Chernivtsi (Ukrainian: Чернівці́, romanized: Černivci [tʃern(j)iu̯ˈts(j)i], Romanian: Cernăuți; see also other names) is a city in western Ukraine. It is situated on the upper course of the Prut River, and is the administrative center of Chernivtsi Oblast (province), which includes the Ukrainian part of Bukovina. Chernivtsi is also the administrative center of Chernivtsi Raion and hosts the administration of the Chernivtsi urban hromada, one of the hromadas of Ukraine. At the time of the 2001 Ukrainian Census, the population of the city was 240,600. The current population is 267,060 (2020 est.)
The Chernivtsi City Municipality (center) on the map of Chernivtsi Oblast.
|City rights||14th century|
|• Mayor||Roman Klichuk (United Alternative)|
|• Total||153 km2 (59 sq mi)|
|Elevation||248 m (814 ft)|
|• Density||1,700/km2 (4,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||UTC+2 (EET)|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC+3 (EEST)|
|Area code(s)||+380 372|
|Sister cities||Salt Lake City, Konin, Suceava, Nazareth Illit, Saskatoon, Klagenfurt|
Chernivtsi is viewed as one of Western Ukraine's main cultural centers. The city is also considered one of Ukraine's important educational and architectural sites. Inhabited by Early Slavic tribes since the 2nd or 5th century AD, the area in which present-day Chernivtsi is located became part of Kievan Rus' in the 9th-11th century. Chernivtsi was also part, for almost two centuries, of the Principality of Moldavia. Located on the border with Poland, the city flourished enjoying a high degree of autonomy. The city came under Turkish control in 1538, and was later devastated by the Russo-Turkish War. Russians and Swedes pillaged the city, which by 1762 had shrunk to a settlement of hardly 200 wooden buildings and about a thousand inhabitants. After passing to Austria in 1775, the city's population, economy and architectural landscape grew exponentially. Historically a cosmopolitan community, Chernivtsi was once dubbed "Little Vienna" and "Jerusalem upon the Prut". Chernivtsi is twinned with seven other cities around the world. The city is a major regional rail and road transportation hub, also housing an international airport.
Aside from its Ukrainian name of Chernivtsi, the city is also known by several different names in various languages, which still are used by the respective population groups much as they used to be throughout the city's history, either in connection with the rule by one country or another or independently from it: Romanian: Cernăuți; German: Czernowitz; Polish: Czerniowce; Hungarian: Csernovic, Yiddish: טשערנאוויץ, Russian: Черновцы́, translit. Chernovtsy (In Russian until 1944: Чернови́цы, translit. Chernovitsy). In the times of Halych-Volyn Principality the city's name was Chern.
Antean state 4th–9th century
Kievan Rus' 9th–11th century
Principality of Halych 1124–1199
Galicia–Volhynia 1199–14th century
Golden Horde 1241–1342
Kingdom of Hungary 1342–1365
Ottoman Empire 1538–1775
Habsburg Monarchy 1775–1804
Austrian Empire 1804–1867
Kingdom of Romania 1918–1940
Soviet Union (Ukrainian SSR) 1940–1941
Kingdom of Romania 1941–1944
Soviet Union (Ukrainian SSR) 1944–1991
Archaeological evidence discovered in the area surrounding Chernivtsi indicates that a population inhabited it since the Neolithic era. Later settlements included those of the Cucuteni-Trypillian culture, the Corded Ware culture; artifacts from the Bronze and Iron Ages were also found in the city. Archaeological finds in the area around Chernivtsi show that the area was inhabited by a Slavic population by the 2nd / 5th century AD.
A fortified settlement located on the left (north-eastern) shore of the Prut dating back to the time of the Principality of Halych was built by Grand Prince Yaroslav Osmomysl in the second half of the 12th century. In the List of Russian Cities Far and Near (c. 1370) there is a settlement Chern on the Prut located in the northwestern part of modern Chervivtsi..
It is said that Chernivtsi owes its name to the black color of the city walls, built from dark oak layered with local black-colored soil. Chern was destroyed during the Mongol invasion of Europe by Boroldai in the 13th century. However, the remaining ramparts of the fortress were still used for defense purposes. The ruins of Chern are still preserved.
In the 17th century the ramparts were augmented with several bastions, one of which is still extant.
Following the destruction of the fortress, later settlements in the area centered on the right (south-western) shore of the Prut River, at a more strategically advantageous, elevated location. According to Romanian scholars, in 1325, when the Kingdom of Poland seized control of Galicia, and came into contact with the early Vlach (Romanian) feudal formations, a fort was mentioned under the name Țețina; it was defending the ford and crossing point on the Prut River. It was part of a group of three fortifications; the other two being the fortress of Hotin on the Dniester to the east, and a fort on the Kolachin River, an upriver tributary of Prut.
From the late 14th century until 1538 the city was part of the Principality of Moldavia, one of the historic provinces of Romania; the city being the administrative center of the homonymous ținut (county). In Ottoman sources, the city was mentioned as "ַernovi", a phonetic transliteration of a Latin cognomen meaning new castle (see French Castelnau or Welsh Carno).[dubious ] The city of Chern, after its reconstruction, became known as Chernivtsi. It is mentioned in this variation for the first time in 1408 (8 October 1408). Standing at the border between the Ukrainian/Moldavian Principality of Moldavia and Poland, the city was ran through by a trade route between Lviv and Souceava. Its earliest reference appears in the context of the collection of excise taxes (Ukrainian: chernovskoe myto), in a treaty between Stephen of Moldavia and the merchants of Lviv. During the Moldovian period te city enjoyed a high degree of autonomy, in fact becoming a "free city." The city flourished thanks to trade and international fairs. However, by the mid-16th century it went into decline to due to wars. Chernivtsi was sacked in 1497, 1509, and 1688, during the Moldavian-Polish wars, as well as during the Turkish wars (1476, 1714) and the Crimean Tatar wars (1626, 1646, 1650, 1672).
