|Part of the Ukrainian crisis|
Clockwise from top left: A large EU flag is waved across Maidan on 27 November 2013, opposition activist and popular singer Ruslana addresses the crowds on Maidan on 29 November 2013, Pro EU rally on Maidan, Euromaidan on European Square on 1 December, tree decorated with flags and posters, crowds direct hose at militsiya, plinth of the toppled Lenin statue
|Date||21 November 2013 – 23 February 2014|
(Minor protests went on until 2 December 2014)
|Caused by||Main catalyst:
|Methods||Demonstrations, Internet activism, civil disobedience, civil resistance, hacktivism, occupation of administrative buildings[nb 1]|
|Parties to the civil conflict|
During the Euromaidan, there were protests and clashes with police throughout Ukraine, especially at the Maidan (central square) in Kiev, which was occupied and barricaded by protesters, along with some administrative buildings, including Kiev City State Administration. On 8 December the crowd toppled a Lenin statue nearby. Protests and clashes increased in January, after the Ukrainian parliament passed a group of anti-protest laws. Protesters occupied government buildings in many regions of Ukraine. The protests climaxed in mid-February. Riot police advanced towards Maidan and clashed with protesters but did not fully occupy it. Police and activists fired live and rubber ammunition at multiple locations in Kiev. There was fierce fighting in Kiev on 18–20 February, (see List of people killed during Euromaidan). As a result of these events, the Agreement on settlement of political crisis in Ukraine was signed on 21 February 2014 by the President of Ukraine Viktor Yanukovych and the leaders of the parliamentary opposition (Vitaly Klitschko, Arseny Yatsenyuk, Oleh Tyahnybok) under the mediation of the European Union and the Russian Federation. The signing was witnessed by the Foreign Ministers of Germany and Poland, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, Radosław Sikorski, respectively, and the Director of the Continental Europe Department of the French Foreign Ministry, Eric Fournier. Vladimir Lukin, representing Russia, refused to sign the agreement.
Shortly after the agreement was signed, Yanukovych and other high government officials fled the country. Protesters gained control of the presidential administration and Yanukovych's private estate. Afterwards, the parliament removed Yanukovych from office, replaced the government with Oleksandr Turchynov, and ordered that former Prime Minister Yulia Tymoshenko be released from prison. Events in Kiev were soon followed by the Crimean crisis and pro-Russian unrest in Eastern Ukraine. Despite the ousting of Yanukovych, the installation of a new government, and the adoption of the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement's political provisions, the protests have sustained pressure on the government to reject Russian influence in Ukraine.
The demonstrations began on the night of 21 November 2013, when protests erupted in the capital, Kyiv, after the Ukrainian government suspended preparations for signing the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement with the European Union, to seek closer economic relations with Russia. On 24 November 2013, clashes between protesters and police began. Protesters strived to break cordon. Police used tear gas and batons. Protesters also used tear gas and some fire crackers (according to the police, protesters were the first to use them). After a few days of demonstrations an increasing number of university students joined the protests. The Euromaidan has been characterised as an event of major political symbolism for the European Union itself, particularly as "the largest ever pro-European rally in history."
The protests continued despite heavy police presence, regularly sub-freezing temperatures, and snow. Escalating violence from government forces in the early morning of 30 November caused the level of protests to rise, with 400,000–800,000 protesters, according to Russia's opposition politician Boris Nemtsov, demonstrating in Kiev on the weekends of 1 December and 8 December. In the preceding weeks, protest attendance had fluctuated from 50,000 to 200,000 during organised rallies. Violent riots took place 1 December and 19 January through 25 January in response to police brutality and government repression. Starting 23 January, several Western Ukrainian Oblast (province) Governor buildings and regional councils were occupied in a revolt by Euromaidan activists. In the Russophone cities of Zaporizhzhya, Sumy, and Dnipropetrovsk, protesters also tried to take over their local government building, and were met with considerable force from both police and government supporters.
According to journalist Lecia Bushak writing in 18 February 2014 issue of Newsweek magazine,
EuroMaidan [had] grown into something far bigger than just an angry response to the fallen-through EU deal. It's now about ousting Yanukovych and his corrupt government; guiding Ukraine away from its 200-year-long, deeply intertwined and painful relationship with Russia; and standing up for basic human rights to protest, speak and think freely and to act peacefully without the threat of punishment.
A turning point came in late February, when enough members of the president's party fled or defected for the party to lose its majority in parliament, leaving the opposition large enough to form the necessary quorum. This allowed parliament to pass a series of laws that removed police from Kiev, cancelled anti-protest operations, restored the 2004 constitution, freed political detainees, and removed President Yanukovych from office. Yanukovych then fled to Ukraine's second largest city of Kharkiv, refusing to recognise the parliament's decisions. The parliament assigned early elections for May 2014.
In early 2019, a Ukrainian court found Yanukovych guilty of treason. Yanukovych was also charged with asking Vladimir Putin to send Russian troops to invade Ukraine after he had fled the country. The charges will have little real effect on Yanukovych, 68, who has lived in exile in the Russian city of Rostov since fleeing Ukraine under armed guard nearly five years ago.
The term "Euromaidan" was initially used as a hashtag of Twitter. A Twitter account named Euromaidan was created on the first day of the protests. It soon became popular in the international media. The name is composed of two parts: "Euro" is short for Europe and "maidan" refers to Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square), the large square in the downtown of Kiev, where the protests mostly took place. The word "Maidan" is a Turkish word meaning "square" or "open space" adopted by Ukrainians from the Ottoman Empire. During the protests, the word "Maidan" acquired meaning as a revolution and overthrow of the government.
On 30 March 2012 the European Union (EU) and Ukraine initiated an Association Agreement; however, the EU leaders later stated that the agreement would not be ratified unless Ukraine addressed concerns over a "stark deterioration of democracy and the rule of law", including the imprisonment of Yulia Tymoshenko and Yuriy Lutsenko in 2011 and 2012.[nb 7] In the months leading up to the protests Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych urged the parliament to adopt laws so that Ukraine would meet the EU's criteria. On 25 September 2013 Chairman of the Verkhovna Rada (Ukraine's parliament) Volodymyr Rybak stated he was sure that his parliament would pass all the laws needed to fit the EU criteria for the Association Agreement since, except for the Communist Party of Ukraine, "The Verkhovna Rada has united around these bills." According to Pavlo Klimkin, one of the Ukrainian negotiators of the Association Agreement, initially "the Russians simply did not believe (the association agreement with the EU) could come true. They didn't believe in our ability to negotiate a good agreement and didn't believe in our commitment to implement a good agreement."
In mid-August 2013 Russia changed its customs regulations on imports from Ukraine such that on 14 August 2013, the Russian Custom Service stopped all goods coming from Ukraine and prompted politicians and sources to view the move as the start of a trade war against Ukraine to prevent Ukraine from signing a trade agreement with the European Union. Ukrainian Industrial Policy Minister Mykhailo Korolenko stated on 18 December 2013 that because of this Ukraine's exports had dropped by $1.4 billion (or a 10% year-on-year decrease through the first 10 months of the year). The State Statistics Service of Ukraine reported in November 2013 that in comparison with the same months of 2012, industrial production in Ukraine in October 2013 had fallen by 4.9 percent, in September 2013 by 5.6 percent, and in August 2013 by 5.4 percent (and that the industrial production in Ukraine in 2012 total had fallen by 1.8 percent).
On 21 November 2013 a Ukrainian government decree suspended preparations for signing of the association agreement. The reason given was that the previous months Ukraine had experienced "a drop in industrial production and our relations with CIS countries".[nb 8] The government also assured "Ukraine will resume preparing the agreement when the drop in industrial production and our relations with CIS countries are compensated by the European market." According to Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov "the extremely harsh conditions" of an IMF loan (presented by the IMF on 20 November 2013), which included big budget cuts and a 40% increase in gas bills, had been the last argument in favour of the Ukrainian government's decision to suspend preparations for signing the Association Agreement. On 7 December 2013 the IMF clarified that it was not insisting on a single-stage increase in natural gas tariffs in Ukraine by 40%, but recommended that they be gradually raised to an economically justified level while compensating the poorest segments of the population for the losses from such an increase by strengthening targeted social assistance. The same day IMF Resident Representative in Ukraine Jerome Vacher stated that this particular IMF loan is worth US$4 billion and that it would be linked with "policy, which would remove disproportions and stimulate growth".[nb 9]
President Yanukovych attended the 28–29 November 2013 EU summit in Vilnius (where originally it was planned that the Association Agreement would be signed on 29 November 2013), but the Association Agreement was not signed. Both Yanukovych and high level EU officials signalled that they wanted to sign the Association Agreement at a later date.
In an interview with Lally Weymouth, Ukrainian billionaire businessman and opposition leader Petro Poroshenko said: "From the beginning, I was one of the organizers of the Maidan. My television channel—Channel 5—played a tremendously important role. ... On the 11th of December, when we had [U.S. Assistant Secretary of State] Victoria Nuland and [E.U. diplomat] Catherine Ashton in Kiev, during the night they started to storm the Maidan."
On 11 December 2013 the Prime Minister, Mykola Azarov, said he had asked for 20 Billion Euros (US$27) in loans and aid to offset the cost of the EU deal. The EU was willing to offer 610 million euros (838 million US) in loans, however Russia was willing to offer 15 billion US in loans. Russia also offered Ukraine cheaper gas prices. As a condition for the loans, the EU required major changes to the regulations and laws in Ukraine. Russia did not.
Public opinion about EuromaidanEdit
According to December 2013 polls (by three different pollsters) between 45% and 50% of Ukrainians supported Euromaidan, while between 42% and 50% opposed it. The biggest support for the protest can be found in Kiev (about 75%) and western Ukraine (more than 80%). Among Euromaidan protesters, 55% were from the west of the country, with 24% from central Ukraine and 21% from the east.
In a poll taken on 7–8 December, 73% of protesters had committed to continue protesting in Kiev as long as needed until their demands were fulfilled. This number had increased to 82% as of 3 February 2014. Polls also showed that the nation was divided in age: while a majority of young people were pro-EU, older generations (50 and above) more often preferred the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia. More than 41% of protesters were ready to take part in the seizure of administrative buildings as of February, compared to 13 and 19 percent during polls on 10 and 20 December 2013. At the same time, more than 50 percent were ready to take part in the creation of independent military units, compared to 15 and 21 percent during the past studies, respectively.
According to a January poll, 45% of Ukrainians supported the protests, and 48% of Ukrainians disapproved of Euromaidan.
In a March poll, 57% of Ukrainians said they supported the Euromaidan protests.
A study conducted at Harvard University examining public opinion in regular and social media found that 74% of Russian speakers in Ukraine supported the Euromaidan movement, and a quarter opposed.
Public opinion about joining the EUEdit
According to an August 2013 study by a Donetsk company, Research & Branding Group, 49% of Ukrainians supported signing the Association Agreement, while 31% opposed it and the rest had not decided yet. However, in a December poll by the same company, only 30% claimed that terms of the Association agreement would be beneficial for the Ukrainian economy, while 39% said they were unfavourable for Ukraine. In the same poll, only 30% said the opposition would be able to stabilise the society and govern the country well, if coming to power, while 37% disagreed.
Authors of the GfK Ukraine poll conducted 2–15 October 2013 claim that 45% of respondents believed Ukraine should sign an Association Agreement with the EU, whereas only 14% favoured joining the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and 15% preferred non-alignment. Full text of the EU-related question asked by GfK reads, "Should Ukraine sign the EU-Ukraine Association Agreement, and, in the future, become an EU member?"
Another poll conducted in November by IFAK Ukraine for DW-Trend showed 58% of Ukrainians supporting the country's entry into the European Union. On the other hand, a November 2013 poll by Kyiv International Institute of Sociology showed 39% supporting the country's entry into the European Union and 37% supporting Ukraine's accession to the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan and Russia.
In December 2013, then Prime Minister of Ukraine Mykola Azarov refuted the pro-EU poll numbers claiming that many polls posed questions about Ukraine joining the EU, and that Ukraine had never been invited to join the Union, but only to sign the Association Agreement.
Comparison with the Orange RevolutionEdit
The pro-European Union protests are Ukraine's largest since the Orange Revolution of 2004, which saw Yanukovych forced to resign as prime minister over allegations of voting irregularities. Although comparing the 2013 events in the same East-West vector as 2004, with Ukraine remaining "a key geopolitical prize in eastern Europe" for Russia and the EU, The Moscow Times noted that Yanukovych's government was in a significantly stronger position following his election in 2010. The Financial Times said the 2013 protests were "largely spontaneous, sparked by social media, and have caught Ukraine's political opposition unprepared" compared to their well-organised predecessors. The hashtag #euromaidan (Ukrainian #євромайдан, Russian #евромайдан), emerged immediately on the first meeting of the protests and was highly useful as a communication instrument for protesters. Vitali Klitschko wrote in a tweet "Friends! All those who came to Maydan [Independence Square], well done! Who has not done it yet – join us now!" The protest hashtag also gained traction on the VKontakte social media network, and Klitschko tweeted a link to a speech he made on the square saying that once the protest was 100,000-strong, "we'll go for Yanukovych" – referring to President Viktor Yanukovych.
In an interview, opposition leader Yuriy Lutsenko, when asked if the current opposition was weaker than it was in 2004, argued that the opposition was stronger because the stakes were higher, "I asked each [of the opposition leaders]: 'Do you realise that this is not a protest? It is a revolution [...] we have two roads – we go to prison or we win.'"
Paul Robert Magocsi illustrated the effect of the Orange Revolution on Euromaidan, saying,
Was the Orange Revolution a genuine revolution? Yes it was. And we see the effects today. The revolution wasn't a revolution of the streets or a revolution of (political) elections; it was a revolution of the minds of people, in the sense that for the first time in a long time, Ukrainians and people living in territorial Ukraine saw the opportunity to protest and change their situation. This was a profound change in the character of the population of the former Soviet Union.
