Yavoriv (Ukrainian: Яворів, pronounced [ˈjɑ.wo.r⁽ʲ⁾iu̯]; Polish: Jaworów; Yiddish: יאַוואָראָוו, romanizedYavorov; German: Jaworiw) is a city in the Lviv region of western Ukraine which is around 15 kilometers from the Polish border. It is the administrative centre of Yavoriv Raion and is situated approximately 50 kilometres (31 miles) west of the oblast capital, Lviv. Yavoriv hosts the administration of Yavoriv urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine.[1] Its population is approximately 12,785 (2022 estimate).[2]

Yavoriv city hall
Yavoriv city hall
Flag of Yavoriv
Coat of arms of Yavoriv
Yavoriv is located in Lviv Oblast
Yavoriv is located in Ukraine
Coordinates: 49°56′49″N 23°23′35″E / 49.94694°N 23.39306°E / 49.94694; 23.39306
Country Ukraine
Oblast Lviv Oblast
Raion Yavoriv Raion
First mentioned1436
Magdeburg law1569
 • Total23.35 km2 (9.02 sq mi)
296 m (971 ft)
 • Total12,785
 • Density550/km2 (1,400/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+2 (EET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+3 (EEST)
Postal code
Area code+380-3259

Not far from it is the watering-place of Shklo with sulphur springs.[3]

History edit

Historical population
Source: [4]

The town was first mentioned in written documents in 1436. It received Magdeburg rights in 1569, from Polish King Sigismund II Augustus. Jaworów was a royal town of Poland. It was a favorite residence of king John III Sobieski.[3] In 1675 John III signed the Polish-French Treaty of Jaworów in the town,[5] and there he also received the congratulations from the Pope on his success against the Turks at Vienna (1683),[3] and ratified the formation of the Holy League alliance in 1684.[6] In 1711, Francis II Rákóczi, Hungarian national hero who found refuge in Poland after the fall of the Rákóczi's War of Independence against Austria, visited the town.[7]

Until the First Partition of Poland, Jaworów was an important center of commerce, located along main merchant route from Jarosław to Lwów. In 1772 it was annexed by the Habsburg Empire, and included within newly formed Austrian Galicia, where it remained until late 1918. In Galicia, it was the seat of a county, with the population of almost 11,000 (Poles, Jews, Ukrainians and Czechs).

Early 20th-century view of the town

In the immediate post-World War I period, the area of Jaworów witnessed fights of the Polish-Ukrainian War. After the war, the town became part of the Second Polish Republic, where it remained until the joint German-Soviet invasion of Poland, which started World War II, in September 1939. The Jews of the village were merchants or artisans. There was a synagogue.

During the invasion of Poland, on 14-16 September 1939, Poles defeated invading Germans in the Battle of Jaworów. Despite the victory, the town soon fell to the Soviets, and was under Soviet occupation from 1939 to 1941, and then under German occupation until 1944.

The Jewish population before the German occupation on 26 June 1941 was around 3000.[citation needed] Several hundred Jews were sent to local forced labor camps or to the Belzec extermination camp.[citation needed] A few were transferred to a labour camp in Lviv.[8][better source needed]

In 1944 the town was re-occupied by the Soviets, and in 1945 it was eventually annexed from Poland by the Soviet Union.

After the war, the Soviet Extraordinary State Commission reported that more than 4900 people, most of them Jews, had been killed in Yavoriv, in addition to those sent to Bełżec. Only about 20 of the town's Jews were thought to have survived.[9]

On 27 May 1947 the UPA blew up the statue of Lenin.[10]

In the decades between the 1960s and 1990s the town was a sulphur mining centre;[11] excavation pits and degenerated lands remain between Yavoriv and Novoiavorivsk.[11]

On 10 December 1991 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union it became part of Ukraine.

On 13 March 2022, during the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, the Russians bombed the military base in Yavoriv. A Russian military spokesperson claimed the attack killed up to 180 foreign mercenaries. The Ukrainian side claimed there were at least 35 dead and 134 injured.[12][13][14] The attack was heard in neighbouring Poland.[15]

Notable people edit

Among notable people born here are Władysław Langner (General of the Polish Army), Stanisław Nowakowski (president of the Polish Scouting and Guiding Association), and mathematician Wawrzyniec Żmurko. Noted Jewish commentator Rabbi David Altschuler was born or served as rabbi at the local synagogue.[16][17]

Gallery edit

International relations edit

Twin towns — Sister cities edit

Yavoriv is twinned with:

City Country Year
Jarosław   Poland 2006
Węgorzewo   Poland
Lubaczów   Poland
Havant   United Kingdom
Trakai   Lithuania
Yavoriv city centre.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Яворовская городская громада" (in Russian). Портал об'єднаних громад України.
  2. ^ Чисельність наявного населення України на 1 січня 2022 [Number of Present Population of Ukraine, as of January 1, 2022] (PDF) (in Ukrainian and English). Kyiv: State Statistics Service of Ukraine. Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 July 2022.
  3. ^ a b c   One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Jaworów". Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 15 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 294.
  4. ^ Wiadomości Statystyczne Głównego Urzędu Statystycznego (in Polish). Vol. X. Warszawa: Główny Urząd Statystyczny. 1932. p. 141.
  5. ^ "11 czerwca 1675 roku król Polski Jan III Sobieski i ambasador króla Francji Ludwika XIV podpisali tajny traktat w Jaworowie". Historykon (in Polish). Retrieved 25 October 2020.
  6. ^ Żygulski jun., Zdzisław (1994). Odsiecz Wiednia 1683 (in Polish). Kraków: Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza. p. 60.
  7. ^ Z Bogiem za ojczyznę i wolność – o Franciszku II Rakoczym bohaterze Węgier (in Polish). Warszawa: Muzeum Niepodległości w Warszawie. 2016. p. 31. ISBN 978-83-62235-88-9.
  8. ^ "Yahad - in Unum".
  9. ^ Megargee, Geoffrey (2012). Encyclopedia of Camps and Ghettos. Bloomington, Indiana: University of Indiana Press. p. Volume II 784-686. ISBN 978-0-253-35599-7.
  10. ^ Grzegorz Motyka (2006), Ukraińska partyzantka 1942-1960 (in Polish), Warsaw: Instytut Studiów Politycznych PAN, p. 518, ISBN 83-88490-58-3, OCLC 838973434
  11. ^ a b Grzegorz Rąkowski (2007), Ziemia Lwowska. Przewodnik po Ukrainie Zachodniej. Część III (in Polish), Pruszków: Rewasz, p. 506-511, ISBN 978-83-89188-66-3, OCLC 189428719
  12. ^ Hugo Bachega (13 March 2022), Ukraine war: 'Sky turned red' as missiles hit Lviv military base, Yavoriv, Ukraine: BBC News
  13. ^ Luke Harding; Peter Beaumont; Lorenzo Tondo (13 March 2022), "Russia targets Ukrainian military base near Polish border in escalation", The Guardian, Yavoriv & Lviv
  14. ^ Hubert Ossowski (13 March 2022), Rakiety spadły przy polskiej granicy. Zaatakowano poligon w Jaworowie (in Polish), Wirtualna Polska
  15. ^ PAP (13 March 2022), Atak na poligon koło Lwowa był słyszalny w Polsce (in Polish), Rzeszów: onet.pl
  16. ^ "David Altschuler", Wikipedia, 2021-12-18, retrieved 2022-03-02
  17. ^ "ALTSCHUL, ALTSCHULER, ALTSCHUELER - JewishEncyclopedia.com". www.jewishencyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2022-03-02.