In 1538 the city passed to the Turks. Tymofiy Khmelnytsky led the Cossacks to Chernivtsi in 1650 and 1653, and also Ivan Mazepa wintered there in 1709, in the aftermath of the defeat at Poltava. That same year, the city was sacked by the Russians and Swedes. During the Russian-Turkish wars, the city was sacked again by the Russians (1739). The Russians kidnapped a large amount of citizens as they retreated. Conflicts and invasions caused Chernivtsi to "shrink to a small settlement" by the 18th century. In 1762 the city consisted of hardly 200 wooden buildings. Its population of 1,200 was made up of boyars, merchants, loan sharks and poor people, who often revolted against injustices, having to resort to banditry (the Opryshoks).
After being occupied by the Russians during the Russo-Turkish War of 1768–74, in 1775 the city passed to the Habsburg Empire; part of the region known as Bukovina, the city became the region's capital. From 1786 to 1849 it was part of the crownland of Galicia. In 1849 Bukovina was raised in status and became known as the Duchy of Bukovina, a crownland of the Austrian Empire. The city enjoyed again Magdeburg rights. The city began to flourish in 1778 when Knight Karl von Enzenberg was appointed the chief of the Military Administration. He invited many merchants, craftsmen and entrepreneurs to help develop trade and other businesses. Saint Peter's Fairs (1–15 July) had given a new vibrant impulse to the market development from 1786. In the late 19th century the German language—due to the Habsburg and the very important Jewish influence—became the lingua franca and more and more newspapers were edited in German, also a remarkable literary production in German began in this period, featuring most prominently Karl Emil Franzos.
With the Austrians the city flourished, and increased its extinguishing population. By 1779, the city had passed from a thousand inhabitants to 3,200. The city continued to grow thanks to an influx of migrants (Germans, Poles, Romanians, Ukrainians, among others). Craft guilds were established and industry developed in the late 18th century. Stone buildings were erected, and in the 19th century important public buildings such as the city's gymnasium (built between 1813 and 1817), as well as private buildings of four floors and more, and several churches where built. A public park was constructed in 1830, and in 1832 a municipal council with a burgomaster at its head was created. Between then and 1877, a distillery, a brewery a steam mill, tile factory, a chamber of commerce, a stock exchange were built and telegraph communications installed. In 1866 the Lviv-Chernivtsi railroad was completed, and an electric power station was added in 1895, followed by an electric streetcar system in 1897.
Sewage and water supply systems were installed in between 1895 and 1912. The Orthodox cathedral was built in this period, as well as the Armenian church, the Jesuit church, and the Jewish synagogue. In the 20th century a city theater and railway station were added. By the early 20th century the city had over 100,000 inhabitants. Two thousand five hundred employers were working in Chernivtsi's factories, and by 1910 1,400 merchants and 2,140 tradesmen were active in the city. The city was the see of the Orthodox bishop―from 1873 the metropolitan.
Until 1781 there was only one elementary school in Chernivtsi, teaching in Romanian. The Austrians opened also a number of German schools in the city. The Chernivtsi University was established in 1875. In the university there were chairs in the Ukrainian language, which was introduced as a subject in 1851, and was thereupon thought at the teachers' seminary. The university attracted students from other parts of Galicia and Bukovina. 1896 saw the establishment of the Ukrainian Gymnasium of Chernivtsi in the city.
By the end of its membership in the Austrian Empire, there were Ukrainian-language elementary schools in Chernivtsi, four in total. Ukrainian organizations grew in Chernivtsi in the second half of the 19th century, with the Ruska Besida in Bukovyna founded in 1869; the Ruska Rada society in 1870, and Soiuz, a student society, in 1875, the cultural/educational society Mishchanska Chytalnia in 1880 and the Ukrainian People’s Home society in 1884. Such prominent Ukrainian writers as Yuriy Fedkovych, Sydir Vorobkevych, and Olha Kobylianska, were all Ukrainian Bukovinians quite close to Chernivtsi. Such organizations were initially Russophile. However, Ukrainians eventually prevailed, thanks to such figures as populists (narodovtsi) Yerotei Pihuliak, Omelian Popovych, Stepan Smal-Stotsky, among others. The Ukrainian national movement grew rapidly thanks to them. The center of Ukrainian cultural life became the aforementioned Ukrainian People’s Home society, and in 1887 the Ukrainska Shkola was also founded here. Loan association Ruska Kasa was founded in 1896, and the Selianska Kasa, a union of agricultural credit associations, in 1903. The Women's Hromada in Bukovyna, a Bukovinian cultural and charitable association of Ukrainian women, was founded in 1906 in Chernivtsi. The sportive Sich Union was founded in 1904, and the students' residence Fedkovych Bursa in 1896. The own building of the Fedkovych Bursa was erected in 1906. Musical societies were also opened, with the Bukovynskyi Boian founded in 1895, the Mishchanskyi Khor in 1901, and the Bukovynian People's Theater in 1897. The city became one of the most important Ukrainian publishing center, with a number of newspapers, magazine, literary, teachers' and students' publications, book series, including Bukovinskaia zoria (1870–1); Bukovyna (1885–1918); Biblioteka dlia molodezhi, selian i mishchan (1885–93); Kreitsarova biblioteka (1902–8); Pravoslavnyi rus’kyi kalendar (1874–1918); Haslo (1902–3); Narodnyi holos (1909–15, 1921, 1923), Narodna sprava (1907–10), Hromadianyn (1909–11), and Borba (1908–14).
The city was an important center for publishing for Jews, Romanians, Germans, and Poles. Beside Ukrainians, the city became also the center of Romanian national movement. In 1908, it was the site of the first Yiddish language conference, the Czernowitz Conference, coordinated by Nathan Birnbaum. Karl-Emile Franzos, a German writer, popularized Taras Shevchenko. Historian Raimund Friedrich Kaindl studied the history of Bukovina, with a focus on its Hutsuls.