This is a revolution of the generation that we call the contemporaries of Ukraine's independence (who were born around the time of 1991); it is more similar to the Occupy Wall Street protests or those in Istanbul demonstrations (of this year). It's a revolution of young people who are very educated, people who are active in social media, who are mobile and 90 percent of whom have university degrees, but who don't have futures.
According to Hrytsak: "Young Ukrainians resemble young Italians, Czech, Poles, or Germans more than they resemble Ukrainians who are 50 and older. This generation has a stronger desire for European integration and fewer regional divides than their seniors." In a Kyiv International Institute of Sociology poll taken in September, joining the European Union was mostly supported by young Ukrainians (69.8% of those aged 18 to 29), higher than the national average of 43.2% support. A November 2013 poll by the same institute found the same result with 70.8% aged 18 to 29 wanting to join the European Union while 39.7% was the national average of support. An opinion poll by GfK conducted 2–15 October found that among respondents aged 16–29 with a position on integration, 73% favoured signing an Association Agreement with the EU, while only 45% of those over the age of 45 favoured Association. The lowest support for European integration was among people with incomplete secondary and higher education.
Escalation to violenceEdit
The movement started peacefully but later protesters felt justified in using violence after the government's crackdown on protesters which happened during the night of 30 November 2013. The Associated Press said on 19 February:
The latest bout of street violence began Tuesday when protesters attacked police lines and set fires outside parliament, accusing Yanukovych of ignoring their demands to enact constitutional reforms that would limit the president's power—a key opposition demand. Parliament, dominated by his supporters, was stalling on taking up a constitutional reform to limit presidential powers.
Police responded by attacking the protest camp. Armed with water cannons, stun grenades and rubber bullets, police dismantled some barricades. But the protesters held their ground through the night, encircling the protest camp with new burning barricades of tires, furniture and debris.
In the early stages of Euromaidan, there was discussion about whether the Euromaidan movement constituted a revolution – or a staged 'Colour Revolution' by outside forces. At the time many protest leaders (such as Oleh Tyahnybok) had already used this term frequently when addressing the public. Tyahnybok called in an official 2 December press release for police officers and members of the military to defect to 'the Ukrainian revolution'.
In a Skype interview with media analyst Andrij Holovatyj, Vitaly Portnikov, Council Member of the "Maidan" National Alliance and President and Editor-in-Chief of the Ukrainian television channel TVi, stated "EuroMaidan is a revolution and revolutions can drag on for years" and that "what is happening in Ukraine goes much deeper. It is changing the national fabric of Ukraine."
Media outlets in the region dubbed the movement, Eurorevolution (Ukrainian: Єврореволюція). On 10 December Yanukovych said "Calls for a revolution pose a threat to national security." Former Georgian president Mikhail Saakashvili has described the movement as "the first geopolitical revolution of the 21st century".
Political expert Anders Åslund commented on this aspect:
Revolutionary times have their own logic that is very different from the logic of ordinary politics, as writers from Alexis de Tocqueville to Crane Brinton have taught. The first thing to understand about Ukraine today is that it has entered a revolutionary stage. Like it or not, we had better deal with the new environment rationally.
On 29 November, a formal resolution by protest organisers made the following demands.:
- The formation of a co-ordinating committee to communicate with the European community.
- A statement indicating that the president, parliament, and the Cabinet of Ministers aren't capable of carrying out a geopolitically strategic course of development for the state and demanding Yanukovych's resignation.
- The cessation of political repressions against EuroMaidan activists, students, civic activists and opposition leaders.
The resolution stated that on 1 December, on the 22nd anniversary of Ukraine's independence referendum, that the group will gather at noon on Independence Square to announce their further course of action.
After the forced police dispersal of all protesters from Maidan Nezalezhnosti on the night of 30 November, the dismissal of Minister of Internal Affairs Vitaliy Zakharchenko became one of the protesters' main demands.
On 5 December Batkivshchyna faction leader Arseniy Yatsenyuk stated,
Our three demands to the Verkhovna Rada and the president remained unchanged: the resignation of the government; the release of all political prisoners, first and foremost; [the release of former Ukrainian Prime Minister] Yulia Tymoshenko; and [the release of] nine individuals [who were illegally convicted after being present at a rally on Bankova Street on December 1]; the suspension of all criminal cases; and the arrest of all Berkut officers who were involved in the illegal beating up of children on Maidan Nezalezhnosti.
The opposition also demanded that the government resumed negotiations with the IMF for a loan that they saw as key to helping Ukraine "through economic troubles that have made Yanukovych lean toward Russia".
Timeline of the eventsEdit
The Euromaidan protest movement began late at night on 21 November 2013, as a peaceful protest.
Riots in KievEdit
On 30 November 2013, the protests were dispersed violently by the Berkut riot police units, sparking riots the following day in Kiev. On 1 December 2013, protesters reoccupied the square and through December further clashes with the authorities and political ultimatums by the opposition ensued. This culminated in a series of anti-protest laws by the government on 16 January 2014, and further rioting on Hrushevskoho Street. Early February 2014 saw a bombing of the Trade Unions Building, as well as the formation of "Self Defense" teams by protesters.
1 December 2013 riotsEdit
11 December 2013 assaultEdit
2014 Hrushevskoho Street riotsEdit
On 19 January, a Sunday mass protest, the ninth in a row, took place gathering up to 200,000 in central Kiev to protest against the new anti-protest laws, dubbed the Dictatorship laws. Many protesters ignored the face concealment ban by wearing party masks, hard hats and gas masks. Opposition leader Vitali Klitschko appeared covered with powder after he was sprayed with a fire extinguisher. Riot police and government supporters cornered a group of people who were trying to seize government buildings. The number of riot police on Hrushevskoho Street increased after buses and army trucks showed up. The latter resulted in the buses being burned as a barricade. The next day, a clean-up began in Kiev. On 22 January, more violence erupted in Kiev. This resulted in 8–9 people dead.
2014 Ukrainian revolutionEdit
After a series of violent events towards protesters in Kiev leaving 100 of them dead President Yanukovych signed the Agreement on settlement of political crisis in Ukraine. The next day he fled the country and was removed from office by the Rada on 22 February 2014.
Protests across UkraineEdit
|Bila Tserkva||2,000+||24 Jan|||
|Vinnytsia||5,000||8 Dec 22 Jan|||
|Kirovohrad||1,000||8 Dec 24 Jan|||
|Kryvyi Rih||1,000||1 Dec|||
|Luhansk||1,000||8 Dec|||
A 24 November protest in Ivano-Frankivsk saw several thousand protestors gather at the regional administration building. No classes were held in the universities of western Ukrainian cities such as Lviv, Ivano-Frankivsk and Uzhhorod. Protests also took place in other large Ukrainian cities: Kharkiv, Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Luhansk, Lviv, and Uzhhorod. The rally in Lviv in support of the integration of Ukraine into the EU was initiated by the students of local universities. This rally saw 25–30 thousand protesters gather on Prospect Svobody (Freedom Avenue) in Lviv. The organisers planned to continue this rally 'till the 3rd Eastern Partnership summit in Vilnius, Lithuania, on 28–29 November 2013. A rally in Simferopol, which drew around 300, saw nationalists and Crimean Tatars unite to support European integration; the protesters sang both the Ukrainian national anthem and the anthem of the Ukrainian Sich Riflemen.
7 people were injured after a tent encampment in Dnipropetrovsk was ordered cleared by court order on 25 November and it appeared that thugs had undertaken to perform the clearance. Officials estimated the number of attackers to be 10–15, and police did not intervene in the attacks. Similarly, police in Odessa ignored calls to stop the demolition of Euromaidan camps in the city by a group of 30, and instead removed all parties from the premises. 50 police officers and men in plain clothes also drove out a Euromaidan protest in Chernihiv the same day.
On 25 November, in Odessa, 120 police raided and destroyed a tent encampment made by protesters at 5:20 in the morning. The police detained three of the protesters, including the leader of the Odessa branch of Democratic Alliance, Alexei Chorny. All three were beaten in the police vehicle and then taken to the Portofrankovsk Police Station without their arrival being recorded. The move came after the District Administrative Court hours earlier issued a ban restricting citizens' right to peaceful assembly until New Year. The court ruling places a blanket ban on all demonstrations, the use of tents, sound equipment and vehicles until the end of the year.
On 26 November, a rally of 50 was held in Donetsk.
On 28 November, a rally was held in Yalta; university faculty who attended were pressured to resign by university officials.
On 29 November, Lviv protesters numbered some 20,000. Like in Kiev, they locked hands in a human chain, symbolically linking Ukraine to the European Union (organisers claimed that some 100 people even crossed the Ukrainian-Polish border to extend the chain to the European Union).
On 1 December, the largest rally outside of Kiev took place in Lviv by the statue of Taras Shevchenko, where over 50,000 protesters attended. Mayor Andriy Sadovy, council chairman Peter Kolody, and prominent public figures and politicians were in attendance. An estimated 300 rallied in the eastern city of Donetsk demanding that President Viktor Yanukovych and the government of Prime Minister Mykola Azarov resign. Meanwhile, in Kharkiv, thousands rallied with writer Serhiy Zhadan, during a speech, calling for revolution. The protest was peaceful. Protesters claimed at least 4,000 attended, with other sources saying 2,000. In Dnipropetrovsk, 1,000 gathered to protest the EU agreement suspension, show solidarity with those in Kiev, and demand the resignation of local and metropolitan officials. They later marched, shouting "Ukraine is Europe" and "Revolution". EuroMaidan protests were also held in Simferopol (where 150–200 attended), and Odessa.
On 2 December, in an act of solidarity, Lviv Oblast declared a general strike to mobilise support for protests in Kiev, which was followed by the formal order of a general strike by the cities of Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk.
In Dnipropetrovsk on 3 December, a group of 300 protested in favour of European integration and demanded the resignation of local authorities, heads of local police units, and the Security Service of Ukraine (SBU).
On 7 December it was reported that police were prohibiting those from Ternopil and Ivano-Frankivsk from driving to Kiev.
Protests on 8 December saw record turnout in many Ukrainian cities, including several in eastern Ukraine. On the evening, the fall of the monument to Lenin in Kiev took place. The statue made out of stone was completely hacked to pieces by jubilant demonstrators.
The removal or destruction of Lenin monuments and statues gained particular momentum after the destruction of the Kyiv Lenin statue. Under the motto "Ленінопад" (Leninopad, translated into English as "Leninfall"), activists pulled down a dozen monuments in the Kyiv region, Zhytomyr, Chmelnitcki, and elsewhere, or damaged them during the course of the EuroMaidan protests into spring of 2014. In other cities and towns, monuments were removed by organised heavy equipment and transported to scrapyards or dumps.
On 14 December, Euromaidan supporters in Kharkiv voiced their disapproval of authorities fencing off Freedom Square from the public by covering the metal fence in placards. They have since 5 December been the victims of theft and arson. A Euromaidan activist in Kharkiv was attacked by two men and stabbed twelve times. The assailants were unknown but activists told the Kharkiv-based civic organisation Maidan that they believe the city's mayor, Gennady Kernes, to be behind the attack.
On 22 December, 2,000 rallied in Dnipropetrovsk.
In late December, 500 marched in Donetsk. Due to the regime's hegemony in the city, foreign commentators have suggested that, "For 500 marchers to assemble in Donetsk is the equivalent of 50,000 in Lviv or 500,000 in Kiev." On 5 January, marches in support of Euromaidan were held in Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Odessa, and Kharkiv; the latter three drawing several hundred and Donetsk only 100.
On 11 January 150 activists met in Kharkiv for a general forum on uniting the nationwide Euromaidan efforts. A church where some were meeting was stormed by over a dozen thugs, and others attacked meetings in a book store; smashing windows and deploying tear gas to stop the Maidan meetings from taking place.
On 22 January in Donetsk, two simultaneous rallies were held – one pro-Euromaidan and one pro-government. The pro-government rally attracted 600 attendees to about 100 from the Euromaidan side. Police reports claimed 5,000 attended to support the government, to only 60 from Euromaidan. In addition, approximately 150 titushky appeared and encircled the Euromaidan protesters with megaphones and began a conflict, burning wreaths and Svoboda Party flags, and shouted "down with fascists!", but were separated by police. Meanwhile, Donetsk City Council pleaded with the government to take tougher measures against Euromaidan protesters in Kiev. Reports indicated a media blackout took place in Donetsk.
In Lviv on 22 January, amid the police shootings of protesters in the capital, military barracks were surrounded by protesters. Many of the protesters included mothers whose sons are serving in the military, and pleaded with them not to deploy to Kiev.
In Vinnytsia on 22 January thousands protesters blocked the main street of the city and the traffic. Also, they brought "democracy in coffin" to the city hall, as a present to Yanukovych. 23 January Odessa city council member and Euromaidan activist Oleksandr Ostapenko's car was bombed. The Mayor of Sumy threw his support behind the Euromaidan movement on 24 January, laying blame for the civil disorder in Kiev on the Party of Regions and Communists.
The Crimean parliament repeatedly stated that because of the events in Kiev it was ready to join autonomous Crimea to Russia. On 27 February armed men seized the Crimean parliament and raised the Russian flag. 27 February was latter declared a day of celebration for the Russian Spetsnaz special forces by Vladimir Putin by presidential decree.
In the beginning of March, thousands of Crimean Tatars in support of Euromaidan clashed with pro-Russian protesters in Simferopol.
On 4 March 2014, a mass pro-Euromaidan rally was held in Donetsk for the first time. About 2,000 people were there. Donetsk is a major city in the far east of Ukraine and serves as Yanukovych's stronghold and the base of his supporters. On 5 March 2014, 7,000–10,000 people rallied in support of Euromaidan in the same place. After a leader declared the rally over, a fight broke out between pro-Euromaidan and 2,000 pro-Russian protesters.
