Lviv Oblast (Ukrainian: Льві́вська о́бласть, romanized: Lvivska oblast, IPA: [ˈlʲʋʲiu̯sʲkɐ ˈɔbɫɐsʲtʲ]; Polish: Obwód lwowski), also referred to as Lvivshchyna (Ukrainian: Льві́вщина, IPA: [ˈlʲʋʲiu̯ʃt͡ʃɪnɐ]),[a] is an oblast in western Ukraine. The administrative center of the oblast is the city of Lviv. The current population is 2,478,133 (2022 est.).
|• Governor||Maksym Kozytskyy|
|• Oblast council||84 seats|
|• Chairperson||Oleksandr Hanushchyn|
|• Total||21,833 km2 (8,430 sq mi)|
|• Rank||Ranked 17th|
|Elevation||296 m (971 ft)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|ISO 3166 code||UA-46|
The region is named after the city of Lviv which was founded by Daniel of Galicia, the King of Ruthenia, in the 13th century, where it became the capital of Galicia-Volhynia. Daniel named the city after his son, Leo. During this time, the general region around Lviv was known as Red Ruthenia (Cherven' Rus').
The oblast's strategic position at the heart of central Europe and as the gateway to the Carpathians has caused it to change hands many times over the centuries. It was ruled variously by Great Moravia, Kievan Rus', Poland, was independent as the state of Galicia-Volhynia (circa 1200 to 1340), and then ruled by the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth (1340 to 1772), the Austro-Hungarian Empire (1772 to 1918), West Ukrainian People's Republic and Poland (1919 to 1939), when it was part of the Lwów Voivodeship of the Second Republic of Poland. The region's historically dominant Ukrainian population declared the area to be a part of an independent West Ukrainian National Republic in November 1918 — June 1919, but this endured only briefly. Local autonomy was provided in international treaties but later on those were not honoured by the Polish government and the area experienced much ethnic tension between the Polish and Ukrainian population.
It was occupied by Nazi Germany from 1941 to 1944 following the start of Operation Barbarossa, where most of the local Jewish population were killed. Following the end of World War II, the region remained in Soviet hands as was arranged in the Tehran and Yalta conferences. Local Poles were expelled and Ukrainians expelled from Poland arrived.
In 1959, Drohobych Oblast was incorporated into Lviv Oblast.
In Ukraine today, there are three provinces (oblasts) that formed the eastern part of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria. Two of these, Lviv Oblast and Ivano-Frankivsk Oblast were entirely contained in the kingdom; the third oblast of Ternopil was mainly in the kingdom apart from four of its most northerly counties (raions). The counties of the Kingdom of Galicia remained largely unchanged when they were incorporated into successor states; with minor changes as detailed below, the current counties are almost co-extensive with those of the Kingdom.
During the 2014 Euromaidan protests, the region is also notable for having declared independence from the central government led by Viktor Yanukovych who started to use active military force against protestors.
The terrain of Lviv Oblast is highly varied. The southern part is occupied by the low Beskyd (Ukrainian: Бескиди) mountain chains running parallel to each other from northwest to southeast and covered with secondary coniferous forests as part of the Eastern Carpathians; the highest point is Pikuy (1408 m). North from there are the wide upper Dniester river valley and much smaller upper San River valley. These rivers have flat bottoms covered with alluvial deposits, and are susceptible to floods. Between these valleys and Beskyd lies the Precarpathian upland covered with deciduous forests, with well-known mineral spa resorts (see Truskavets, Morshyn). It's also the area of one of the earliest industrial petroleum and gas extraction. These deposits are all but depleted by now.
In the central part of the region lie Roztocze, Opillia, and part of the Podolia uplands. Rich sulphur deposits were mined here during the Soviet era. Roztocze is densely forested, while Opillia and Podolia (being covered with loess on which fertile soils develop) are densely populated and mostly covered by arable land. In the central-north part of the region lies the Small Polesia lowland, geographically isolated from the rest of Polesia but with similar terrain and landscapes (flat plains with sandy fluvioglacial deposits and pine forests). The far North of the region lies on the Volhynia upland, which is also covered with loess; coal is mined in this area.
The climate of Lviv Oblast is moderately cool and humid. The average January temperatures range from −7 °C (19 °F) in the Carpathians to −3 °C (27 °F) in the Dniester and San River valleys while in July the average temperatures are from 14–15 °C (57–59 °F) in the Carpathians to 16–17 °C (61–63 °F) in Roztocze and 19 °C (66 °F) in the lower part of the Dniester valley. The average annual precipitation is 600–650 mm (23.62–25.59 in) in the lowlands, 650–750 mm (25.59–29.53 in) in the highlands and up to 1,000 mm (39.37 in) in the Carpathians, with the majority of precipitation occurring in summer. Prolonged droughts are uncommon, while strong rainfalls can cause floods in river valleys. Severe winds during storms can also cause damage, especially in the highlands. The climate is favourable for the cultivation of sugar beets, winter wheat, flax, rye, cabbage, apples, and for dairy farming. It is still too cold to successfully cultivate maize, sunflower, grapes, melon, watermelon or peaches in Lviv Oblast. In the Carpathians conditions are favourable for Alpine skiing 3–4 months a year.