With the collapse of Austria-Hungary in 1918, both the local Romanian National Council and the Ukrainian National Council based in Galicia claimed the region. In the beginning, Bukovina joined the fledging West Ukrainian National Republic (November 1918), but it was invaded by the Romanian army immediately thereafter, against Ukrainian protests.
Chernivtsi was occupied three times by the Russians during World War I. The regime that had invaded the city proceeded with persecuting the "nationally conscious Ukrainians." Eventually, the Russians were driven out. Oleksander Lototsky became Gubernial Commissioner of Bukovyna. On 25 October 1918 the Ukrainian Regional Committee of Bukovyna was formed. A large public assembly was convened in the city, approving the union of Bukovina to the Ukrainian state on November 3, 1918. Ukrainians took control of the city three days later, with Yosyp Bezpalko elected mayor. But five days later, Romanian troops invaded Bukovina in spite of Ukrainian resistance, and seized the city. Thus, in addition to southern Bukovina, the Romanian Army also seized the historically solidly Ukrainian northern Bukovina, including Chernivtsi, on November 11. On 28 November, the Romanian General Congress proclaimed Bukovina's union with Romania.
During those two years, even most city residents did not know of which country they were citizens, with most assuming Czernowitz still belonged to Austria-Hungary. German remained the lingua franca of the city and its suburbs for another decade. Under the Kingdom of Romania in 1930, according to Romanian census, the city reached a population of 112,400: 26.8% Jews, 23.2% Romanians, 20.8% Germans, 18.6% Ukrainians, the remainder Poles and others. It was one of the five university centers of interwar Romania.
Under Romania, Chernivtsi became the center of Bukovina. In spite of the persecution of Ukrainians by Romanians, however, it also managed to remain the center of Ukrainian culture. So great was this cultural influence, that some new Ukrainian organizations even managed to be founded in Chernivtsi, amid policies of Rumanization in other parts of the region. A new bulding was also erected at Chernivtsi University, and a cultural house opened. Yet, the number of Ukrainian publications was drastically decreased. In the 1930s, the city grew economically, as a prominent center. Several mills, factories and plants were opened in the city starting from 1936. In 1936, "155 large and 61 small firms were located in the city, among them 5 mills, 8 large bakeries, 6 distilleries, 7 meat-packing plants, 16 food-processing plants, 21 chemical plants, 18 metalworking plants, 51 textile factories, 6 furniture factories, and 7 printing shops."
In 1940, the Red Army occupied the area; the area around the city became known as Chernivtsi Oblast, and was allotted to the Ukrainian SSR by the Soviet Union. It remained occupied by the Soviet Union from June 1940 to July 1941. Under the regime of military dictator Ion Antonescu, Romania had switched from an ally of France and Britain to one of Nazi Germany; subsequently, in July 1941, the Romanian Army retook the city as part of the Axis attack on the Soviet Union during World War II. In August 1941, Antonescu ordered the creation of a ghetto in the lowland part of the city, where 50,000 Bukovina Jews were crammed, two-thirds of whom would be deported in October 1941 and early 1942 to Transnistria, where the majority perished. The Romanian mayor of the city Traian Popovici managed to persuade Antonescu to raise the number of Jews exempted from deportation from 200 to 20,000. In 1944, when Axis forces were driven out by the Red Army, the city was reincorporated into the Ukrainian SSR. Over the following years, most of the Jews emigrated to Israel; the city was an important node in the Berihah network. Bukovina Poles were expelled by the Soviets after World War II. The city became a predominantly Ukrainian one. With the events of World War II drastic changes happened to the national make-up of the local population. Germans were repatriated to Germany, and a number of Romanians returned to Romania. Ukrainian "cultural and civic life was completely disrupted," many leaders were incarcerated, and Ukrainians were resettled. Most notably, many Jews were killed as part of the Holocaust. The city suffered greatly, getting also much damaged.
After 1944, the city became the capital of Chernivtsi Oblast. It was developed "along the main arteries" during the Soviet period. Industrial sections were created in the north, central, and southern districts of the city. A natural-gas system was added in 1956. Between 1971 and 1973 a railway bridge was built over the Prut. Several factories were opened, and the city had 60% of the oblast's labor force.
Since 1991, Chernivtsi has been a part of an independent Ukraine. An Austrian consulate is present in Chernivtsi. In May 1999, Romania opened a consulate general in the city.
Until 18 July 2020, Chernivtsi was designated as a city of oblast significance and did not belong to any raion. As part of the administrative reform of Ukraine, which reduced the number of raions of Chernivtsi Oblast to three, the city was merged into Chernivtsi Raion.
Coat of armsEdit
Chernivtsi coat of arms – framed by a bronze ornamental cartouche, a red heraldic shield depicting an open stone gate with a figured trident in the middle. Under the gate, there are two crossed laurel branches, tied with ribbons. The crown of the symbol is the stone crown.
Flag of ChernivtsiEdit
The Chernivtsi flag consists of a tree, the top, and a rectangular cloth, the front of which forms framed by a red tooth-like ornament white background with an inscription in Ukrainian in the center, over which there is inscribed in Ukrainian: "Chernivtsi". Under the coat of arms, there is the sign "1408" – the date of the first written mention of the city. On both sides of the coat of arms and all four corners of the field are filled with floral ornaments and with the addition of two beech branches with nuts and leaves. The reverse side is formed by a yellow background with the coat of arms of Ukraine in the center with frames and ornaments similar to the front side.