Occupation of administrative buildingsEdit
Starting on 23 January, several Western Ukrainian Oblast (province) Governor buildings and regional councils (RSA's[nb 10]) were occupied by Euromaidan activists. Several RSA's of the occupied oblasts then decided to ban the activities and symbols of the Communist Party of Ukraine and Party of Regions in their oblast. In the cities Zaporizhzhya, Dnipropetrovsk and Odessa protesters also tried to take over their local RSA.
Protests outside UkraineEdit
Smaller protests or Euromaidans have been held internationally, primarily among the larger Ukrainian diaspora populations in North America and Europe. The largest took place on 8 December in New York, with over 1,000 attending. Notably, in December 2013, Warsaw's Palace of Culture and Science, Buffalo Electric Vehicle Company Tower in Buffalo, Cira Centre in Philadelphia, the Tbilisi City Hall in Georgia, and Niagara Falls on the US/Canada border were illuminated in blue and yellow as a symbol of solidarity with Ukraine.
Antimaidan and pro-government ralliesEdit
Pro-government rallies during Euromaidan have largely been credited as funded by the government. Several news outlets have investigated the claims to confirm that by and large, attendees at pro-government rallies do so for financial compensation and not for political reasons, and are not an organic response to the Euromaidan. "People stand at Euromaidan protesting against the violation of human rights in the state, and they are ready to make sacrifices," said Oleksiy Haran, a political scientist at Kyiv Mohyla Academy in Kiev. "People at Antimaidan stand for money only. The government uses these hirelings to provoke resistance. They won't be sacrificing anything."
Automaidan was a movement within the Euromaidan, that sought the resignation of the Ukrainian president Viktor Yanukovych. It was made up mainly of drivers who would protect the protest camps and blockade streets. It organised a car procession on 29 December 2013 to the president's residence in Mezhyhirya to voice their protests at his refusal to sign the Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement in December 2013. The motorcade was stopped a couple of hundred metres short of his residence. Automaidan was the repeated target of violent attacks by government forces and supporters.
This section needs to be updated.July 2015)(
On 30 November 2013, the day after the dispersion of Euromaidan, Euromaidan organisers, aided by groups such as Svoboda, created "Self-defence of the Maidan" – their own police force for protecting protesters from police and providing security within the city. Head of Self-defence is Andriy Parubiy.
The groups are divided up into sotnias, or 'hundreds', which have been described as a "force that is providing the tip of the spear in the violent showdown with government security forces". The sotni take their name from a traditional form of Cossacks cavalry formation, and were also used in the Ukrainian People's Army, Ukrainian Insurgent Army, Ukrainian National Army etc.
Along with Mr. Parubiy's force, there are some "independent" divisions of enforcers (some of them are also referred to as sotnias and even self-defence), like the security of the Trade Unions Building until 2 January 2014, Narnia and Vikings from Kiev City State Administration, Volodymr Parasyuk's sotnia from Conservatory building, etc. Mr. Parubiy officially asked such divisions to not call themselves Self-defence.
Pravy Sektor coordinates its actions with Self-defence and is formally a 23-rd sotnia, although already had hundreds of members at the time of registering as a sotnia. Second sotnia (staffed by Svoboda's members) tends to dissociate itself from "sotnias of self-defence of Maidan".
The first of major casualties occurred on the Day of Unity of Ukraine, 22 January 2014. Four people permanently lost their vision, and one man died by falling from a colonnade. The circumstances of his death are unclear. At least five more people were confirmed dead during the clashes on 22 January, four people perished from gunshot wounds. Medics confirmed bullet wounds to be from firearms such as a Dragunov sniper rifle (7.62mm) and possibly a Makarov handgun (9mm) in the deaths of Nihoyan and Zhyznevskyi. There are photos of Berkut utilising shotguns (such as the RPC Fort), and reporters verified the presence of shotgun casings littering the ground. Ukrainian Prosecutor General's Office confirmed two deaths from gunshot wounds in Kyiv protests. "We are pursuing several lines of inquiry into these murders, including [that they may have been committed] by Berkut (special police unit) officers, Vitali Sakal, first deputy chief of the Ukrainian Interior Ministry's Main Investigative Directorate told a press conference in Kyiv on Friday...It was established that the weapons and cartridges that were used to commit these killings are hunting cartridges. Such is the conclusion of forensic experts. Most likely, it was a smoothbore firearm. I want to stress that the cartridges which were used to commit the murders were not used by, and are not in use of, the police. They have no such cartridges," said first deputy chief of the Ukrainian Interior Ministry's Main Investigative Directorate. The MVS has not ruled out that Berkut officers committed the killings.
On 31 January it was discovered that 26 unidentified, unclaimed bodies remained in the Kiev central morgue; 14 of which were from January alone. Journalists revealed that a mass burial was planned on 4 February 2014. The Kiev city administration followed on the announcement with its own statement informing that there are 14 such bodies; 5 from January.
On 18 and 19 February, at least 26 people were killed in clashes with police, moreover, a self-defense soldier from Maidan was found dead. Journalist Vyacheslav Veremiy was murdered by pro-government Titushky and shot in the chest when they attacked his taxi. It was announced that an additional 40–50 people died in the fire that engulfed the Trade Union building after police attempted to seize it the night before.[unreliable source?]
On 20 February, gunfire killed 60 people, according to an opposition medical service.
In total, more than 100 people were killed and 2,500 injured in clashes with security forces. The death toll included at least 13 police officers, according to Ukrainian authorities.
Investigation into shooters/snipersEdit
Hrushevskoho Street riot shootingsEdit
During the 2014 Hrushevskoho Street riots of 22–25 January, 3 protesters were killed by firearms.
Oleh Tatarov, deputy chief of the Ukrainian Interior Ministry's Main Investigative Directorate under Yanukovych, claimed in January that "[t]he theory we are looking at is the killing was by unidentified persons. This is an official theory, and the unidentified persons could be various people, a whole host of them… It could have been motivated by disruptive behavior, or with the aim of provocation." He then claimed the cartridges and weapons used in the shootings were not police issue. Forensics experts found that protesters were killed with both buckshot and rifle bullets, while medics confirmed the bullet wounds to be from firearms such as the Dragunov sniper rifle (7.62×54mmR) and possibly 9×18mm Makarov cartridges.
A report published on 25 January by Armament Research Services, a speciality arms and munitions consultancy in Perth, Australia, stated that the mysterious cufflink-shaped projectiles presumably fired by riot police on Hrushevskoho Street at protesters during clashes were not meant for riot control, but for stopping vehicles, busting through doors and piercing armour. The bullets were reported to be special armour-piercing 12-gauge shotgun projectiles, likely developed and produced by the Spetstekhnika (Specialized Equipment) design bureau, a facility located in Kiev and associated with the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
On 31 January 2014, Vitali Sakal, first deputy chief of the Ukrainian Interior Ministry's Main Investigative Directorate told a press conference that "[w]e are pursuing several lines of inquiry into these murders, including [that they may have been committed] by Berkut (special police unit) officers." On 31 January 2014 during a live broadcast on television channel "Rossiya", the far-right Russian politician Vladimir Zhirinovsky expressed threats towards the protesting events in Kiev stating the following:
Today our client in Kiev, the honored Viktor Federovych Yanukovych, he will show you the heat when the Olympiad ends. You will know what is Yanukovych. Right now he got sick just in case, but later it will be announced, "Spare no bullets!" And we will give bullets, instead of money we will give bullets.
On 10 October 2014 Reuters published a report about their examination of Ukraine's probes into the Maidan shootings. They have uncovered "serious flaws" in the case against Berkut (special police force) officers arrested by the new Ukrainian government and charged with murder of 39 unarmed protesters. For example, as Reuters' own investigation found out, the senior among arrested officers was missing right hand after an accident 6 years ago. This dismissed main evidence presented by prosecutor, a photograph of a man holding his rifle with both hands. Other "flaws" according to Reuters included the fact that no one was charged with killing policemen and that the prosecutors and the minister in charge of the investigation all took part in the uprising. For example, the General Prosecutor of Ukraine Vitaly Yarema is known for hitting a traffic policeman in the face during the protests, which he denied, but a video of the incident appeared later and confirmed his involvement in the attack.
Snipers deployed during the climax of the protestsEdit
Following the revolution of 18–23 February that saw over 100 killed in gunfire, the government's new health minister, Oleh Musiy, a doctor who helped oversee medical treatment for casualties during the protests, suggested to The Associated Press that the similarity of bullet wounds suffered by opposition victims and police indicates the shooters were trying to stoke tensions on both sides and spark even greater violence, with the goal of toppling Yanukovych and justifying a Russian invasion. "I think it wasn't just a part of the old regime that (plotted the provocation), but it was also the work of Russian special forces who served and maintained the ideology of the (old) regime," he said, citing forensic evidence. Hennadiy Moskal, a former deputy head of Ukraine's main security agency, the SBU, and of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, suggested in an interview published in the Ukrainian newspaper Dzerkalo Tizhnya that snipers from the MIA and SBU were responsible for the shootings, not foreign agents, acting on contingency plans dating back to Soviet times, stating: "Snipers received orders to shoot not only protesters, but also police forces. This was all done to escalate the conflict, to justify the police operation to clear Maidan."
The IBTimes reported that a telephone call between Estonian foreign minister Urmas Paet and High Representative of the Union for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Catherine Ashton had been intercepted in which Paet stated that a doctor named Olga stated that victims from both sides were shot by the same snipers and that Olga had photos of the shooting victims with the same "handwriting." Paet said he found it "really disturbing that now the new coalition [doesn't] want to investigate what exactly happened," and that "there is a stronger and stronger understanding that behind snipers it was not Yanukovych, it was somebody from the new coalition." However, Paet later denied that he implicated the opposition in anything as he was merely relaying rumours he had heard without giving any assessment of their veracity, while acknowledging that the phone call was genuine. A spokesperson for the US state department described the leaking of the call as an example of "Russian tradecraft".
Olga Bogomolets, the doctor, who allegedly claimed that protesters and Berkut troops came under fire from the same source, said she had not told Paet that policemen and protesters had been killed in the same manner, that she did not imply that the opposition was implicated in the killings, and that the government informed her that an investigation had been started. A German TV investigation met one of the few doctors that treated the wounded of both sides. "The wounded that we treated, all had the same type of bullet wounds. The bullets were all identical. That's all I can say. In the bodies of the wounded militia, and the opposition." Lawyers representing relatives of the dead complained: "We haven't been informed of the type of weapons, we have no access to the official reports, and to the operation schedules. We have no documents to the investigation, state prosecutors won't show us any papers."
On 12 March 2014, Interior Minister Avakov has stated that the conflict was provoked by a 'non-Ukrainian' third party, and that an investigation was ongoing.
On 21 March 2014, Oleh Makhnitsky, Ukraine Parliamentary Commissioner for the supervision of the General Prosecutor of Ukraine and a member of the right-wing Svoboda party, stated that the government had identified the snipers shooting at the demonstrators in Kiev as "Ukrainian citizens," but did not release their names.
On 31 March 2014, the Daily Beast published photos and videos which appear to show that the snipers were members of the Ukrainian Security Services (SBU) "anti-terrorist" Alfa Team unit, who had been trained in Russia. The media suggested that it was not the Ukrainian riot police which fired on the protesters as previously believed, although the members of Alfa Team are Ukrainian citizens.
On 2 April, law enforcement authorities announced in a press conference they had detained nine suspects in the 18–20 February shootings of Euromaidan activists, acting Prosecutor General of Ukraine Oleh Makhnytsky reported. Among the detainees was the leader of the sniper squad. All of the detained are officers of the Kiev City Berkut unit, and verified the involvement of the SBU's Alfa Group in the shootings. Officials also reported that they plan to detain additional suspects in the Maidan shootings in the near future, and stressed that the investigation is ongoing, but hindered by the outgoing regime's destruction of all documents and evidence. Ukraine's Ministry of Internal Affairs confirmed that Viktor Yanukovych gave the order to fire on protesters on 20 February. During the press conference, Ukraine's interior minister, chief prosecutor and top security chief implicated more than 30 Russian FSB agents in the crackdown on protesters, who in addition to taking part in the planning, flew large quantities of explosives into an airport near Kiev. Valentyn Nalyvaichenko, the interim head of Ukraine's SBU state security agency, said the agents were stationed in Kiev during the entire Euromaidan protests, were provided with "state telecommunications" while residing at an SBU compound, and in regular contact with Ukrainian security officials. "We have substantiated grounds to consider that these very groups which were located at an SBU training ground took part in the planning and execution of activities of this so-called antiterrorist operation," said Nalyvaichenko. Investigators, he said, had established that Yanukovych's SBU chief Oleksandr Yakymenko, who had fled the country, had received reports from FSB agents while they were stationed in Ukraine, and that Yakymenko held several briefings with the agents. Russia's Federal Security Bureau rejected the comments as "groundless accusations" and otherwise refused to comment.
In 2015 BBC published a story based on an interview with an anonymous sniper who said he was firing at anti-riot police from Conservatory (music academy) building on the morning of 20 January 2014. The sniper said he was recruited by a "former military" claiming to be working for Euromaidan leadership. These morning shots are said to have provoked return fire from police snipers that resulted in many deaths. Andriy Shevchenko from Euromaidan leadership said he received calls from anti-riot police command reporting that his people are being shot by sniper bullets from the areas controlled by the protesters. Another Euromaidan leader, Andriy Parubiy, said his team searched the Conservatory and found no snipers. He confirmed that many victims on both sides were shot by snipers, but they were shooting from other, taller buildings surrounding the Conservatory and was convinced they were snipers controlled by Russia.
Press and medics injured by police attacksEdit
A number of attacks by law enforcement agents on members of the media and medical personnel have been reported. Some 40 journalists were injured during the staged assault at Bankova Street on 1 December 2013. At least 42 more journalists were victims of police attacks at Hrushevskoho Street on 22 January 2014. On 22 January 2014, Television News Service (TSN) reported that journalists started to remove their identifying uniform (vests and helmets), as they were being targeted, sometimes on purpose, sometimes accidentally. Since 21 November 2013, a total of 136 journalists have been injured.