- Chairmen of the Executive Committee
|Term start||Term end||Name||Year of birth||Year of death|
|March 1991||6 April 1992||Vyacheslav Chornovil||b. 1937||d. 1999|
|June 1994||July 1995||Mykola Horyn||b. 1945|
- Representative of the President
|Term start||Term end||Name||Year of birth|
|20 March 1992||June 1994||Stepan Davymuka||b. 1947|
- Heads of the Administration
|Term start||Term end||Name||Year of birth||Year of death|
|7 July 1995||6 Feb. 1997||Mykola Horyn||b. 1945|
|6 Feb. 1997||14 Jan. 1999||Mykhailo Hladiy||b. 1952|
|15 Jan. 1999||19 March 2001||Stepan Senchuk||b. 1955||d. 2005|
|26 March 2001||26 April 2002||Mykhailo Hladiy||b. 1952|
|26 April 2002||4 June 2003||Myron Yankiv||b. 1951|
|9 June 2003||20 Dec. 2004||Oleksandr Sendeha||b. 1953|
|20 Dec. 2004||4 Feb. 2005||Bohdan Matolych (acting)||b. 1955|
|4 Feb. 2005||20 Feb. 2008||Petro Oliynyk||b. 1957||d. 2011|
|20 Feb. 2008||27 Feb. 2008||Valery Pyatak (acting)||b. 1959|
|27 Feb. 2008||20 April 2010?||Kmit Mykola
(acting to 1 Sep 2008)
|20 April 2010||21 December 2010||Vasyl Horbal||b. 1971|
|21 December 2010||2 November 2011||Mykhailo Tsymbaliuk||b. 1964|
|2 November 2011||4 March 2013||Mykhailo Kostiuk||b. 1961|
|4 March 2013||31 October 2013||Viktor Shemchuk||b. 1970|
|31 October 2013||23 January 2014||Oleh Salo||b. 1968|
|2 March 2014||14 August 2014||Iryna Sekh||b. 1970|
|14 August 2014||26 December 2014||Yuriy Turyanskyi (acting)||b. 1975|
|26 December 2014||11 June 2019||Oleh Synyutka||b. 1970|
|11 June 2019||5 July 2019||Rostyslav Zamlynsky (acting)||b. 1976|
|5 July 2019||5 February 2020||Markiyan Malsky||b. 1984|
|5 February 2020||Maksym Kozytsky||b. 1984|
Lviv Oblast was administratively subdivided into 20 raions (districts), as well as 9 city (municipalities) which are directly subordinate to the oblast government: Boryslav, Chervonohrad, Drohobych, Morshyn, Novyi Rozdil, Sambir, Stryi, Truskavets, and the administrative center of the oblast, Lviv.
|Hromada (Громада)||Type||Center||Raion||Raion before 2020|
|Morshyn||urban||Morshyn||Stryi||city of Morshyn|
|Novyi Kalyniv||urban||Novyi Kalyniv||Sambir||Sambir|
|Novyi Rozdil||urban||Novyi Rozdil||Stryi||city of Novyi Rozdil|
|Sambir||urban||Sambir||Sambir||city of Sambir|
|Staryi Sambir||urban||Staryi Sambir||Sambir||Staryi Sambir|
|Stryi||urban||Stryi||Stryi||city of Stryi|
|Sudova Vyshnia||urban||Sudova Vyshnia||Yavoriv||Mostyska|
|Truskavets||urban||Truskavets||Drohobych||city of Truskavets|
|Velyki Mosty||urban||Velyki Mosty||Chervonohrad||Sokal|
|Velykyi Liubin||settlement||Velykyi Liubin||Lviv||Horodok|
|Zymna Voda||rural||Zymna Voda||Lviv||Pustomyty|
|In English||In Ukrainian||Administrative Center|
|Brody Raion||Бродівський район
|Busk Raion||Буський район
|Drohobych Raion||Дрогобицький район
|Horodok Raion||Городоцький район
|Kamianka-Buzka Raion||Кам'янка-Бузький район
|Mostyska Raion||Мостиський район
|Mykolaiv Raion||Миколаївський район
|Peremyshliany Raion||Перемишлянський район
|Pustomyty Raion||Пустомитівський район
|Radekhiv Raion||Радехівський район
|Sambir Raion||Самбірський район
|Skole Raion||Сколівський район
|Sokal Raion||Сокальський район
|Staryi Sambir Raion||Старосамбірський район
|Staryi Sambir |
|Stryi Raion||Стрийський район
|Turka Raion||Турківський район
|Yavoriv Raion||Яворівський район
|Zhovkva Raion||Жовківський район
|Zhydachiv Raion||Жидачівський район
|Zolochiv Raion||Золочівський район
- Male/female ratio: 48%/52%
- Nationalities (2001): 94.8% of the region's population are Ukrainians; 3.6% (or 92,600 people) are Russians; Poles account for 0.7%; there are also smaller German, Jewish and Romani minorities. Notably, the comparison of the 2001 Ukrainian census (mentioned above), with the last Soviet census of 1989 reveals that in those 12 years the number of Poles in the Lviv Oblast declined by 29.7 percent which, in the opinion of "Wspólnota Polska" Society defies explanation, and could possibly be attributed to the intensive Ukrainization of the Roman Catholic Church.