Honorary chain of the mayor of ChernivtsiEdit
The mayor's honorary chain is a symbol of Chernivtsi mayor's authority, which is served on behalf of the territorial community. Founded in 1908 and restored in 2008. The symbol is a medallion with the inscription engraved on it: "From Chernivtsi community to freely elected head", on the reverse – "The foundation of a free state is a free community". The medallion is attached to a chain consisting of stylized coats of arms Ukraine, Chernivtsi region and the city of Chernivtsi. The symbol is made of gold colour metal.
Medal "To the glory of Chernivtsi"Edit
The medal "To the glory of Chernivtsi" is an honorary distinction of the Chernivtsi City Council, introduced to the 600th Anniversary of Chernivtsi (2008) in order to reward individuals who actively contributed to the prosperity of the city and its promotion in Ukraine and the world. The award is made of silver-gilt, it has a circle shape with a diameter of 28 mm. The medal's strip is white with red stripes, which corresponds to the colours of the Chernivtsi flag. At the bottom of the strip, there is a beech branch. The obverse depicts the emblem of Chernivtsi and the inscription – "To the glory of Chernivtsi". On the reverse – the official Chernivtsi logo, designed and approved for the anniversary. The medal is awarded, according to the decision of the Executive Committee of the City Council, annually during the celebration of the city day.
The official motto of modern Chernivtsi, "Спільними зусиллями!", is a Ukrainian-language version of the Latin Viribus Unitis ("With United Forces"), the personal motto of Franz Joseph, who personally bestowed the right to use it on Chernivtsi. This indicates a special attitude of the emperor to the city. Along with the capital of Bukovina, only the first naval ship of the Austro-Hungarian Navy (SMS Viribus Unitis) was honoured with such honour.
Logotype of ChernivtsiEdit
The official ''Chernivtsi 600'' logo was developed and approved by the anniversary of the city in 2008. It was recognized so successful that it continues to be used. The main idea of components for emblem is based on the antiquity of the city, its exceptional architectural heritage and the hard work of its inhabitants. The symbol is made in the form of a blacksmith's work of art, which testifies to the soundness, prosperity, and success. The color scheme of the logo, represented by dark blue and yellow, has a higher degree of comfortable contrast and coincides with the colors of the State Flag of Ukraine.
In the early 2010s, a new city logo was developed and approved, and at the same time the official slogan was affixed: "Chernivtsi is unique in diversity". Old and new symbols of Chernivtsi were chosen for its creation. To the left, in the foreground, there is a trumpet player who wins the trumpet tune "Marichka". In the middle of the background, there is the town hall. The former Metropolitan Residence of Bukovina and Dalmatia which is recognized as the architectural pearl of the city is pictured to the right in the background.
The colour scheme of the logo represented in orange, blue and red, the name is purple. Such a combination is characteristic of tourism, which uses the notion of happiness, well-being, the joy of relaxation, visualizing positive symbols and images in a colourful, warm and vibrant colour scheme. The new logo uses old symbols from the "Chernivtsi 600" logo.
Geography and climateEdit
Chernivtsi is located in the historic region of Bukovina, which is currently shared between Romania (south) and Ukraine (north). Chernivtsi is located in the southwest of Ukraine, in the eastern Carpathians, on the border between the Carpathians and the East European Plain, 40 km from the border with Romania. The city lies 248 meters above sea level and is surrounded by forests and fields. The River Prut runs through the city's landscape. The city is located in the Eastern European time zone in the region of 26 meridians.
Chernivtsi is located at the intersection of the transport arteries: E85, H03, and H10
The city is located in a temperate climate zone. The climate is continental with mild winters and warm summers. The average annual temperature is +8,6 °C, the lowest in January (-2,9 °C), the highest – in July (+19,8 °C). Winter usually comes on 28 November and ends 9 March; summer begins on 20 May, and ends on 10 September. The average annual rainfall in Chernivtsi is 621 mm, with the lowest – in October and January–February, the highest – in June–July. Sometimes there are heavy rains during the summer. Snow cover is formed each winter, but its altitude is insignificant. The average wind speed ranges from 3.3 m/s in July to 4.0 m/s in January. The average annual humidity is 77%.
|Climate data for Chernivtsi (1981–2010, extremes 1941–present)|
|Record high °C (°F)||15.3
|Average high °C (°F)||0.1
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−2.9
|Average low °C (°F)||−5.7
|Record low °C (°F)||−30.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||25.9
|Average rainy days||7||7||12||17||17||18||15||13||13||13||12||9||153|
|Average snowy days||15||15||10||3||0.03||0||0||0||0||1||7||13||64|
|Average relative humidity (%)||82.8||80.5||75.3||68.9||69.0||70.9||71.1||72.7||75.3||79.1||84.2||85.1||76.2|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||58.2||80.0||129.6||171.2||241.1||243.6||257.9||241.6||175.0||132.6||64.8||47.0||1,842.6|
|Source 1: Pogoda.ru.net|
|Source 2: World Meteorological Organization (precipitation, humidity, and sun)|
The total area of Chernivtsi within the administrative boundaries of 2013 is about 153 km2 (59 sq mi). According to the functional purpose the lands of the city are divided as follows: land of residential and public buildings (64%), lands of agricultural purpose (17%), lands of industry (9%), lands of recreational and environmental purpose (5%), lands of general use (3%), commercial land (2%).
The main water source of Chernivtsi is the Prut River in its upper reaches, which divides the city in half. Besides, there are six small streams and nine lakes within the city.
The relief is characterized by significant relief dip – from 150 m above sea level in the Prut valleys to 537 m in the western outskirts (Mount Tsetzino), which is caused by the location on the Chernivtsi Upland.
Chernivtsi is considered to be a "green city": the large territory is occupied by parks, squares, gardens, alleys and flower gardens. Nine objects are recognized as monuments of landscape art. The city has a botanical garden at the Yuriy Fedkovych National University with a unique orangery. Among the relict plants growing in the botanical garden, a special place is occupied by a giant Sequoiadendron.