- On 21 January 2014, 26 journalists were injured, with at least two badly injured by police stun grenades; 2 others were arrested by police.
- On 22 January, a correspondent of Reuters, Vasiliy Fedosenko, was intentionally shot in the head by a marksman with rubber ammunition during clashes at Hrushevskoho Street. Later, a journalist of Espresso TV Dmytro Dvoychenkov was kidnapped, beaten and taken to an unknown location, but later a parliamentarian was informed that he was finally released.
- On 24 January, President Yanukovych ordered the release of all journalists from custody.
- On 31 January, a video from 22 January 2014 was published that showed policemen in Berkut uniforms intentionally firing at a medic who raised his hands.
- On 18 February 2014, American photojournalist Mark Estabrook was injured by Berkut forces, who threw two separate concussion grenades at him just inside the gate at the Hrushevskoho Street barricade, with shrapnel hitting him in the shoulder and lower leg. He continued bleeding all the way to Cologne, Germany for surgery. He was informed upon his arrival in Maidan to stay away from the hospitals in Kiev to avoid Yanukovych's Berkut police capture (February 2014)
Known impact to date includes the following:
Support for Euromaidan in UkraineEdit
According to a 4 to 9 December 2013 study by Research & Branding Group 49% of all Ukrainians supported Euromaidan and 45% had the opposite opinion. It was mostly supported in Western (84%) and Central Ukraine (66%). A third (33%) of residents of South Ukraine and 13% of residents of Eastern Ukraine supported Euromaidan as well. The percentage of people who do not support the protesters was 81%in East Ukraine, 60% in South Ukraine[nb 11], in Central Ukraine 27% and in Western Ukraine 11%. Polls have shown that two-thirds of Kievans support the ongoing protests.
A poll conducted by the Kucheriv Democratic Initiatives Fund and Razumkov Center, between 20 and 24 December, showed that over 50% of Ukrainians supported the Euromaidan protests, while 42% opposed it.
Another Research & Branding Group survey (conducted from 23 to 27 December) showed that 45% of Ukrainians supported Euromaidan, while 50% did not. 43% Of those polled thought that Euromaidan's consequences "sooner could be negative", while 31% of the respondents thought the opposite; 17% believed that Euromaidan would bring no negative consequences.
An Ilko Kucheriv Democratic Initiatives Foundation survey of protesters conducted 7 and 8 December 2013 found that 92% of those who came to Kiev from across Ukraine came on their own initiative, 6.3% was organised by a public movement, and 1.8% were organised by a party. 70% Said they came to protest the police brutality of 30 November, and 54% to protest in support of the European Union Association Agreement signing. Among their demands, 82% wanted detained protesters freed, 80% wanted the government to resign, and 75% want president Yanukovych to resign and for snap elections. The poll showed that 49.8% of the protesters are residents of Kiev and 50.2% came from elsewhere in Ukraine. 38% Of the protesters are aged between 15 and 29, 49% are aged between 30 and 54, and 13% are 55 or older. A total of 57.2% of the protesters are men.
According to polls, 11% of the Ukrainian population has participated in the Euromaidan demonstrations, and another 9% has supported the demonstrators with donations.
Public opinion about Association AgreementEdit
According to a 4 to 9 December 2013 study by Research & Branding Group 46% of Ukrainians supported the integration of the country into EU, and 36% into the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia. Most support for EU integration could be found in West (81%) and in Central (56%) Ukraine; 30% of residents of South Ukraine and 18% of residents of Eastern Ukraine supported the integration with EU as well. Integration with the Customs Union was supported by 61% of East Ukraine and 54% of South Ukraine and also by 22% of Central and 7% of Western Ukraine.
According to a 7 to 17 December 2013 poll by the Sociological group "RATING", 49.1% of respondents would vote for Ukraine's accession to the European Union in a referendum, and 29.6% would vote against the motion. Meanwhile, 32.5% of respondents would vote for Ukraine's accession to the Customs Union of Belarus, Kazakhstan, and Russia, and 41.9% would vote against.
During the annual World Economic Forum meeting at the end of January 2014 in Davos (Switzerland) Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov received no invitations to the main events; according to the Financial Times's Gideon Rachman because the Ukrainian government was blamed for the violence of the 2014 Hrushevskoho Street riots.
A telephone call was leaked of US diplomat Victoria Nuland speaking to the US Ambassador to Ukraine, Geoffrey Pyatt about the future of the country, in which she said that Klitschko should not be in the future government, and expressed her preference for Arseniy Yatsenyuk, who became interim Prime Minister. She also casually stated "fuck the EU." German chancellor Angela Merkel said she deemed Nuland's comment "completely unacceptable". Commenting on the situation afterwards, State Department spokeswoman Jen Psaki said that Nuland had apologised to her EU counterparts while White House spokesman Jay Carney alleged that because it had been "tweeted out by the Russian government, it says something about Russia's role".
In February 2014 IBTimes reported, "if Svoboda and other far-right groups gain greater exposure through their involvement in the protests, there are fears they could gain more sympathy and support from a public grown weary of political corruption and Russian influence on Ukraine." In the following late October 2014 Ukrainian parliamentary election Svoboda lost 31 seats of the 37 seats it had won in the 2012 parliamentary election. The other main far-right party Right Sector won 1 seat (of the 450 seats in the Ukrainian parliament) in the same 2014 election. From 27 February 2014 till 12 November 2014 three members of Svoboda did hold positions in Ukraine's government.
On 21 February, after negotiations between the president Yanukovych and representatives of opposition with mediation of representatives of the European Union and Russia, the agreement "About settlement of political crisis in Ukraine" was signed. The agreement provided return to the constitution of 2004, that is to a parliamentary presidential government, carrying out early elections of the president until the end of 2014 and formation of "the government of national trust". The Verkhovna Rada adopted the law on release of all detainees during protest actions. Divisions of "Golden eagle" and internal troops left the center of Kiev. On 21 February, at the public announcement leaders of parliamentary opposition of conditions of the signed Agreement, representatives of "Right Sector" declared that they don't accept the gradualness of political reforms stipulated in the document, and demanded immediate resignation of the president Yanukovych—otherwise they intended to go for storm of Presidential Administration and Verkhovna Rada.
On the night of 22 February activists of Euromaidan seized the government quarter left by law enforcement authorities and made a number of new demands—in particular, immediate resignation of the president Yanukovych. Earlier that day, they stormed into Yanukovych's mansion.
On 23 February 2014, following the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, the Rada passed a bill that would have altered the law on languages of minorities, including Russian. The bill would have made Ukrainian the sole state language at all levels. However, on the next week 1 March, President Turchynov vetoed the bill.
Human rights impactEdit
According to Eduard Dolinsky, executive director of the Kiev-based Ukrainian Jewish Committee, Ukrainian Jews overwhelmly supported the 2014 Euromaidan, however, its aftermath led to the raise of anti-semitism and social acceptance of previously marginal far-right groups, together with government's policy of historical negationism in regard to the WWII ethnic cleansing committed by the Ukrainian nationalist movement against the country's minorities.
The Prime Minister, Mykola Azarov, asked for 20 billion Euros (US$27 billion) in loans and aid from the EU The EU was willing to offer 610 million euros (838 million US) in loans, however Russia was willing to offer 15 billion US in loans. Russia also offered Ukraine cheaper gas prices. As a condition for the loans, the EU required major changes to the regulations and laws in Ukraine. Russia did not.
Moody's Investors Service reported on 4 December 2013 "As a consequence of the severity of the protests, demand for foreign currency is likely to rise" and noted that this was another blow to Ukraine's already poor solvency. First deputy Prime Minister Serhiy Arbuzov stated on 7 December Ukraine risked a default if it failed to raise $10 billion "I asked for a loan to support us, and Europe [the EU] agreed, but a mistake was made – we failed to put it on paper."
On 5 December, Prime Minister Mykola Azarov stated that "money to finance the payment of pensions, wages, social payments, support of the operation of the housing and utility sector and medical institutions do not appear due to unrest in the streets" and he added that authorities were doing everything possible to ensure the timely financing of them. Minister of Social Policy of Ukraine Natalia Korolevska stated on 2 January 2014 that these January 2014 payments would begin according to schedule.
On 11 December, the second Azarov Government postponed social payments due to "the temporarily blocking of the government". The same day Reuters commented (when talking about Euromaidan) "The crisis has added to the financial hardship of a country on the brink of bankruptcy" and added that (at the time) investors thought it more likely than not that Ukraine would default over the next five years (since it then cost Ukraine over US$1 million a year to insure $10 million in state debt).
Fitch Ratings reported on 16 December that the (political) "standoff" had led to "greater the risk that political uncertainty will raise demand for foreign currency, causing additional reserve losses and increasing the risk of disorderly currency movement". It also added "Interest rates rose sharply as the National Bank sought to tighten hryvnia liquidity."
On 18 December, the day after an economical agreement with Russia was signed, Prime Minister Mykola Azarov stated, "Nothing is threatening stability of the financial-economic situation in Ukraine now. Not a single economic factor." However, BBC News reported that the deal "will not fix Ukraine's deeper economic problems" in an article titled "Russian bailout masks Ukraine's economic mess".
On 21 January 2014, the Kiev City State Administration claimed that protests in Kiev had so far caused the city more than 2 million US dollars worth of damage. It intended to claim compensation for damage caused by all demonstrators, regardless of their political affiliation.
On 5 February 2014, the hryvnia fell to a five-year low against the US dollar.
On 21 February 2014, Standard & Poor's cut Ukraine's credit rating to CCC; adding that the country risked default without "significantly favourable changes". Standard & Poor's analysts believed the compromise deal of the same day between President Yanukovych and the opposition made it "less likely Ukraine would receive desperately needed Russian aid, thereby increasing the risk of default on its debts".
According to a representative of the Kiev History Museum, its collection in the Ukrainian House on the night of 18–19 February, after it was recaptured by the police from the protesters. Eyewitnesses report seeing the police forces plundering and destroying the museum's property.
Music of MaidanEdit
Leading Ukrainian performers sang a song Kozak System "Brat za Brata" (English: "Brother for Brother") to support protesters. Song was one of the unofficial anthems of Euromaidan.
Ukrainian-Polish band Taraka came up with a song dedicated to "Euromaidan" "Podaj Rękę Ukrainie" (Give a Hand to Ukraine). The song uses the first several words of the National anthem of Ukraine "Ukraine has not yet died".
Films of MaidanEdit
A compilation of short films about the 2013 revolution named "Babylon'13", was created.
On 5 February 2014, a group of activist cinematographers initiated a series of films about the people of Euromaidan.
In 2014 Belarusian-Ukrainian filmmaker Sergei Loznitsa released the documentary Maidan. It was filmed by several cameramen instructed by Loznitsa during the revolution in 2013 and 2014 and depicts different aspects, from peaceful rallies to the bloody clashes between police and protesters.
In 2015 Netflix released the Winter on Fire: Ukraine's Fight for Freedom about the Euromaidan protests. The documentary shows the protests from the start until the resignation of Viktor Yanukovych. The movie won the Grolsch People's Choice Documentary Award at the 2015 Toronto International Film Festival.
Art of MaidanEdit
The 2013–14 UEFA Europa League Round of 32 match of 20 February 2014 between FC Dynamo Kyiv and Valencia CF was moved by UEFA from Kiev's Olimpiyskiy National Sports Complex to the GSP Stadium in Nicosia, Cyprus, "due to the security situation in the Ukrainian capital".
On 19 February, the Ukrainian athletes competing in the 2014 Winter Olympics asked for and were refused permission by the International Olympic Committee (IOC) to wear black arm bands to honour those killed in the violent clashes in Kiev. IOC president Thomas Bach offered his condolences "to those who have lost loved ones in these tragic events".
On 19 February 2014, alpine skier Bohdana Matsotska refused to further participate in the 2014 Winter Olympics in protest against the violent clashes in Kiev. She and her father posted a message on Facebook stating "In solidarity with the fighters on the barricades of the Maidan, and as a protest against the criminal actions made towards the protesters, the irresponsibility of the president and his lackey government, we refuse further performance at the Olympic Games in Sochi 2014."
On 4 March 2014, the 2013–14 Eurocup Basketball Round of 16 game between BC Budivelnyk Kyiv and JSF Nanterre was moved to Žalgiris Arena in Kaunas, Lithuania. On 5 March 2014, another Round of 16 game between Khimik Yuzhny and Aykon TED Ankara was moved to Abdi Ipekci Arena in Istanbul.
Trends and symbolismEdit
The red-and-black battle flag of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army (UPA) is another popular symbol among protesters, and the wartime insurgents have acted as a large inspiration for Euromaidan protesters. Serhy Yekelchyk of the University of Victoria says the use of UPA imagery and slogans was more of a potent symbol of protest against the current government and Russia rather than adulation for the insurgents themselves, explaining "The reason for the sudden prominence of [UPA symbolism] in Kiev is that it is the strongest possible expression of protest against the pro-Russian orientation of the current government." The colours of the flag symbolise Ukrainian red blood spilled on Ukrainian black earth.
In a poll published on 24 February 2014 by the state-owned Russian Public Opinion Research Center, only 15% of those Russians polled said 'yes' to the question: "Should Russia react to the overthrow of the legally elected authorities in Ukraine?"
As of February 2019, the Ukrainian government has broken ground on a new Maidan memorial that will run the length of Institutska Street, now also known as Avenue Of The Heavenly Hundred.
- Annexation of Crimea by the Russian Federation
- 2014 Hrushevskoho Street riots
- 2014 Ukrainian Regional State Administration occupations
- Cold War II
- National Guard of Ukraine
- Orange Revolution
- Paul Manafort's lobbying for Viktor Yanukovych and involvement in Ukraine
- Politics of Ukraine
- Rise up, Ukraine!