- 0-14 years: 15.7% (male 202,923/female 193,000)
- 15-64 years: 70.0% (male 867,699/female 897,788)
- 65 years and over: 14.3% (male 122,906/female 238,016) (2013 official)
- total: 38.0 years
- male: 35.2 years
- female: 40.9 years (2013 official)
Fifty-nine percent of the religious organisations active in the Lviv Oblast adhere to the Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. The Ukrainian Autocephalous Orthodox Church is the second largest religious body. The followers of the Roman Catholic Church and the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) are mostly from the Polish, and Russian or non-Galician Ukrainian minorities respectively.
Zhovkva. Temple of the Sacred Heart of Jesus
Church of Sts. Peter & Paul in Sokal
Church of Our Lady Protectress in Stryi
Church of St. Anna in Boryslav, the fifth largest city in Lviv Oblast
Church of the Blessed Eucharist, Klymets, Skole district
Zolochiv. The church of Assumption of the Holy Virgin (1731-1763)
Historical and cultural sitesEdit
The city of Lviv contains a well-preserved main square (Rynok) and numerous historical and beautiful churches. Other sites of interest are the historic Lychakivskiy Cemetery, the local museum of folklore, and the ruins of the famous Vysokyi Zamok. The name of the castle is closely tied to the name of the city. There is also a museum of military artifacts, the "Arsenal".
Well-preserved local wooden churches, castles, and monasteries can be found throughout the Oblast. One of them is the Olesko Castle which is first recorded in 1327. Another castle that was built at the end of the 15th century is Svirzh Castle in the village of Svirzh, Peremeshliany Raion. One more and no less famous castle is the Pidhirtsi Castle. Its architectural complex consists of the three-story palace, Kostel, and small park. In Roztochia is also located the Krekhivsky monastery in the buch[check spelling]-pine grove at the foot of the Pobiyna mount. The whole complex consists of the Saint Nikola Church, the bell tower, numerous service structures, and defensive walls with towers. Another site worth of mentioning is the Tustan city-fortress which is built in the rock. The site was nominated as the historical and as the natural wonder of Ukraine. There also a nature complex in the valley of the Kamianka river in Skoliv Raion. Another natural wonder of the region is the Kamin-Veleten (Rock-Giant in English) which is located near city of Pidkamin in Zolochiv Raion. The name of the local city means Under the Rock. A local museum of Ukrainian art and an institution of higher learning (Ivan Franko State University) are also present.
The most important research into cereal epidemics in the country is undertaken here. The National Academy of Agrarian Sciences of Ukraine's Institute of Agriculture in Obroshino is the center of study for cereal pathogens including powdery mildew of barley. In the early 2000s the most active researchers here were Olga Vronska and G. Kosilovich at the IoA. Puccinia recondita, Erysiphe graminis, (syn. Blumeria graminis) and various Pseudocercosporella spp. are present and are significant in winter wheat in this oblast.
Two introduced banded land snails, the Grove Snail (Cepaea nemoralis) and White-Lipped Snail (C. hortensis) are found here. C. n. was intentionally brought here in the late 1800s, but the genetic analysis of Gural-Sverlova et al., 2021 shows continued introductions have also occurred ever since. (The geographic distribution of both suggests they arrive through the gardening trade, as is known from other countries.) This analysis shows several distinct arrivals of C. n. yielding several present-day populations in and around Lviv.
- Most of Ukraine's oblasts are named after their capital cities, officially referred to as "oblast centers" (Ukrainian: обласни́й це́нтр, romanized: oblasnýi céntr, IPA: [obɫɐsˈnɪj ˈt͡sɛntr]). The name of each oblast is a relational adjective—in English translating to a noun adjunct which otherwise serves the same function—formed by adding a feminine suffix to the name of the respective center city: Lʹvív is the center of the Lʹvívsʹka óblastʹ (Lviv Oblast). Most oblasts are also sometimes referred to in a feminine noun form, following the convention of traditional regional place names, ending with the suffix "-shchyna", as is the case with the Lviv Oblast, Lvivshchyna.