State of the environmentEdit
At the end of the twentieth century, the main pollutants of the Chernivtsi environment were industrial enterprises, including the MIC. In the 1990s much of them ceased to exist or significantly reduced production capacity and thus reduced industrial emissions. Despite this, 58 enterprises (38.4% of the total amount in the region) are the main pollutants of the environment. Approximately 1.2 tonnes of pollutants are released into the air annually (34.9% of the total area emissions). Non-methane volatile organic compounds, carbon dioxide and substances in the form of solid suspended solids predominate in the structure of the emitted pollutants. In addition, carbon dioxide, which has a greenhouse effect, is periodically released into the atmosphere of the city. Emissions from stationary sources were 7.9 tonnes per 1 km2 (0.39 sq mi) of Chernivtsi territory. Each inhabitant of the regional center accounts for an average of 4.8 kg (11 lb) of harmful emissions per year.
In 2008, Chernivtsi established an Environmental Monitoring System (EMS), an information structure that integrates environmental monitoring organizations and industrial enterprises that pollute the environment or which may adversely affect the environment or its components.
Since the late 1990s, transport is a significant factor in the negative impact on the environment. To some extent, the situation was improved with the construction of the first (2004) and the second (2010) queues of the bypass road, which connected the directions "Kyiv-Chernivtsi" and "Chernivtsi-Suceava". The problem of transit transport in the city will be finally resolved after the construction of the third branch of the bypass road, which will connect the directions "Suceava-Chernivtsi" and "Chernivtsi-Lviv".
Government and subdivisionsEdit
The territory of Chernivtsi is divided into three administrative city raions (districts):
|1||Pershotravnevy Raion||Першотравневий район||69,370|
|2||Sadhora Raion||Садгірський район||28,227|
|3||Shevchenko Raion||Шевченківський район||139,094|
According to the latest All-Ukrainian population census in 2001, the population of Chernivtsi was approximately 240,600 people of 65 nationalities. Among them, 189,000 (79.8%) are Ukrainians; 26,700 (11.3%) Russians; 10,500 (4.4%) Romanians; 3,800 (1.6%) Moldovans; 1,400 (0.6%) Polish; 1,300 (0.6%) Jews; 2,900 (1.2%) other nationalities.
Based on the last available Soviet data, the population of the city, as of 1 January 1989, was approximately 295,000 residents. Among these, there are some 172,000 Ukrainians, 46,000 Russians, 16,000 Romanians, 13,000 Moldovans, 7,000 Poles and others.
The Romanian population in Chernivtsi started decreasing rapidly after 1950. Many Romanians fled to Romania or were deported to Siberia (where most of them died), and the remaining Romanian population quickly became a minority and assimilated with the majority. Nowadays, the Romanian minority in Chernivtsi is still decreasing as a result of cultural assimilation and emigration to Romania.
Chernivtsi once had a Jewish community of over 50,000, less than a third of whom survived World War II. Romanian lawyer and reserve officer Theodor Criveanu, as well as the then city mayor Traian Popovici, supported by General Vasile Ionescu saved 19,689 Jewish people. Initially, Governor of Bukovina Corneliu Calotescu allowed only 190 Jewish people to stay, but Traian Popovici, after an incredible effort, obtained from the then dictator of Romania Marshal Ion Antonescu an allowance of 20,000. After World War II, the city was a key node in the Berihah network, which helped Jews to emigrate to the then Mandate Palestine from the difficult conditions after the War. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, the majority of the remaining Jewish population emigrated to Israel and the United States. A famous member of this latter emigration is the actress Mila Kunis.
Chernivtsi was inhabited by Ukrainians, Romanians, Poles, Ruthenians, Jews, Roma, and Germans. During its affiliation with the Austro-Hungarian monarchy, Chernivtsi enjoyed prosperity and culture as the capital of the Bukovina crown land. Until 1918, the main language of the city was German, which, in addition to the Germans, was also spoken by Jews (together they made up half the population of the city) and even partly by Ukrainians, Romanians and Poles. After World War II, the Shoah and Porajmos, and the resettlement and expulsion of the whole ethnic groups, including Germans and Romanians, this status was diminished. Today, the Ukrainians are the dominant population group.
Chernivtsi's change in demographic diversity is demonstrated by the following population statistics. Once, Romanians and Ukrainians formed the majority of the population. However, after 1870, Yiddish-speaking or German-speaking Jews surpassed the Romanians as the largest population group of the town. After 1880, the Ukrainians surpassed the Romanians as the second-largest population group.
|Chernivtsi (City)||Chernivtsi (Suburbs)|
Language composition of the populationEdit
Ethno-linguistic composition of the population of the former districts of the city (native languages according to the 2001 census).
The total number of economic entities in the city is 25.4 thousand. On 1 January 2006, there were 6739 legal entities – business entities and almost 19,000 private entrepreneurs – individuals, primarily represented by small enterprises. The volume of sales and services provided to small enterprises is UAH 578 million or 22% of the total Chernivtsi volumes. The share of the city's tax revenues is almost 35%. The most attractive for small businesses are trade and services, restaurant and tourist business.
Wholesale and retail trade, industry and construction are successfully developing in Chernivtsi. In 2005, wholesale and retail sales accounted for over 64%, industry – 23%, construction – 6%, real estate operations – 2.3%, transport and communications – more than 2%.
In the industrial sector of the city, there are 10 branches, which have 70 large enterprises with a total number of employees over 20 thousand people or 13% of the working population of the city. The annual volume of industrial production at these enterprises is about 775 million UAH. The share of citywide tax revenues to the budgets of all levels of the industry is 21%. Defining industries in the city's industry are food, light, mechanical engineering and woodworking. Defining industries in the city's industry are food, light, mechanical engineering and woodworking. Food processing companies produce sugar, bakery products, alcohol, oil, meat and milk, fruits, vegetables and other products. In the light industry, the production of garments, knitwear, hosiery, rubber and leather footwear and textiles prevails. Mechanical engineering is represented by the production of oil and gas processing equipment and agricultural machinery. The timber industry is dominated by the production of lumber, furniture, joinery and other wood products.
