leaking by OIOS itself to the media as recommended by Max van der Stoel.
In February 2005, the case was in the news again when the British daily newspaper The Independent obtained a copy of the OIOS report and, accompanied by an article by Kate Holt, published its contents. Among other things, the report stated that:
the allegation against Lubbers is substantiated in that Lubbers did engage in unwanted physical contact with the complainant, a subordinate female staff member. New allegations that came to OIOS's attention during the investigation, were also examined and indicate a pattern of sexual harassment by Lubbers, OIOS is also of the view that Lubbers abused his authority as High Commissioner by his intense, pervasive and intimidating attempts to influence the outcome of this Investigation.
Lubbers met with the Secretary-General on 18 February 2005, and resigned as High Commissioner on Sunday, 20 February 2005, stating to the press: "For more than four years I gave all my energy to UNHCR. To be frank, despite all my loyalty, insult has now been added to injury and therefore I resign as High Commissioner." The Secretary-General's office issued a statement the same day which stated that the High Commissioner's resignation was in the best interests of the UNHCR. In his letter of resignation, Lubbers stated that his resignation constituted no expression of guilt, but that he had become the victim of smearing, adding that he had resigned "in the interest of the organisation". In October 2005, Annan reiterated that he had come to the conclusion that "the evidence did not support the accusation" but that, because of ongoing media-pressure, Lubbers' resignation was in the best interests of the UNHCR. In a letter to UNHCR staff, Annan wrote: "My decision to accept his resignation should not be interpreted as a finding of guilt".
During a farewell meeting for Lubbers as High Commissioner for Refugees, he received from Acting High Commissioner Wendy Chamberlin the first annual UNHCR Achievement Award for exceptional services to UNHCR and for the world's refugees.
Handling of the UNHCR/SC-UK 2002 report on sexual exploitation in the aid sector in West Africa
Three years prior to the controversy over the sexual harassment case, Ruud Lubbers was criticised for his mis-handling of the UNHCR/SC-UK 2002 which uncovered the widespread sexual exploitation of refugee children by aid workers and peacekeepers in three West African countries (Liberia, Guinea and Sierra Leone). The study team which had encountered these findings unexpectedly whilst conducting a broader assessment documented 67 allegations implicating 40 aid agencies and several peacekeeping battalions, and often involving humanitarian workers and peacekeepers exchanging meagre aid supplies (biscuits, soap, plastic sheeting) for sex with children. Ruud Lubbers' response was to deny these findings, discredit the authors and excuse these behaviours; for example in a CNN interview on 8 May 2002, Lubbers was heard to deny the problem in the face of CNN's own research which confirmed the problem existed and was taken to task by the interviewer for dismissing these exploitative relationships inter alia as 'romances'. He was roundly criticised by his own staff for that interview. Despite repeated attempts by Lubbers to lead a negative campaign against the report, the international community and governments in particular, took the allegations seriously and passed a UN General Assembly resolution A/RES/57/306, 'Investigation into sexual exploitation of refugees by aid workers in West Africa' in May 2003, requiring the UN to take action at the highest level to tackle such abuses. This led to the UN Secretary-General's Bulletin, 'Special measures for protection from sexual exploitation and sexual abuse' in October 2003, and an endorsement of the Inter-agency standing Committee's working group on sexual abuse and exploitation which had already been set up a year earlier in June 2002 in response to the report.
For the 2010 Dutch cabinet formation, after coalition meetings between People's Party for Freedom and Democracy, Labour Party, Democrats 66, and GreenLeft failed to form a new Purple government, Lubbers was asked again to become Informateur tho seek possibilities for a new coalition.
Personal life and deathEdit
Lubbers died in Rotterdam on 14 February 2018, at the age of 78, of natural causes. Among the world leaders who offered condolences were former President of the Soviet Union Mikhail Gorbachev, Prime Minister of Russia and former President of Russia Dmitry Medvedev, Chancellor of Germany Angela Merkel, Secretary-General of the United Nations and former Prime Minister of Portugal and United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees António Guterres, United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees Filippo Grandi and President of the European Commission and former Prime Ministers of Luxembourg Jean-Claude Juncker. His ceremonial funeral was held on 20 February 2018 and was attended by Prime Minister Mark Rutte and all living former Prime Ministers Dries van Agt, Wim Kok and Jan Peter Balkenende. This was the last public appearance of Wim Kok, who died eight months later.
|Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Netherlands Lion||Netherlands||8 October 1994||Elevated from Knight |
|Honorary citizen of Maastricht||Netherlands||1994|
|Four Freedoms Award (Special Presentation)||United States / Netherlands||3 April 1995|
|Van Oldenbarneveltpenning of Rotterdam||Netherlands||2003|
|University||Field||City / Country||Date|
|University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro||Political science and Economics||Vila Real, Portugal||1989|
|Georgetown University||Law||Washington, D.C., United States||1993|
|Hankuk University of Foreign Studies||Political science||Seoul, South-Korea||1993|
|Grand Valley State University||Political science||Allendale, Michigan, United States||1994|
|Radboud University Nijmegen||Economics||Nijmegen, Netherlands||6 September 2004|
- "Longest-serving Dutch prime minister Ruud Lubbers dies". Agence France Presse. 15 February 2018.
- (in Dutch) Willem Drees gekozen tot ‘Dé premier na WO II’, Geschiedenis24.nl, 15 January 2006
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- "U.N. Official Quits in Harassment Case (washingtonpost.com)". www.washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 18 August 2018.
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- Geneva Press Conference 2005-10-10[permanent dead link]
- NewsMax.com 2005-02-23 Archived 2011-10-01 at the Wayback Machine
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- (in Dutch) Dr. R.F.M. (Ruud) Lubbers Parlement & Politiek
- (in Dutch) Drs. R.F.M. Lubbers Rijksoverheid
- (in Dutch) Kabinet-Lubbers I Rijksoverheid
- (in Dutch) Kabinet-Lubbers II Rijksoverheid
- (in Dutch) Kabinet-Lubbers III Rijksoverheid
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