- Russian military intervention in Ukraine (2014–present)
- Ukraine without Kuchma
- Ukraine–European Union Association Agreement
- List of protests in the 21st century
- Since 1 December 2013 Kiev's Town Hall has been occupied by Euromaidan-protesters; this forced the Kiev City Council to meet in the Solomianka Raion state administration building instead.
- There was no legal basis for these bans since in Ukraine only a court can ban the activities of a political force.
- Reports of some protesters attending under duress from superiors
- "Titushky" are provocators during protests.
- Early November 2012 Communist Party party leader Petro Symonenko stated that his party will not co-operate with other parties in the new parliament elected in the 2012 Ukrainian parliamentary election. Nevertheless, in at the time in parliament its parliamentary faction usually voted similarly to the Party of Regions parliamentary faction.
- The term "Euromaidan" was initially used as a hashtag on Twitter. A Twitter account named Euromaidan was created on the first day of the protests. It soon became popular in the international media. It is composed of two parts: "Euro" is short for Europe and "maidan" refers to Maidan Nezalezhnosti (Independence Square), the main square of Kiev, where the protests are centered.
- On 7 April 2013 a decree by Ukrainian President Viktor Yanukovych freed Yuriy Lutsenko from prison and exempted him from further punishment.
- On 20 December 2013 Ukrainian Prime Minister Mykola Azarov stated that the public had not been given clear explanations by the authorities of the reason of the decree suspended preparations for signing of the association agreement.
- On 10 December President Yanukovych stated "We will certainly resume the IMF negotiations. If there are conditions that suit us, we will take that path." However, Yanukovych also (once again) stated that the conditions put forward by the IMF were unacceptable "I had a conversation with U.S. Vice President Joseph Biden, who told me that the issue of the IMF loan has almost been solved, but I told him that if the conditions remained ... we did not need such loans."
- RSA stands for Regional State Administration.
- According to the Financial Times, people in East Ukraine and South Ukraine "tend to be more politically passive than their western counterparts. Locals say they still feel part of Ukraine and have no desire to reunite with Russia – nor are they likely to engage in conflict with the west".
- "EuroMaidan rallies in Ukraine – Nov. 21–23 coverage". Kyiv Post. 25 November 2013.
- Snyder, Timothy (3 February 2014). "Don't Let Putin Grab Ukraine". The New York Times. Retrieved 5 February 2014.
The current crisis in Ukraine began because of Russian foreign policy.
- Calamur, Krishnadev (19 February 2014). "4 Things To Know About What's Happening in Ukraine". Parallels (World Wide Web log). NPR. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Spolsky, Danylo. "One minister's dark warning and the ray of hope". Kyiv Post (editorial). Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "Ukrainian opposition uses polls to bolster cause". Euronews. 13 December 2013.
- "Where did the downfall of Ukraine's President Viktor Yanukovych begin?". Public Radio International. 24 February 2014.
- "Ukrainian opposition calls for President Yanukovych's impeachment". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- Herszenhorn, David M. (1 December 2013). "Thousands of Protesters in Ukraine Demand Leader's Resignation". The New York Times. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Bonner, Brian (21 November 2013). "Two petition drives take aim at Yanukovych". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "EuroMaidan passes an anti-Customs Union resolution". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 15 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- Веб-сайт Кабміну теж уже не працює [Cabinet Website also no longer works]. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 11 November 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Hereha closes Kyiv City Council meeting on Tuesday". Interfax-Ukraine. 24 December 2013.
- "Jailed Ukrainian opposition leader Yulia Tymoshenko has been freed from prison, says official from her political party". CNN. 22 February 2014.
- Ukraine protests 'spread' into Russia-influenced east, BBC News (26 January 2014)
- Thousands mourn Ukraine protester amid unrest , Al Jazeera (26 January 2014)
- Dangerous Liasons, The Ukrainian Week (18 May 2015)
- "Ukraine's PM Azarov and government resign". BBC. 28 January 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- "Law on amnesty of Ukrainian protesters to take effect on Feb 17", Interfax-Ukraine (17 February 2014)
- "Ukraine lawmakers offer protester amnesty". The Washington Post. 29 January 2014. Archived from the original on 30 January 2014.
- "Ukraine: Amnesty law fails to satisfy protesters". Euronews. 30 January 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- Halya Coynash (30 January 2014). "Ruling majority takes hostages through new 'amnesty law'". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- Ukraine parliament passes protest amnesty law. BBC. 29 January 2014
- "Ukraine leader's sick leave prompts guessing game". South China Morning Post. Associated Press. 30 January 2014.
- Ukraine president Viktor Yanukovych takes sick leave as amnesty, other moves fail to quell Kiev protests. CBS news. 30 January 2014
- "Party of Regions, Communist Party banned in Ivano-Frankivsk and Ternopil regions". Kyiv Post. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- "Activity of Regions Party, Communist Party, Yanukovych's portraits banned in Drohobych". Kyiv Post. 21 February 2014. Retrieved 10 April 2014.
- Cabinet resumed preparations for the association with the EU Archived 12 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Ukrinform. 2 March 2014
- Novogrod, James (21 February 2014). "Dozens of Ukrainian Police Defect, Vow to Protect Protesters". NBC News. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Nemtsova, Anna (13 December 2013). "Kiev's Military Guardian Angels". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 16 December 2013.
- В'ячеслав Березовський: Євромайдани України стали потужним об'єднавчим чинником [Vyacheslav Berezovsky: Euromaydan Ukraine became a powerful unifying factor] (in Ukrainian). UA: Cun. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- На Евромайдане в Киеве собрались десятки тысяч украинцев [Euromaydan in Kiev gathered tens of thousands of Ukrainians] (in Russian). Korrespondent.net. 24 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Ivakhnenko, Vladimir (6 December 2013). Майдан готовит Януковичу вече [Square prepare Yanukovych Veche]. Svoboda (in Russian). Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Об’єднані ліві йдуть з Майдану (18 March 2014)
- "Українські студенти підтримали Євромайдан. У Києві та регіонах – страйки" [Ukrainian students supported Yevromaydan. In Kiev and regions – Strikes]. NEWSru. UA. 26 November 2013. Archived from the original on 27 January 2016.
- "Mr Akhtem Chiygoz: "Crimean Tatars Leave Actively to Kyiv on Maidan Nezalezhnosti"". 3 December 2013.
- "Danyluks group under fire for seizure of government buildings". Kyiv Post.
- Під час штурму Банкової постраждали вже 15 правоохоронців [During the storm of Bankova already suffered 15 law enforcement officers]. TVi (in Ukrainian). 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 17 December 2014.
- Митинг в поддержку действий президента по защите национальных интересов Украины прошел в Харькове [Rally in support of the president's actions to protect the national interests of Ukraine took place in Kharkov] (in Russian). Interfax-Ukraine. 30 November 2013. Retrieved 9 December 2013.
- Днепропетровских бюджетников заставляют ехать в Киев на 'Антимайдан' [Dnepropetrovsk state employees are forced to go to Kiev to 'Antimaydan']. Dnepr (in Russian). UA: Comments. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- Кожного привезеного на столичний "антимайдан" ошукали на 500 грн. Gazeta (in Russian). 14 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- "Meet Moscow's New "Ukrainian Front" | The XX Committee". 20committee.com. 3 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- На Євроманда "тітушки" йдуть з металевими трубами [Titushky go to the Euro-mandai with steel pipes] (in Ukrainian). Kyiv Comments. 29 November 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- 'Анти-євромайдан' завершився. 'Тітушки' чекають відмашки 'стартувати' на Майдан? [Anti-Euromaidan ended. Titushky await sign to go onto the Maidan?]. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 29 November 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- "Tyagnibok Zaproponuvav rozformuvati Berkut" [Tiagnybok offered to disband 'Berkut']. Ukrainian National News. 2 December 2013. Archived from the original on 7 February 2015.
- Responsibility for burning private vehicles of protesters was taken by the Red Sector Archived 1 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine. TVi. 1 February 2014
- "From Russia, 'Tourists' Stir the Protests". The New York Times. 3 March 2014.
- "Ukrainian communists not to join other political forces in new parliament, says Symonenko". Interfax-Ukraine. 8 November 2012.
- "Result of parliamentary votes" (in Ukrainian). Verkhovna Rada.
- Luhansk administration is being guarded by Don Cossacks. 24tv. 26 January 2014
- "Друг Путина Хирург вывел байкеров на баррикады | Украинская правда". Pravda.com.ua. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Musicians liven up EuroMaidan stage, Kyiv Post (29 November 2013)
- ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian) Руслана Лижичко разом із однодумцями оголосила голодування на майдані Ruslana together with like-minded hunger strike on Maidan, TSN (25 November 2013)
- Whitmore, Brian (6 December 2013). "Putin's Growing Threat Next Door". The Atlantic.
- "EuroMaidan rallies in Ukraine – Dec. 16". Kyiv Post. 15 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- "The Council of Maidan Self-Defense Organizes "United Revolutionary Army" throughout Ukraine | Euromaidan PR". Euromaidanpr.wordpress.com. 8 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Євромайдан Львів встановив кількісний рекорд. Lviv Expres (in Ukrainian). 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
- "EuroMaidan rallies in Ukraine (Jan. 23 live updates)". Kyiv Post. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Тернопільський Євромайдан зібрав більше 10 тисяч людей [Ternopil Eeuromaydan brought together more than 10 thousand people] (in Ukrainian). UA: TE. 8 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- Мариинском парке собралось около 3–4 тысяч "титушек" – нардеп [Mariinsky park were about 3–4 thousand "titushek" – People's Deputy] (in Ukrainian). UNIAN. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- В Харькове провели масштабный провластный митинг (in Russian). BBC News. 30 November 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
- "На провластный митинг в Донецке привезли несколько десятков автобусов "неравнодушных"". Gazeta.ua. 23 July 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- Наша задача: отстаивать национальные интересы, строить Европу в Крыму и в Украине – Павел Бурлаков [Our task: to defend national interests, to build Europe in the Crimea and in Ukraine – Paul Boatmen]. Новости Крыма [Crimean News] (in Ukrainian). UkraineInfo. 4 December 2013. Archived from the original on 7 December 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- ЄвромадаЇ в Україні: Запоріжжя вражало кількістю, а в Одесі пам'ятник Дюку "одягли" у прапор ЄС [YevromadaYi in Ukraine Zaporozhye striking number, and in Odessa Monument to Duke "dressed" in the EU flag] (in Ukrainian). UA: TSN. 24 November 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- "Around 780 people die during protests in Ukraine in reality, say volunteer doctors". Interfax. 10 April 2014.
- "On Grushevskogo for Šutka postradali 1400 chelovek oppozitsiya". Liga.
- "Some 700 protestors hospitalized in past two months". Kyiv Post. 30 January 2014.
- "BBC News – Ukraine: Speaker Oleksandr Turchynov named interim president". BBC News. 23 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Около 150 активистов с Майдана остаются пропавшими без вести – Беркут, избиение, евромайдан, Революция в Украине (30.03.14 18:12) « Политика Украины « Новости | Цензор.НЕТ". Censor.net.ua. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- Grytsenko, Oksana (31 January 2014). "'On The Brink of Civil War'". Kyiv Post.
- Список погибших в ходе акций протеста в Украине (январь-март 2014). Дополняется LB.ua, 15 March 2014
- "Clashes rage as 100,000 Ukrainians demand EU pact". Yahoo!. 2 December 2013. Archived from the original on 12 December 2013. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Міліція повідомила, що госпіталізовано 75 її бійців. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 2 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Medics were short on account of beat up police personnel (Медики недосчитались побитых демонстрантами милиционеров)". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Russian). 3 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- For Euro-, see eurocentric in: Jones, Daniel (2003) , Peter Roach; James Hartmann; Jane Setter (eds.), English Pronouncing Dictionary, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-3-12-539683-8
- "maidan". Dictionary.com Unabridged. Random House.
- "Ukraine's Euromaidan: What's in a name?". The Washington Post. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Євромайдан". Twitter. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Chervonenko, Vitalii (25 November 2013). "Ukraine's EU options 'still open'". BBC News. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Kiev protesters gather, EU and Putin joust, Reuters (12 December 2013)
- Yanukovych Offers Opposition Leaders Key Posts , Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (25 January 2014)
- "Transparency International names Yanukovych world's most corrupt – Feb. 11, 2016". 11 February 2016.
- "Revolution on Euromaidan". Foreign Affairs. 9 December 2013.
- "Гарантом выполнения Соглашения об урегулировании кризиса в Украине является народ – Томбинский". unian.net.
- Walker, Shaun; Salem, Harriet (22 February 2014). "Ukraine: 'The dictatorship has fallen.' But what will take its place?". The Observer. ISSN 0029-7712. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- Boris N. Mamlyuk (6 July 2015). "The Ukraine Crisis, Cold War II, and International Law". The German Law Journal. SSRN 2627417. Missing or empty
- Sindelar, Daisy (23 February 2014). "Was Yanukovych's Ouster Constitutional?". Radio Free Europe, Radio Liberty (Rferl.org). Retrieved 25 February 2014.
[I]t is not clear that the hasty February 22 vote upholds constitutional guidelines, which call for a review of the case by Ukraine's Constitutional Court and a three-fourths majority vote by the Verkhovna Rada – i.e., 338 lawmakers.