Trade and servicesEdit
In 2005, there were 1922 trade enterprises, 609 restaurants, 892 services in the city. There are 22 markets and micro-markets in the city. 10 million UAH are invested annually in their construction, reconstruction, improvement of trade conditions and creation of facilities for buyers. Chernivtsi City Shopping Complex, "Kalinivskiy Rynok" Municipal Enterprise is a modern multidisciplinary enterprise with powerful infrastructure. The average daily number of market visitors is 50,000 people, served by 9,100 entrepreneurs. The volume of services in 2005 amounted to almost UAH 23 million, more than UAH 18 million was paid into the city budget, or nearly 10% of the total revenues.
Almost all health care establishments of the region are concentrated in Chernivtsi. 39 medical establishments (hospitals, clinics, and polyclinics) provide citizens of Chernivtsi with necessary medical care. Medical services are provided by 4.47 thousand people, of which – 1102 doctors, 1902 – average health workers, 1473 – junior and support staff.
Municipal medical establishments provide the following medical services:
- Emergency care (emergency care station);
- Dispensary and polyclinic care (5 municipal polyclinics, a municipal children polyclinic, polyclinics of two maternity houses, a polyclinic of preventive examination and Municipal Dentistry Association, which includes two dentist clinics);
- Specialized medical care (3 hospitals, 2 maternity houses, a tuberculosis hospital and a municipal children hospital);
- Disease-prevention and anti-epidemic services (a municipal sanitary and epidemiological station).
Throughout centuries Chernivtsi, as the center of Bukovyna, was forming as a multinational city with tolerance atmosphere which became the cradle of artists representing different cultures
The city has 2 theaters, a philharmonic, organ hall (in the Armenian Catholic Church), more than 10 museums, 6 cinemas, 31 libraries, central palace of culture, 4 music schools and fine arts school. The city has more than 100 religious organizations and diocesan authorities, 4 religious institutions. More than a dozen of active non-profit cultural organizations operate in Chernivtsi, including A.Mickiewicz Polish Culture Society, M.Eminescu Romanian Culture Society, Society of Austrian and German Culture.
Since 1997 Chernivtsi has hosted an international art event under "Days of European Culture Heritage" project. Every year "Bukovynian Meetings" folklore festival is held during the City Day in which art groups from Poland, Hungary, Romania and Germany take part.
Important part of Chernivtsi cultural life is Malanka Fest, Ukraine's main carnival timed to the religious St. Melania ("Malanka") Day and St. Basil Day. Respectively, this is usually conducted on 14 January, although this date may be moved a bit to match the weekend. During the Festival groups from different towns and settlements of Bukovyna compete in the artistic ingenuity.
One of the biggest literary festival in Ukraine is the Meridian Czernowitz International Poetic Festival. The purpose of the festival is to return Chernivtsi to the cultural map of Europe and to develop a dialogue between contemporary Ukrainian poets and their foreign colleagues. The participants of Meridian Czernowitz are famous and interesting poets from Germany, Austria, Switzerland, Great Britain, United States, Denmark, Netherlands, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Poland, Romania, Russia, Ukraine and others.
- Chernivtsi Regional Museum (O. Kobylyanska St., 28) has the largest collection of materials and artefacts of the nature, history, and culture of Northern Bukovina: a collection of old printed books with a unique Ostroh Bible, printed by Ivan Fedorov in 1581; numismatic collection with more than 3 thousand coins; an interesting collection of weapons; an archaeological collection of more than 12,000 museum objects. The pride of the museum is a collection of works of fine and decorative arts, the basis of which consists of icons of the XVI–XVIII centuries, works of prominent Bukovyna artists. The natural collection includes nearly 10,000 natural specimens (stuffed animals, wet preparations, herbarium, entomological collections, etc.);
- Chernivtsi Art Museum (Central Square, 10). The building itself has artistic value: in its design masterfully combined sculpture, painting, stained glass, artistic metal. The total number of exhibits in the museum exceeds 8400. A collection of unique Bukovyna folk images and icons on glass of the XIX–XX centuries, Bukovyna folk rugs of the XIX–XX centuries, Bukovina and Hutsul pysankas are saved here, as well as such rare monuments as the composition " Last Judgment ", Bukovynian icons of the XVII–XX centuries. and old printed books, including "The Apostle" 1632. The paintings of the Art Museum feature, in general, rare canvases belonging to the brushes of famous Bukovyna painters who worked predominantly in a classical manner.
- History and Culture Museum of Bukovinian Jews (Theater Square, 10). Located in the former Jewish People's House (now the Central City Palace of Culture). The main concept of the museum is to reflect and emphasize the characteristics of Bukovina Jewry – the Bukovina phenomenon of the XIX – early XX, which differed significantly from the phenomena of neighbouring Galician, Bessarabian and Podolian Jewry.
- Museum of the Bukovina Diaspora (Josef Hlávka St., 1);
- Chernivtsi Regional Museum of Folk Architecture and Life (Svitlovodska Street, 2) is an architectural and landscape complex consisting of monuments of folk architecture of the late XVIII – first half of XX centuries. An ancient village of Bukovina is open to the sky, where you can get acquainted with the folk architecture and way of life of Bukovinians from different regions and ethnographic groups. The exposition of the museum includes about 35 structures, transported from different parts of the region and reconstructed in original form with appropriate natural surroundings.
- Olga Kobylyanska Literary Memorial Museum (Okunevska St., 5);
- Yuriy Fedkovich Literary Memorial Museum (Soborna Square, 10);
- Volodymyr Ivasyuk Memorial Museum (Mayakovsky St., 40/1);
- Aviation and Space Museum.