- Zelensky introduces new head of Lviv Regional State Administration, Ukrinform (6 February 2020)
- Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2022] (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine.
- Ukraine Facing Civil War: Lviv Declares Independence from Yanukovich Rule
- WorldClimate.com (Data for L'viv)
- Lviv, worldstatesmen.org
- Yanukovych appoints ex-Ukrzaliznytsia head Kostiuk governor of Lviv region, Kyiv Post (2 November 2011)
- Horbal appointed Lviv regional governor, Kyiv Post (April 20, 2010)
- Gryshchenko introduces new Lviv regional governor to local officials, Kyiv Post (4 March 2013)
- Yanukovych appoints Salo as governor of Lviv region, UKRINFORM (23 January 2014)
- Lviv governor Salo resigns – mass media, Unian (23 January 2013)
- Poroshenko dismisses Sekh as Lviv region governor, appoints Turiansky as acting governor, kyivpost.com (15 August 2014)
- Державний комітет статистики України (2004). "Національний склад населення / Львівська область" [Ukrainian Census, Lviv Oblast]. Internet Archive. Archived from the original on September 26, 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Polonia w opracowaniach (2013). "Zmiany w liczebności ludności polskiej na Ukrainie w okresie 1989-2001" [Changes in the number of Poles in Ukraine in the period between 1989 and 2001]. Polacy na Ukrainie. Stowarzyszenie "Wspólnota Polska". Archived from the original on 2013-12-15. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Deising, H. B. (2009). Plant Relationships. The Mycota. Vol. 5. Berlin: Springer Nature Switzerland. ISBN 978-3-540-87407-2. OCLC 318545655. ISBN 978-3-540-87406-5. ISBN 978-3-642-09952-6.: 63
- Brown, James K. M.; Hovmøller, Mogens S. (2002-07-26). "Aerial Dispersal of Pathogens on the Global and Continental Scales and Its Impact on Plant Disease". Science. American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS). 297 (5581): 537–541. Bibcode:2002Sci...297..537B. doi:10.1126/science.1072678. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 12142520. S2CID 4207803.
- Zhan, Jiasui; Thrall, Peter H.; Papaïx, Julien; Xie, Lianhui; Burdon, Jeremy J. (2015-08-04). "Playing on a Pathogen's Weakness: Using Evolution to Guide Sustainable Plant Disease Control Strategies". Annual Review of Phytopathology. Annual Reviews. 53 (1): 19–43. doi:10.1146/annurev-phyto-080614-120040. ISSN 0066-4286. PMID 25938275.
- Hovmøller, Mogens S.; Caffier, Valérie; Jalli, Marja (2000). "The European barley powdery mildew virulence survey and disease nursery 1993-1999" (PDF). Agronomie. EDP Sciences. 20 (7): 729–743. doi:10.1051/agro:2000172. ISSN 0249-5627. HAL Id: 00886083.
- "Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus". Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International). 2019-11-24. Retrieved 2021-05-07.
- Lisovoy, M. P.; Parphenyuk, A. I. (1997). "Pathogenicity of Puccinia recondita, Erysiphe graminis and Pseudocercosporella spp. in the Ukraine and sources of group resistance of the winter wheat to these pathogens". Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection. Taylor & Francis. 31 (1): 45–49. doi:10.1080/03235409709383215. ISSN 0323-5408.
- Gural-Sverlova, Nina; Egorov, Roman; Kruglova, Oksana; Kovalevich, Natalia; Gural, Roman (2021-09-27). "Introduced land snail Cepaea nemoralis (Gastropoda: Helicidae) in Eastern Europe: spreading history and the shell colouration variability". Malacologica Bohemoslovaca. Masaryk University Press. 20: 75–91. doi:10.5817/mab2021-20-75. ISSN 1336-6939. S2CID 244209896. ORCIDs: (NVGS 0000-0002-3892-5338). (RE 0000-0002-1955-1756). (OK 0000-0003-0049-412X). (RIG 0000-0002-1546-1956).
- Gural-Sverlova, Nina V.; Gural, Roman I.; Rodych, T. V. (2021). "Shell Banding and Color Polymorphism of the Introduced Snail Cepaea nemoralis (Gastropoda, Helicidae) in Lviv, Western Ukraine". Zoodiversity. National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine. 55 (1): 51–62. doi:10.15407/zoo2021.01.051. ISSN 2707-725X. S2CID 234113827. ORCIDs: (NVGS 0000-0002-3892-5338). (RIG 0000-0002-1546-1956).
- Source for statistics used: L'viv Regional State Administration Web Site – accessed February 29, 2004.
Media related to Lviv Oblast at Wikimedia Commons