- "Ukraine drops EU plans and looks to Russia". Al Jazeera. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- Митинги и столкновения на майдане продолжаются [Protests and clashes continued in the Maidan] (in Russian). МИР24 [MIR24]. 25 November 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Students in Ukraine threaten indefinite national strike, Euronews (26 November 2013)
- "Ukraine Offers Europe Economic Growth and More". The New York Times. 12 December 2013. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- Live updates of the protests, Kyiv Post (27, 28 and 29 November 2013)
- Protests continue in Kyiv ahead of Vilnius EU summit, Euronews (27 November 2013)
- "Ukraine's capital Kiev gripped by huge pro-EU demonstration". BBC News. 8 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Olzhas Auyezov and Jack Stubbs (22 December 2013). "Ukraine opposition urges more protests, forms political bloc". Reuters. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Ukraine pro-Europe protesters hold first big rally of 2014, Reuters (12 January 2014)
- "No Looting or Anarchy in this Euromaidan Revolution". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Bushak, Lecia (18 February 2014). "Kiev's Minstrel of the Street Revolution". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 4 March 2014. Retrieved 19 December 2016.
- Fisher, Max (20 February 2014). "Ukraine's parliament just threw President Yanukovych under the bus. That's great news". Washington Post. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Roth, Andrew (25 January 2019). "Ukraine's ex-president Viktor Yanukovych found guilty of treason". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- "Євромандай". Twitter. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Chervonenko, Vitalii (25 November 2013). "Ukraine's EU options 'still open'". BBC News. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- Timothy Snyder (20 March 2014). "Fascism, Russia, and Ukraine". The New York Review of Books. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Kerry in Moldova Supports Ukrainian 'Spring'". Israelnationalnews.com. 6 December 2013. Archived from the original on 7 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Verger, Rob (9 December 2013). "Photo Essay: The Ukrainian Spring". Newsweek. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- European Neighbourhood Watch Issue 80 Archived 13 September 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Centre for European Policy (March 2012)
- Ukraine's jailed Tymoshenko calls off hunger strike, Kyiv Post (16 November 2012)
- Ukraine President Viktor Yanukovych pardons Yulia Tymoshenko allies, BBC News (8 April 2013)
- "EU Commissioner Fule expects Rada to pass European integration bills on November 21", Interfax-Ukraine (20 November 2013)
- Ukrainian president asks for laws to be passed to facilitate EU association agreement, Euronews (3 September 2013)
- EU-Ukraine Association Agreement to be signed, Ukraine to go to Europe – speaker, Interfax (25 September 2013)
- Klimkin: Russia trying to force renegotiation of Minsk deals, Kyiv Post (18 January 2015)
- Eased Russian customs rules to save Ukraine $1.5 bln in 2014, says minister, Interfax-Ukraine (18 December 2013)
- Ukraine's Employers Federation: Russia's customs service halts all Ukrainian imports. Kyiv Post. 14 August 2013.
- Russia sets off trade war to prevent Ukraine from signing agreement with EU, says UDAR. Kyiv Post. 14 August 2013.
"Ukraine Leader Ignores Putin Warning on EU Path". Voice of America. 24 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
"Russia hits at Ukraine with chocolate war". EurActiv. 14 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
"Trading insults". The Economist Newspaper. 24 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
"Putin warns Ukraine against EU pact". euobserver. 23 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
"Ukraine PM tells Russia to accept "reality" of EU trade deal". Reuters. 28 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
"Putin 'deserves medal' for pushing Ukraine towards EU". Euractiv. 30 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
"О комплексе мер по вовлечению Украины в евразийский интеграционный процесс". Зеркало недели. Украина. 16 August 2013. Retrieved 1 September 2013.
Does Russia Have a Secret Plan for Ukraine?, The Atlantic (21 August 2013)
Caught in a Zeitnot, The Ukrainian Week (6 August 2013)
- Ukraine media see Kremlin pressure over EU, BBC News (22 November 2013)
Q&A: Stand-off in Ukraine over EU agreement, BBC News (29 December 2013)
Analysis: Russia's carrot-and-stick battle for Ukraine, BBC news (17 December 2013)
- Eased Russian customs rules to save Ukraine $1.5 bln in 2014, says minister, Interfax-Ukraine (18 December 2013)
Russia to lift restrictions on Ukrainian pipe imports – Ukrainian ministry, Interfax-Ukraine (18 December 2013)
Russia tightens customs rules to force Ukraine into union, Reuters (15 August 2013)
- Russia cuts Ukraine gas price by a third, BBC News (17 December 2013)
- Decline in industrial production in Ukraine in October 2013 slows to 4.9 percent, Kyiv Post (18 November 2013)
- "Ukraine drops EU plans and looks to Russia". aljazeera.com. Retrieved 21 November 2013.
- Cox-Kwasniewski mission to continue until Eastern Partnership Summit, Interfax-Ukraine (21 November 2013)
- Ukraine to resume preparing agreement with EU when compensation for production drop found – Boiko, Interfax-Ukraine (21 November 2013)
- Azarov: Ukraine would face crisis if it signed Association Agreement with EU, Interfax-Ukraine (21 December 2013)
- David M. Herszenhorn (22 November 2013). "Ukraine Blames I.M.F. for Halt to Agreements With Europe". The New York Times. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Ambrose Evans-Pritchard (22 November 2013). "Historic defeat for EU as Ukraine returns to Kremlin control". Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- MF not insisting on single-stage increase in tariffs, says resident representative in Ukraine, Interfax-Ukraine (7 December 2013)
- IMF links loan amount to Ukraine with reforms Archived 25 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrinform (7 December 2013)
- Ukraine to resume talks with IMF soon, says Yanukovych, Interfax-Ukraine (10 December 2013)
- Ukraine fails to sign landmark deal at EU summit, Euronews (29 November 2013)
- Ukraine's rejection of EU deal brings rival rallies at home, Euronews (29 November 2013)
- Barroso: EU to continue its dialog with Ukraine on principles of mutual respect, transparency and responsibility, Interfax-Ukraine (29 November 2013)
- EU and Ukraine say 'door still open' for future trade pact, Euronews (29 November 2013)
- Yanukovych says Ukraine-EU deal is suspended, not cancelled, Euronews (29 November 2013)
- Weymouth, Lally (25 April 2014). "Interview with Ukrainian presidential candidate Petro Poroshenko". The Washington Post. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
- "EU talking to IMF, World Bank, others about Ukraine assistance". CNBC. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Ukraine leader seeks cash at Kremlin to fend off crisis". CNBC. 17 December 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "EUROMAYDAN – 2013" Archived 13 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Research & Branding Group (10 December 2013)
- Half of Ukrainians don't support Kyiv Euromaidan, R&B poll, Interfax-Ukraine (30 December 2013)
- "Poll reveals Ukrainian majority supports EuroMaidan". 30 December 2013. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Ukraine protesters take rally to Yanukovich’s residence, Financial Times (29 December 2013)
- "Poll discovers EuroMaidan evolution from dreamy to radical". Kyiv Post. 6 February 2014.
- "Viktor Yanukovych: Losing Europe ... and Losing the Ukrainian Public?". Brookings Institution. 18 November 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Poll: More Ukrainians disapprove of EuroMaidan protests than approve of it". Kyiv Post. 7 February 2014.
- "Public Opinion Survey, Residents of Ukraine — March 14–26, 2014" (PDF). p. 100. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- "Harvard Study Shows Russian-speaking Ukrainians Backing Kyiv". VOA. Retrieved 23 October 2014.
- "Большинство украинцев поддерживают ассоциацию с ЕС". Зеркало недели. Украина.
- Авдотья СкворцоваИнтернет издание – Ваш день. ""ЕВРОМАЙДАН – 2013" – R&B Group". Rb.com.ua. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Українці обирають Євросоюз". GfK Ukraine. 12 November 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Українці обирають Євросоюз" (PDF). Retrieved 26 March 2014.
- "DW-Trend: більшість українців – за вступ до ЄС". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Poll: Ukrainian public split over EU, Customs Union options, Kyiv Post (26 November 2013)
- "Азаров: Украину никто не приглашает вступать в ЕС | Новости. Новости дня на сайте Подробности". Podrobnosti.ua. 27 December 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "срыв евроинтеграции: Вопрос о вступлении Украины в ЕС – бессмысленный, – Азаров – Азаров, Евросоюз, Срыв ассоциации с ЕС, срыв евроинтеграции (27.12.13 21:31) " Политика Украи". Censor.net.ua. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Ukrainian Protests Compared to 2004 Orange Revolution". The Moscow Times. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
- Olearchyk, Roman (30 November 2013). "Ukraine protests hampered by fragmenting of political opposition". Financial Times. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
- BBC Trending (22 November 2013). "BBC News – European Square: Hashtag of Ukraine protest". BBC News. Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Twitter / Vitaliy_Klychko: Друзі! Усі, хто". Twitter.com. 21 November 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Кличко: Зберемо 100 000 і підемо в гості на Банкову". VK. 22 November 2013. Archived from the original on 20 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Юрій Луценко: У нас дві дороги – у в'язницю або до перемоги". Ukrayinska Pravda. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- Magocsi, Paul Robert. "EuroMaidan vs. Orange Revolution, PR Magocsi (ЄвроМайдан)". UkeTube. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- In Ukraine, Protests Highlight 'Generational Rift', Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty (27 November 2013)
- ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian) Which way Ukraine should go – which union should join?, Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (3 October 2013)
- "Poll: Ukrainian public split over EU, Customs Union options". Kyiv Post. 26 November 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
- "Ukraine president, protest leaders agree on truce", Associated Press via The Gainesville Sun (February 19, 2013).
- Tyahnybok, Oleh. "Oleh Tyahnybok: I appeal to law-enforcement agents who still have their honor – choose the side of the Ukrainian revolution!". Svoboda. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- on YouTube
- Anders Aslund (26 February 2014). "Euro Revolution in Ukraine". KyivPost.
- Ukraine president slams calls for revolution, Al Jazeera (10 December 2013)
- Saakashvili, Mikheil (27 January 2014). "Why the West Must Join the Ukraine Protesters". The Wall Street Journal.
- "RealTime Economic Issues Watch | Yanukovych's Time Is Up in Ukraine; the West Must Prepare". Blogs.piie.com. 31 January 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Ukraine's interior minister has no intention to resign, Interfax-Ukraine (5 December 2013)
- More than 100,000 people petition Obama for sanctions against Yanukovych. Kyiv Post. 30 November 2013
- White House website petition against Yanukovych signed by 63,000. Voice of Russia.
- The United States will not consider a petition against Yanukovych, but relations between the two countries deteriorate – O.Haran Archived 3 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine. unn.com
- Petition for sanctions against Yanukovych gathers 45,000 votes. ZIK.
- Yatseniuk: Current political crisis cannot be resolved through parliamentary methods, Interfax-Ukraine (5 December 2013)
- Ukraine opposition: no talks unless government fired, CBC News (7 December 2013)
- "Ukrainians to celebrate Day of Dignity and Freedom on November 21, Unity Day on January 22". Interfax-Ukraine. 13 November 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2018.
Противники приостановки евроинтеграции Украины в ночи вышли на улицы Киева [Opponents of suspension Ukraine's European integration in the night took to the streets of Kiev] (in Russian). NEWSru. 22 November 2013.
- Ivan Gomza and Nadiia Koval. "The Winter of Our Discontent: Emotions and Contentious Politics in Ukraine during Euromaidan" (PDF). Kyiv-Mohyla Law and Politics Journal.
- T12:21+02:00 12:21 7 February 2014 (20 October 2012). "Ukrainian Interior Ministry has questions about a Thursday blast at Trade Unions House in Kyiv". En.interfax.com.ua. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Opposition leaders call for people to join self-defense teams to protect EuroMaidan". Kyiv Post. 9 February 2014.
- "Ukraine Health Ministry: Kyiv unrest death toll reaches 100". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 6 March 2014.
- "Ukraine conflict: Tymoshenko speech ends historic day of revolution". BBC News. 22 February 2014.
- Neil Buckley and Roman Olearchyk (22 February 2014). "Yanukovich toppled in new Ukrainian revolution". Financial Times.
- "Yanukovych: The man who sparks revolution in Ukraine". Yahoo! News. Agence France-Presse. 20 February 2014. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008.
- Активісти пояснили, що рвучи политчину символіку провладної партії "прощаються з минулим". Більше читайте тут. TSN (in Ukrainian). 1 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Тернопільський Євромайдан зібрав більше 10 тисяч людей. ZZ TE UA (in Russian). 8 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Днепропетровск: 15 тысяч людей спели гимн Украины / Гордон. Commentary (in Russian). 2 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- Хмельничани вимагають відставки голови облдержадміністрації. VSIM (in Ukrainian). 24 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Акции протеста проходят в десятках. UNIAN (in Russian). 1 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Сумской Евромайдан собрал более 5 тысяч человек. Segodnya (in Russian). 24 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Хроника и карта революционной Украины. Gordon UA (in Russian). 24 January 2014.
- "У Донецьку почалася масова бійка. Є постраждалі". Ukrayinska Pravda (Українська правда). 5 March 2014. Retrieved 5 March 2014.
- В Запорожье пошли на штурм ОГА. Mignews (in Russian). 26 January 2014. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- "У Криму вимагали дострокових виборів і покарання чиновників за сепаратизм | Українська правда". Pravda.com.ua. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- В Ривне тысячи протестующих требуют от чиновников выйти из Партии регионов. Podrobnosti (in Russian). 2 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- В центре Николаева прошла многотысячная акция "Защитим Украину вместе"" (in Russian). 2 March 2014. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- Близько 3 000 закарпатців, попри дощ, вийшли на ЄвроМайдан у Мукачеві (ФОТО, Відео, Доповнено). mukachevo.net (in Ukrainian). 24 November 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
- "Одесский Майдан: одесситы растянули 500-метровый флаг Украины " Вся правда из блогосферы на UAINFO". Uainfo.org. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- В Белой Церкви прошло факельное шествие с требованием отставки Януковича (in Russian). 24 January 2014. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- "The revolution in the field: a brief summary of Galicia (Революція на місцях: коротке зведення по Галичині)". Galinfo (in Ukrainian). 1 December 2013. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
- Митинги проходят в Харькове, Виннице, Тернополе, Николаеве, Кировограде, Львове, Одессе, Полтаве. Obozrevatel (in Russian). 8 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- Две тысячи протестующих перекрыли центральную улицу Житомира Sergei Shevchuk 23 January 2014 ‹See Tfd›(in Russian)
- Народное вече в Кировограде собрало около тысячи человек. Tvi (in Russian). 8 December 2013. Archived from the original on 13 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- #Євромайдан у Кривому Розі. Голос Криворіжжя (in Ukrainian). 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- У Луганську на підтримку київського маршу вийшли близько тисячі людей (in Ukrainian). UNIAN. 9 December 2013.