There are many places which attract citizens of Chernivtsi and the visitors: Drama Theatre, Regional Philharmonic Society, Organ and Chamber Music Hall, puppet-theatre, Museum of Local Lore, History and Economy, Museum of Fine Arts, Bukovynian Diaspora Museum, Museum of Folk Architecture and Way of Life, memorial museums of writers, the Central Palace of Culture, the Star Alley in Teatralna Square.
The city of Chernivtsi has a lot of architecturally important buildings. Many historic buildings have been preserved, especially within the city's center. However, after years of disrepair and neglect, the buildings are in need of major restoration.
As Chernivtsi was part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, it was closely related to the empire's culture, including architecture. Main architectural styles present within the city include Vienna Secession and Neoclassicism, Baroque, late Gothic architecture, and fragments of traditional Moldavian and Hungarian architecture, Byzantine architecture as well as Cubism. During the Interwar Romanian administration, a great number of buildings in the Neo-Romanian and Art Deco architectural styles were also built.The city is sometimes dubbed Little Vienna, because its architecture is reminiscent of the Austro-Hungarian capital Vienna.
The main architectural attractions of the city include: the Chernivtsi Drama Theater (1905); the Chernivtsi University—UNESCO World Heritage Site (1882); the Regional Museum of Fine Arts—the former savings bank (1900); the Regional Council—former Palace of Justice (1906); and the Chernivtsi Palace of Culture—former Jewish National House (1908); among many others. The magnificent Moorish Revival Czernowitz Synagogue was heavily damaged by fire in 1941, the walls were used to create the "Chernivtsi" movie theater.
The Czech architect Josef Hlávka designed, in 1864–1882, the buildings that currently house the Chernivtsi State University. They were originally the residence of the Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans. The Romanesque and Byzantine architecture is embellished with motifs of Ukrainian folk art; for example, the tile roof patterns duplicate the geometric designs of traditional Ukrainian embroidery.
Polish National House in ChernivtsiEdit
The history of the Polish community in Chernivtsi dates back to the late 18th century, when authorities of the Habsburg Empire encouraged Poles to move to Bucovina. By the mid-19th century, several Polish organizations existed in the city, including Bratnia Pomoc and Czytelnia Polska. On the initiative of publishers of the Gazeta Polska daily newspaper, collection of money for the construction of Polish House was initiated. In early 20th century, two Polish activists, doctor Tadeusz Mischke and judge Jakub Simonowicz purchased a house. In 1904, its expansion was initiated. It was carried out by architect Franciszek Skowron, interior decorator Konrad Górecki and sculptors from Zakopane, Skwarnicki and Gerasimowicz. The expansion was completed in 1905, and Polish House operated until World War II.
In 1945, Soviet authorities opened here a cinema, later a music school. Currently, the complex houses Adam Mickiewicz Association of Polish Culture.
Apart from the Polish House, Chernivtsi also has German, Romanian and Jewish Houses.
German National House in ChernivtsiEdit
It was built in the early 20th century by the union of the German community in Chernivtsi, which became the center of German cultural and social life in Chernivtsi and Bukovina. The German House was built in 1908–1910 according to plans developed by architect Gustav Fric. The building measures 1700 square metres, 25000 cubic metres. built as a profitable house and a partnership house for 700,000 kroons on the site of the old German school building. The German House also had its own bank, and its own printing house, where various books, brochures, newspapers, and magazines were published, including the newspaper "German diary", which was popular at the time.
Jewish National House in ChernivtsiEdit
The house was built in 1908 by the Jewish community and until the Second World War, it was the centre of Jewish life in Chernivtsi and home to various Jewish associations and organisations. At least 45,000 Jews from the Bukovina region fell victim to mass shootings, forced labour and deportations beginning in 1941. With the advent of the Soviet government (1944), the building was transferred to the City House of Culture. Today it is the Central Palace of Culture of Chernivtsi
- Cathedral of the Holy Spirit (Svyatodukhivsky Cathedral) is a cathedral of the Ukrainian Orthodox Church (Moscow Patriarchate) in Chernivtsi. The first stone in its foundation was laid in July 1844. The construction was carried out under the supervision of local engineer A. Marin and Viennese architect A. Röll. In 1860 the facade of the temple was rebuilt under the design of Josef Hlavka. Twenty years after the work began in July 1864, Bishop Yevgeny Hakman consecrated the cathedral. However, interior decoration work continued until the end of the century. In 1892–1896 a group of artists from Vienna painted the walls. It was built in the style of the Italian Renaissance, and one of the projects of the St. Isaac's Cathedral, which was presented to Bishop Yevgeny Hakman during his pilgrimage to the Trinity Lavra of St. Sergius.
- The Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church has a large number of believers in Chernivtsi who are increasing every year. Currently, several temples have been built in the city. The main temple representing the UGCC in Bukovina is the Cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, which was recently[when?] 190 years old. It also bears the title of the oldest temple built in Bukovina over the last several centuries. On 12 September 2017, Pope Francis confirmed the decision of the Synod of Bishops of the UGCC to establish a separate Chernivtsi eparchy and to appoint its Bishop Yosafat Moschych.
- The Armenian Church of Chernivtsi is the existing Armenian Catholic Church of the Eastern Rite of the Holy Apostles Peter and Paul in the city of Chernivtsi. The temple was built and consecrated in 1875. He functioned intermittently during the Soviet rule in Bukovina. The temple is included in the list of city buildings protected by the law of Ukraine.
- Basilica of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross (Chernivtsi) is a Roman Catholic church with the status of a small basilica, the first stone building of the city. Its history begins when Bukovina joined Austria in 1774. At the time of Bukovina's annexation to Austria, there were no Roman Catholic temples in the province. The first holy mass was held at the wooden house of General Gabriel von Spleny, the first Austrian governor of Bukovina, attended by only a small number of Roman Catholics. In 1778 the building of the first church in Chernivtsi was completed. The architectural structure of the Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross is characterized by classic features. There are also numerous chapels and churches in different districts of the city.
