Yavoriv

Yavoriv (Ukrainian: Яворів, Polish: Jaworów, Yiddish: יאַוואָראָווYavorov) is a city located in Lviv Oblast (region) of western Ukraine near the Polish border. It is the administrative center of Yavoriv Raion and rests approximately 50 kilometres (31 miles) west of the oblast capital, Lviv. Its population is approximately 12,946 (2020 est.)[1].

Yavoriv

Яворів
City
Yavoriv city hall
Yavoriv city hall
Coat of arms of Yavoriv
Coat of arms
Yavoriv is located in Lviv Oblast
Yavoriv
Yavoriv
Yavoriv is located in Ukraine
Yavoriv
Yavoriv
Coordinates: 49°56′49″N 23°23′35″E / 49.94694°N 23.39306°E / 49.94694; 23.39306Coordinates: 49°56′49″N 23°23′35″E / 49.94694°N 23.39306°E / 49.94694; 23.39306
Country Ukraine
Oblast Lviv Oblast
Raionsize Yavorivskyi Raion
First mentioned1436
Magdeburg law1569
Area
 • Total23.35 km2 (9.02 sq mi)
Elevation
296 m (971 ft)
Population
 (2020)
 • Total12,946
 • Density550/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
81000
Area code(s)+380-3259

Not far from it is the watering-place of Shklo with sulfur springs.[2]

HistoryEdit

The town was first mentioned in written documents in 1436. It received Magdeburg rights in 1569, from Polish King Sigismund II Augustus. Jaworów was a royal town of Poland. It was a favorite residence of king John III Sobieski.[2] In 1675 John III signed the Polish-French Treaty of Jaworów in the town,[3] and there he also received the congratulations from the Pope on his success against the Turks at Vienna (1683).[2]

Until the Partitions of Poland, Jaworów was an important center of commerce, located along main merchant route from Jarosław to Lwów. In 1772 it was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, as part of Austrian Galicia, where it remained until late 1918. In Galicia, it was the seat of a county, with the population of almost 11,000 (Poles, Jews, Ukrainians and Czechs).

 
Early 20th-century view of the town

In the immediate post-World War I period, the area of Jaworów witnessed fights of the Polish-Ukrainian War. After the war, the town became part of the Second Polish Republic, where it remained until the joint German-Soviet invasion of Poland, which started World War II, in September 1939. The Jews of the village were merchants or artisans. There was a synagogue.

During the invasion of Poland, on September 14–16, 1939, Poles defeated invading Germans in the Battle of Jaworów. Despite the victory, the town soon fell to the Soviets, and was under Soviet occupation from 1939 to 1941, and then under German occupation until 1944.

The Jewish population before the German occupation on June 26, 1941 was around 3000. Immediately after the Germans arrived, antisemitic Ukrainians launched a pogrom, robbing and killing Jews. German forces took 15 Jews to a nearby forest and shot them. After that, for several months, Jews lived in their own homes but were banned on the main street and had a 6 pm curfew. The Ukrainian police brutalized them, with beatings and some plunder and rape. Several hundred Jews were sent to local forced labor camps. In November 1942, German security forces, along with German and Ukrainian police, rounded up 1200 Jews, killed 200 on the spot, and sent the others to the Belzec killing camp where they were immediately murdered. A few days later, German and Ukrainian police hunted Jews in hiding and murdered about 200 at the Jewish cemetery. After that, the Germans established a Jewish ghetto which housed about 600 Jews. Soon after, Jews from a few neighboring villages were brought to Yavoriv bringing the ghetto population to 6000. More than 70 people lived in each of the 80 small houses in the ghetto. The overcrowding, starvation, and poor sanitary conditions soon led to a typhus epidemic. After about 500 more able-bodied Jews were sent to a labor camp, on April 16, 1943, the German and Ukrainian police took more than 3500 Jews to the Porudno forest and murdered them. More than 2500 Jews were murdered before noon on the 16th, the rest over the next few days. The Germans and Ukrainians burned the ghetto and searched for those in hiding. Those found were shot. A few were transferred to a labor camp in Lwow. [4] In 1944 the town was re-occupied by the Soviets, and in 1945 it was eventually annexed from Poland by the Soviet Union.

After the war, the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission reported that more than 4900 people, most of them Jews, had been killed in Yavoriv, in addition to those sent to Belzec. Only about 20 of the town's Jews were thought to have survived. [5]

Notable peopleEdit

Among notable people born here are Władysław Langner (General of the Polish Army), Stanisław Nowakowski (president of the Polish Scouting and Guiding Association), and mathematician Wawrzyniec Żmurko.

GalleryEdit

International relationsEdit

Twin towns — Sister citiesEdit

Yavoriv is twinned with:

City Country Year
Jarosław   Poland 2006
Węgorzewo   Poland
Lubaczów   Poland
Trakai   Lithuania
 
Yavoriv city centre.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Чисельність наявного населення України (Actual population of Ukraine)" (PDF) (in Ukrainian). State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Retrieved 30 September 2020.
  2. ^ a b c   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Jaworów". Encyclopædia Britannica. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 294.
  3. ^ "11 czerwca 1675 roku król Polski Jan III Sobieski i ambasador króla Francji Ludwika XIV podpisali tajny traktat w Jaworowie". Historykon (in Polish). Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  4. ^ http://yahadmap.org/#village/yavoriv-lviv-ukraine.347
  5. ^ Megargee, Geoffrey (2012). Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos. Bloomington, Indiana: University of Indiana Press. p. Volume II 784-686. ISBN 978-0-253-35599-7.