- Yosef Kish (24 January 2014). Ужгород: хроніка гарячого дня (in Ukrainian). Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Хроніка дрогобицького євромайдану-2. Дрогобицький Портал (in Ukrainian). 26 November 2013.
- Сегодня в Херсоне сторонники евроинтеграции собрались на Евромайдан в 17-й раз. Kherson Online (in Russian). 8 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "мариуполь: На митинге в Мариуполе осудили политику власти. ФОТОрепортаж – Беркут, избиение, мариуполь, митинг, оппозиция, Евросоюз, Евромайдан, Революция в Украине 27.01.14 1". Censor.net.ua. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Міліція каже, що розганяти не буде. Чернiгiвщина: події (in Ukrainian). 23 November 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- В Измаиле состоялся свой Майдан (in Russian). izmacity.com. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
- Активісти блокують у Василькові полк "Тигр" із Криму (доповнено). Daily Lviv (in Ukrainian). 4 December 2013. Retrieved 6 December 2013.
- У Ялті організували Євромайдан, в Севастополі вимагали "посадити" опозицію. Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 20 February 2014. Retrieved 20 February 2014.
- Interfax-Ukraine (25 November 2013). "Lviv students want EU deal signed". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 25 December 2013.
- Bershidsky, Leonid (16 April 2010). "Ukrainians protest rejection of EU for Russia". Winnipeg Free Press. Retrieved 27 November 2013.
- "Rally in Lviv grows to 25,000". Zik.ua. 24 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- В Крыму на Евромайдане спели гимн УПА. VESTI (in Russian). 24 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Через погроми у наметовому містечку Дніпропетровська травмовані 7 людей – Відео (in Ukrainian). 24tv.ua. 11 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Євромайдан. У Дніпропетровську 40 "тітушок" напали на наметове містечко (in Ukrainian). 24tv.ua. 11 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Проти "тітушків", які розгромили дніпропетровський Євромайдан, відкрито кримінальне провадження (in Ukrainian). 24tv.ua. 11 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Євромайдан у Дніпропетровську розгромили за рішенням суду, проте міліція не втручалася (in Ukrainian). 24tv.ua. 11 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Євромайдан в Одесі – Міліція знесла Євромайдан в Одесі – Новини України на 1+1 – ТСН.ua" (in Ukrainian). Televiziyna Sluzhba Novyn. 25 November 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- "У Чернігові знесли Євромайдан, а обурений протестувальник намагався себе підпалити – ЗМІ – Новини України на 1+1 – ТСН.ua" (in Ukrainian). TSN. 25 November 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- "Odessa EuroMaidan: Heavy-handed measures by police and their questionable back-up". khpg.org. 25 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Европа грозит Украине развратом – "Русский блок" провел в Донецке "антимайдан". Gazeta (in Russian). 26 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- В Ялте начали преследовать участников Евромайдана – Новости Крыма (in Russian). An.crimea.ua. 25 November 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Ukraine opposition demands leader resign after EU snub, Seven News (30 November 2013) Archived 4 December 2013 at the Wayback Machine
- "Żywy łańcuch poparcia dla protestujących na Ukrainie – TVP Regionalna – Telewizja Polska S.A." (in Polish). Regionalna.tvp.pl. 29 November 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "A rally of 300 in Donetsk demands Yanukovych's resignation". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 1 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Archived copy" Жадан прошел по харьковскому Евромайдану "путь в Европу". Kharkov Commentary (in Russian). 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 6 February 2014. Retrieved 2 December 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- Сергій Жадан закликав студентів на революцію #Євромайдан #Харків (in Ukrainian). Monitoring Maidan. Retrieved 1 December 2013.
- "# Yevromaydan Kharkiv". Maidan Monitor. 1 December 2013. Retrieved 2 December 2013.
- "Харьковский Евромайдан заночует на площади Свободы". Vesti. 1 December 2013.
- На Евромайдан в Харькове вышли тысячи человек. Segodnya (in Russian). 1 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- В Днепропетровске около 1000 человек требовали отставки виновных в разгоне Евромайдана. Segodnya (in Russian). 1 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Крымский Евромайдан извинился за жестокость "Беркута" в Киеве – Новости Крыма (in Russian). An.crimea.ua. 1 December 2013. Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Vladimir Ivahnenko and Ярослав Шимов (2 December 2013). Хроника "Евромайдана" (in Russian). Svoboda. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- "Сьогодні у більшості облрад відбудуться позачергові сесії через ситуацію в Україні – Політика – ТСН.ua" (in Ukrainian). TSN. 2 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- Три західні області оголосили страйк. Ukrainska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 2 December 2013. Retrieved 3 December 2013.
- У Дніпропетровську євромайданівці вимагають відставки місцевої влади (in Ukrainian). Radiosvoboda.org. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 4 December 2013.
- Новини (7 December 2013). Прикарпатська міліція не пускає Івано-Франківських мітингувальників до Києва (in Ukrainian). versii.if.ua. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- "Lenin statue toppled in Ukraine protest". CNN. 8 December 2013. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Одесского Ленина сокрушили вслед за киевским (in Russian). Odessa.comments.ua. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- В Тернополе организаторы Евромайдана подверглись уголовному преследованию – Украина (in Russian). zn.ua. 9 December 2013. Retrieved 15 December 2013.
- "Ленінопад триває: вождя скинули в Каневі, Миколаєві, Херсоні – Новини України на 1+1 – ТСН.ua". Tsn.ua. 22 February 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Софія Середа. "В Україні – Ленінопад: пам'ятники вождю падають один за одним". Radiosvoboda.org. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Archived copy" Харьковчане недовольны забором на площади Свободы (ФОТО) (in Russian). Kharkov.comments.ua. 14 December 2013. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 15 December 2013.CS1 maint: Archived copy as title (link)
- "In Kharkiv, the second burned car Euromaidan (У Харкові спалили другу машину Євромайдану)". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 24 December 2013. Retrieved 24 December 2013.
- Christopher J. Miller (25 December 2013). "Unknown assailants beat and stab Kharkiv EuroMaidan organizer". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- В Днепропетровске около двух тысяч человек поддержали вече в Киеве (in Russian). UNIAN. 22 December 2013. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- "A Free Donetsk?". World Affairs. 10 January 2014. Archived from the original on 21 March 2018. Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- В Донецке, Днепропетровске, Харькове, Одессе вышли на Евромайдан (in Russian). 5 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- Oksana Grytsenko (11 January 2014). "Smashed windows, tear gas accompany EuroMaidan forum in Kharkiv". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- "Тітушки" вогнем розігнали Донецький Євромайдан (in Ukrainian). The Insider. 22 January 2014. Archived from the original on 24 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- "Донецька міськрада просить Януковича вжити жорсткі заходи". The Insider. 22 January 2014. Archived from the original on 25 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- "Facebook". Facebook. Retrieved 2 March 2014.
- "Mothers block their soldier sons from serving in Kyiv". Euronews. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- У Вінниці активісти перекрили центральну вулицю міста та заблокували ОДА (in Ukrainian). 24Tv.ua. 23 January 2014. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- Автомобиль одесского оппозиционера взорвали 23 January 2014 ‹See Tfd›(in Russian)
- Мэр Сум и его фракция в горсовете заявили о поддержке протестов. LB (in Russian). 24 January 2014. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- Kiev, Harriet Salem Shaun Walker in; Harding, Luke (24 February 2014). "Ukraine's Crimeans eye alliance with Russia". The Guardian (in Russian). Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Zmeyev, Maxim (27 February 2017). "PUTIN CONGRATULATES RUSSIAN SPECIAL FORCES ON CRIMEA ANNIVERSARY". Newsweek. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- "Новости Донбасса :: Митинг за мир и единство Украины в центре Донецка – все видео и фото до драки (обновлено)". Novosti.dn.ua. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "На площади Ленина пророссийские активисты напали на участников антивоенного митинга – Донецк.comments.ua". Donetsk.comments.ua. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Pałac Kultury w kolorach flagi Ukrainy" (in Polish). Tvnwarszawa.tvn24.pl. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Euromaidan – Tijdlijnfoto's". Facebook. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Blue and Yellow for Ukraine – Cira Centre lights up". Ukrainian Selfreliance Federal Credit Union. Archived from the original on 15 December 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- "Parliament Adopts Statement on Ukraine". Civil Georgia. 11 December 2013. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
- "Niagara Falls was blue and yellow". iReport. 30 December 2013. Retrieved 30 December 2013.
- Rudenko, Olga (16 February 2014). "Protesters: Ukraine paying for pro-government rallies". USA Today.
- Winter on Fire: Ukraine's Fight for Freedom (Motion picture). 9 October 2015.
- ""As Far-Right Groups Infiltrate Kiev's Institutions, the Student Movement Pushes Back" 4 Mar 2014". The Nation. 4 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Закриваючи собою Майдан | Українська правда – Блоги (in Ukrainian). Blogs.pravda.com.ua. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Парубій розповів про історію створення та структуру самооборони Майдану (in Ukrainian). Espreso.tv. 13 February 2014. Archived from the original on 8 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- ANDREW HIGGINS; ANDREW E. KRAMER (20 February 2014). "Converts Join With Militants in Kiev Clash". Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Андрій Парубій на Hromadske.TV" (in Ukrainian). YouTube. 3 January 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- ''Вікинги'' і ''Нарнія'' штурмували КМДА, бо не мали куди йти | Українська правда (in Ukrainian). Pravda.com.ua. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Виступ сотника Володимира Парасюка 21 лютого на Майдані (in Ukrainian). Nru.org.ua. Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- Грани.Ру/Персоны/Владимир Парасюк (in Russian). Grani.ru. 28 February 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Парубій підписав наказ "Про основні засади організації «Самооборони Майдану" – Новини – Самооборона Майдану". Samooboronaua.org. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- Структура протесту: Євромайдан представляють понад 10 груп різних організацій (in Ukrainian). 24tv.ua. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Євген Карась: "Оголошення в розшук – помста за те, що ми зловили міліцейську спецгрупу, елітний "ескадрон смерті" – Хто не чув легенди – LB.ua" (in Ukrainian). Society.lb.ua. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Four victims after the clashes on Hrushevskoho were left without eyes (Четверо потерпілих після зіткнень на Грушевського залишилися без очей – Геращенко)". UNIAN (in Ukrainian). 21 January 2014. Retrieved 21 January 2014.
- "Medics on Hrushevskoho inform about five people being dead (Лікарі на Грушевського повідомили про загибель 5 людей)". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Ukrainian). 22 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "One of the victims was shot today by a sniper, another was killed from a handgun – medics (Одного из погибших сегодня застрелил снайпер, второго убили из пистолета – врачи)" (in Russian). UNIAN. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "Doctors have confirmed that a sniper killed one of the protesters (Лікарі підтвердили, що одного із протестувальників вбив снайпер)" (in Ukrainian). Espreso TV. 22 January 2014. Archived from the original on 21 February 2014. Retrieved 15 May 2014.
- "Five killed, at least 300 injured, in police assaults on EuroMaidan protesters". Kyiv Post. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.[dead link]
- "Ukrainian Prosecutor General's Office confirmed two deaths from gunshot wounds in Kyiv protests". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 22 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- "Ukrainian investigators probe possible killing of three protesters by riot police". Kyiv Post. 31 January 2014.
- In the Central Morgue of Kiev – 26 unidentified bodies. Ukrayinska Pravda. 31 January 2014
- List of all bodies Archived 4 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Svidomo. 31 January 2014
- KMDA named another number of unidentified bodies. Urkayinska Pravda. 31 January 2014
- "Ukraine President Yanukovych sacks army chief amid crisis". BBC News. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Соболєв: У Будинку профспілок згоріли 40–50 людей". Tvi.ua. 19 February 2014. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Hashim Thaçi (20 February 2014). "Dozens killed in Kyiv as Ukraine 'truce' shattered". Euronews.com. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Amnesty International: Five Years After Euromaidan, Justice For The Victims 'Still Not Even In Sight'". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. RFE/RL. 19 February 2019. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
- Grytsenko, Oksana (24 January 2014). "How many died on Jan. 22 and who took their lives?". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008.
- "One of the victims was shot today by a sniper, another was killed from a handgun – medics" (in Russian). UNIAN. 22 January 2014. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008.
- Christopher J. Miller (25 January 2014). "Report: Lethal 'car stopper' bullets used against protesters during Hrushevskoho Street clashes". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 1 December 2008. Retrieved 25 January 2014.
- You will know what is Yanukovych!. "Argument.ua". 31 January 2014
- Steklow, Steve (10 October 2014). "Special Report: Flaws found in Ukraine's probe of Maidan massacre". Reuters.
- "About the reques by General prosecutor's office regarding permission for arrest of Berkut special company commander, suspected of killing 39 unarmed protesters. (in Ukrainian)". General prosecutor's office of Ukraine. 4 October 2014.
- "Member of parliament Yarema hit a traffic officer that was not letting cars on Maidan square in the face (in Russian)". Korrespondent.net. 26 December 2013.
- "Member of parliament Yarema states he did not hit the traffic officer (in Ukrainian)". newsru.ua. 27 December 2013. Archived from the original on 18 April 2015.
- "A video of brawl involving a member of parliament and a traffic officer surfaced. (in Russian)". vesti-ukr.com. 27 December 2013.
- "Russia, Ukraine feud over sniper carnage". Associated Press. 8 March 2014.
- Eckel, Mike (8 March 2014). "Kiev snipers: Who was behind them?". Christian Science Monitor. Associated Press. Retrieved 10 March 2014.
- "Original Dzerkalo Tizhnya/Zerkalo Nedeli interview". Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) (in Russian and Ukrainian), 6 March 2014. Retrieved 10 March 2014
- Leaked call raises questions about who was behind sniper attacks in Ukraine, CNN, 6 March 2014.
- Estonia denies leaked call implicates Ukraine protesters in killings, Reuters, 5 March 2014.
- Macaskill, Ewen (5 March 2014). "Ukraine crisis: bugged call reveals conspiracy theory about Kiev snipers". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 November 2017.
- "Ukraine crisis: March 5 as it happened, entry for 15.17". The Telegraph. 5 March 2014.
- , German Public TV ARD, Monitor 10 April 2014, ca. 7:45.
- "У кривавому побоїщі в Києві брала участь неукраїнська третя сила – Аваков". Ukrayinska Pravda. 4 March 2014. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- "Snipers shooting at demonstrators in Kiev identified as Ukrainian citizens". ITAR-TASS News Agency. 21 March 2014. Retrieved 30 March 2014.
- "Daily Beast: Russian-Trained Snipers Killed Ukrainian Protesters". Newsmax.com. 31 March 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- Jamie Dettmer (30 March 2014). "Exclusive: Photographs Expose Russian-Trained Killers in Kiev". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "BREAKING NEWS: 9 Suspects in Maidan Shootings Detained". Euromaidanpr.com. 26 July 2014. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- "Приказ расстреливать митингующих отдавал Янукович – ГПУ : Новости УНИАН". Unian.net. Retrieved 3 August 2014.
- Olearchyk, Roman (3 April 2014). "Ukraine implicates Russian agents in deadly protester crackdown". Financial Times.
- Gabriel Gatehouse (12 February 2015). "The untold story of the Maidan massacre". BBC News. BBC. Retrieved 13 February 2015.
- Only at Hrushevskoho suffered 42 journalists (Лише на Грушевського постраждали 42 журналісти). Ukrayinska Pravda. 22 January 2014
- Journalists are disguising themselves as regular protesters for own safety. TSN. 22 January 2014
- "EuroMaidan rallies in Ukraine (Feb. 4 live updates)". Kyiv Post. 4 February 2014.
- "At least two reporters injured by stun grenade in Kyiv". Kyiv Post. Interfax-Ukraine. 20 January 2014. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Mark Rachkevych (20 January 2014). "Watchdog: 26 journalists injured in police clashes, two detained". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Belarusian photocorrespondent in Kiev was shot. Belapan. 22 January 2014
- Belarusian journalist suffered during the events in Kiev. naviny.by. 22 January 2014
- In Kiev sniper wounded a journalist Archived 19 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. Belarusian partizan. 22 January 2014
- Nataliya Trach (22 January 2014). "Police assault journalist providing live video for Espresso TV". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 22 January 2014.
- Ukrainian president demands all detained reporters be released immediately, Interfax-Ukraine (24 January 2014)
- Berkut shoots at medic with raised hands. Ukrayinska Pravda. 31 January 2014. (video no longer available)
- Over 1,600 photographs taken by Mark Estabrook of the EuroMaidan revolution in February 2014 in Kiev
- Austin photographer Mark Estabrook smuggled out of Kiev; Austin American Statesman; 19 February 2014.
- Hospital xrays of Mark Estabrook's leg in Cologne, Germany, 19 February 2014.
- Hospital xrays of Mark Estabrook's shoulder in Cologne, Germany, 19 February 2014.
- German television network ntv interview with Mark Estabrook on 3 February 2014 in Cologne, Germany.
- Ukraine Q&A: How protests turned violent and what comes next, Financial Times (26 January 2014)
- "Poll: Over 70 percent of Euromaidan participants are ready to protest for as long as is needed". Kyiv Post. 13 December 2013. Retrieved 14 December 2013.
- Rachkevych, Mark (10 December 2013). "Survey: EuroMaidan is grassroots movement, in danger of being 'radicalized'". Kyiv Post. Retrieved 10 December 2013.
- Каждый пятый украинец хочет жить в авторитарном государстве [Every Fifth Ukrainian Wants to Live in Sovereign State] (in Russian). 21 January 2014. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- "Ukraine, poll: Attitudes of the population of Ukraine towards democracy and authoritarianism (recurrent, 2004–2012) // Razumkov Centre". Razumkov.org.ua. Archived from the original on 19 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- 24tv.ua. "В акциях Евромайдана приняли участие 20% населения – опрос".
- The socio-political situation in Ukraine: December 2013, Sociological group "RATING" (25 December 2013)
- Davos leaves Ukraine PM out in the cold, Financial Times (23 January 2014)
- "'Fuck the EU': US diplomat Victoria Nuland's phonecall leaked – video". The Guardian. 7 February 2014.
- "Ukraine crisis: Transcript of leaked Nuland-Pyatt call". BBC News. 7 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Angela Merkel: Victoria Nuland's remarks on EU are unacceptable". The Guardian. 7 February 2014.
- AFP (6 February 2014). "Top US diplomat for Europe sorry for cursing the EU". news.yahoo.com. Archived from the original on 2 March 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- AFP (6 February 2014). "US blames Russia for leak of undiplomatic language from top official". The Guardian. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
- "Euromaidan: The Dark Shadows Of The Far-Right In Ukraine Protests", International Business Times, 19 February 2014.
- Poroshenko Bloc to have greatest number of seats in parliament Archived 10 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Ukrainian Television and Radio (8 November 2014)
People's Front 0.33% ahead of Poroshenko Bloc with all ballots counted in Ukraine elections – CEC Archived 12 November 2014 at the Wayback Machine, Interfax-Ukraine (8 November 2014)
Poroshenko Bloc to get 132 seats in parliament – CEC, Interfax-Ukraine (8 November 2014)
- After the parliamentary elections in Ukraine: a tough victory for the Party of Regions, Centre for Eastern Studies (7 November 2012)
- Svoboda party members in Ukrainian government resign – Deputy Premier Sych, Interfax-Ukraine (12 November 2014)
- "Three leaders of opposition and the president of Ukraine signed the document on settlement of a political situation". Archived from the original on 22 March 2014.
- ""The Right Sector" is dissatisfied with the agreement with Yanukovych".
- "Protesters seize Ukraine president's office, take control of Kiev". CBS News. 22 February 2015. Retrieved 9 October 2015.
- "Майдан полностью контролирует Киев – Парубий". segodnya.ua.
- Cullison, Alan (22 February 2014). "Ukrainians Flock to See Yanukovych's Mansion". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 10 October 2015.
- Traynor, Ian (24 February 2014). "Western nations scramble to contain fallout from Ukraine crisis". The Guardian.
- Kramer, Andrew (2 March 2014). "Ukraine Turns to Its Oligarchs for Political Help".
- NY Times: What Ukraine's Jews Fear?
- JerusalemPost: Ukrainian Jewish Leader Says Community In Danger Of Extinction Archived 26 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine
- Protests in Ukraine up risk of growth in foreign currency demand, says Moody's, Interfax-Ukraine (4 December 2013)
- Ukraine needs $10 bln to avoid default – deputy PM, Interfax-Ukraine (7 December 2013)
- Ukraine might not be able to fulfill gas contracts with Russia, says Ukrainian premier, Interfax-Ukraine (3 December 2013)
- Money for pensions, wages, social payments short due to actions of protesters, says Ukrainian premier, Interfax-Ukraine (5 December 2013)
- Korolevska: Payment of pensions in January to begin according to schedule, Interfax-Ukraine (2 January 2014)
- Azarov: Full repayment of debt on social payments postponed until end of this year due to protests, Interfax-Ukraine (11 December 2013)
- Ukraine protesters defy police, leaders reject talks with president, Reuters (11 December 2013)
- Fitch: Ukraine protests increase pressure on credit profile, Interfax-Ukraine (16 December 2013)
- Ukraine's budget deficit in 2014 expected at 3% of GDP – Finance Ministry, Interfax-Ukraine (17 December 2013)
- Nothing threatening Ukraine's economic, financial stability now – PM Azarov, Interfax-Ukraine (18 December 2013)
- Russian bailout masks Ukraine's economic mess, BBC News (18 December 2013)
- Protests cause multi-mln-USD damage to Ukrainian capital: official, Xinhua News Agency (21 January 2014)
- EU’s Ashton demands more urgency from Ukraine politicians, Euronews (6 February 2014)
- Ukraine Bonds Rally as Factions Sign Peace Pact to End Crisis, Bloomberg News (21 February 2014)
- S&P downgrades Ukraine again over default fears, Euronews (21 February 2014)
- Why Ukraine Is So Important, Business Insider (28 January 2014)
- Ukraine unrest: Life as normal outside Kiev protest camp, BBC News (31 January 2014)
- «Євромайдан»— слово року, і не тільки в Україні, Газета.ua, 14 January 2014 ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian)
- Євромайдан і Тітушко— неологізми року в Росії, Газета.ua, 14 January 2014 ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian)
- "Неизвестные разграбили фонды Музея истории Киева в Украинском доме". Rbc.ua. 20 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Фонды Музея истории Киева в Украинском доме полностью разгромлены (ДОПОЛНЕНО)". Society.lb.ua. 19 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- Brat za Brata (Брат за брата). Famous Ukrainian artists against the Regime. YouTube. 1 December 2013.
- All Polish TV channels simultaneously turned on a song in sign of support for Ukraine. TSN. 2 February 2014
- All Polish TV channels simultaneously turned on a song in sign of support for Ukraine. Mirror Weekly. 2 February 2014
- Band Taraka moved hearts. Polskie Radio. 4 February 2014
- Aflame the tire was on fire: new eurohit. Video. Ukrayinska Pravda. 29 January 2014
- New hit of the revolutionary Maidan: "Aflame the barrel was on smoke" Archived 11 February 2014 at Archive.today. espreso TV. 4 February 2014
- Band Skriabin at night on 23 January wrote a song Archived 11 February 2014 at Archive.today. espreso TV. 23 January 2014
- Race car driver Mochanov dedicated his song to titushky Archived 11 February 2014 at Archive.today. espreso TV. 5 February 2014
- on YouTube 4 March 2014
- ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian) Klitschko at concert "Lapis Trubetskoi" autographed and shook hands, Tablo ID (27 August 2014)
- Babylon'13: 35 films about the life of Euromaidan. Ukrayinska Pravda. 24 December 2013
- Happy Kyiv Archived 21 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine. belsat. 10 February 2014
- Group of activists-cinematographers initiated series of films about people of Euromaidan. Ukrayinska Pravda. 5 February 2014
- "I vincitori del Terre di Siena International Film Festival" [The winners of the Terre di Siena International Film Festival], Antennaradioesse, 6 October 2014, retrieved 6 October 2014
- Rothmuller, Sheryl. "Winter on Fire: Ukraine's Fight for Freedom". Television Academy. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Revolution through eyes of photograph. Hanna Hrabarska. Ukrayinska Pravda. 11 February 2014
- Revolution through eyes of photograph. Irakliy Dzneladze. Ukrayinska Pravda. 7 February 2014
- Revolution through eyes of photograph. Vladyslav Musiyenko. Ukrayinska Pravda. 4 February 2014
- Epeople: the best project about the faces of Euromaidan. Ukrayinska Pravda. 30 January 2014
- Illustrator Sasha Godiayeva. Emotional protest. Ukrayinska Pravda. 5 February 2014
- Dynamo to play Valencia in Cyprus, Euronews (19 February 2014)
- Dynamo to play Valencia in Cyprus, UEFA (19 February 2014)
- Hockey heartache for hosts, Ukraine violence shocks Games, Reuters (19 February 2014)
- Ukrainian Olympic alpine skier quits Sochi, blames Yanukovych for deaths on EuroMaidan, Kyiv Post (19 February 2014)
- Budivelinik, Khimik home games moved, Eurocupbasketball(3 March 2014)
- Допис by Alexey Tarasoff. (27 February 2014). "Хокейні вболівальники Росії під час матчу кричали Слава Україні | Українська правда". Pravda.com.ua. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Crimean Tatars protest Crimean parliament's refusal to recognize new authorities". Nrcu.gov.ua. 26 February 2014. Archived from the original on 10 March 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "Ukraine Radicals Steer Violence as Nationalist Zeal Grows". Bloomberg News. 11 February 2014.
- "UPA: Controversial partisans who inspire Ukraine protesters". New Straits Times. 31 January 2014. Archived from the original on 3 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- ""Свободовцы" послали Лукьянченко красно-черный флаг – Донецк.comments.ua". Donetsk.comments.ua. 18 January 2014. Archived from the original on 1 February 2014. Retrieved 3 March 2014.
- "4 Reasons Putin Is Already Losing in Ukraine". Time. 3 March 2014.
- "'It Was A Tragedy Then. We Have Another Tragedy Now.' Ukrainians Rue Lack Of Justice For Euromaidan Killings". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 23 February 2019.
|Look up maidan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Euromaidan.|
- EuroMaidan collected news and commentary at the Kyiv Post
- Book about Maidan in English includes Maidan chronology and many interesting insights
- Webcam on Maidan Nezalezhnosti
- on YouTube ‹See Tfd›(in Ukrainian)
- on YouTube (American documentary on the killing by snipers at the Maidan)
- Katchanovski, I. (2015). "The "Snipers' Massacre" on the Maidan in Ukraine". Retrieved 27 November 2018.
- Estabrook, Mark (February 2014). "kyiv" (Picture). Flickr. Retrieved 27 November 2018.: Over 1,600 photographs of the EuroMaidan revolution in Kiev.
- Bachmann, Klaus; Lyubashenko, Igor (2014). The Maidan Uprising, Separatism and Foreign Intervention: Ukraine's Complex Transition.