The Residence of Bukovinian and Dalmatian Metropolitans is included in the UNESCO list of Architectural Heritage.
Chernivtsi is a known scientific and educational center in Western Ukraine. Research Institutes of Thermoelectricity, the Institute of Medical and Ecological Problems of the Ministry of Health Care of Ukraine, Chernivtsi National University, Bukovinian State Medical University, Trade and Economics Institute, Institute of Economics and Law, Bukovinian State Institute for Finance and Economics.
Secondary education in Chernivtsi is provided by:
- 46 high schools with the Ukrainian language of study – 97.3% of students;
- 4 high schools with the Romanian language of study – 2.7%;
- 2 private schools: Hope and Harmony.
- 3 lyceums and 7 gymnasium.
There are 15 higher educational institutions (universities, institutes, colleges). Among them:
- Yuriy Fedkovych Chernivtsi National University (19227 students) – one of the few classic universities in the country. It was opened on 4 October 1875, according to the decree of the Austrian Emperor Frans Joseph. At that time the university consisted of three faculties: philosophical, theological and law. Today, 16 faculties and the Chernivtsi Pedagogical College within the ChNU are functioning at the university. Almost 13,000 students study in 61 specialities; the main areas of preparation are the natural sciences, and the humanities. This is the only university in the country where civilian theologians are trained.
- Bukovinian State Medical University (4321 students). The teaching process at the 42 departments is provided by 75 doctors and 321 candidates of sciences. The teaching staff provides training for 4,474 students, including 675 students from 35 countries. Foreign students are taught in English. The Faculty of Postgraduate Education trains about 800 interns and over 2000 attending physicians; the university provides continuity and continuity of higher medical education: junior specialist, bachelor, doctor-specialist, master, graduate student. BSMU prepares specialists in the specialties "Medical Affairs", "Pediatrics", "Dentistry", "Medical Psychology", "Clinical Pharmacy", "Pharmacy", "Nursing", "Laboratory diagnostics".
- Chernivtsi Trade-Economics Institute of the Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics (2315 students). The university trains specialists in the field of internal and foreign trade, restaurant business, state financial system and law, customs service, antitrust activity, business economics, banking and insurance, tax and accounting and control, audit, tourism, hospitality, household and other links in the infrastructure.
- Bukovinian University (the first private higher educational institution in the region) – 1,273 students.
- Bukovynskyi State Institute for Finance and Economics – 1,268 students.
- Chernivtsi Branch of the Interregional Academy of Personnel Management.
The most popular kinds of sports in Chernivtsi include archery, judo, field hockey, karate, power-lifting and orienteering. Chernivtsi's baseball, ice hockey, and football clubs (FC Bukovyna Chernivtsi) are participants in the Ukrainian national championships.
Chernivtsi has a large number of sports establishments and facilities, including five stadiums, 186 sports grounds, two tennis courts, eleven football fields, five skating rinks, 21 shooting galleries, three swimming pools, 69 gyms, 62 gyms with special training equipment, and an international motorcycle racing track.
Over 7,950 inhabitants are members of sport clubs within the city, and more than 50,000 people participate in various sport activities. Currently, eight sportsmen from the city are members of national teams and twelve are members of national youth teams. Three athletes from Chernivtsi were prize-winners in various world tournaments, two were winners of European and 42 of national championships in 2002.
Chernivtsi public transport divides on two groups: trolleys and buses. All modes of transport are very cheap – 0.20 $. In 2018, Chernivtsi has begun testing its innovative hybrid trolleybuses. The new trolleybuses are designed to improve the public transport system of Chernivtsi by making it more energy-efficient, as well as covering the part of the town which currently has no trolleybus lines.
There are three railway stations in Chernivtsi: Central Station (38 Gagarina Street., 1.5 km (0.93 mi) north from the centre), Chernivtsi-Pivnichna Railway station (Zavods'ka str., 13 (northwest 3 km [1.9 mi]) and Chernivtsi-Pivdenna Railway station (Malovokzalna str., 21 (south 5 km [3.1 mi])
Twin towns—Sister citiesEdit
The first international contacts with the city were established on 20 July 1989, when then-Mayor of Chernivtsi City Council Pavel Kaspruk, signed a twinning agreement with the Mayor of Salt Lake City (USA) – Lowell Turner. To commemorate this event, the Cradle of Peace was erected in Chernivtsi.
Chernivtsi is twinned with:
|Country||City/Town||County / District / Region / State|
|Israel||Nazareth Illit||Northern District|
|Romania||Suceava||Suceava County, Bucovina|
|Romania||Iași||Iași County, Moldavia|
|Romania||Timișoara||Timiș County, Banat|
|United States||Salt Lake City||Utah|
- Aharon Appelfeld (1932–2018), Jewish writer
- Ninon Ausländer (1895–1966), art historian and wife of Hermann Hesse
- Rose Ausländer (1901–1988), Jewish German-language writer
- Elyakim Badian (1925–2000), Israeli politician
- Charles K. Bliss (1897–1985), inventor of Blissymbolics
- Ion Bostan (1914–1992), Romanian film director
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- Natalia Fedner (born 1983), Ukrainian-American fashion designer
- Moysey Fishbeyn (1947-2020), a Ukrainian poet
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- Eusebius Mandyczewski (1857–1929), Ukrainian musicologist and composer
- Itzik Manger (1901–1969), Yiddish writer
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- Ingrid Nargang (1929–2019), Austrian lawyer and contemporary historian
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- Maximilien Rubel (1905–1996), Marxist historian
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- Hermann Bahr
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- Grigore Vasiliu Birlic (1905–1970), Romanian actor
- Nathan Birnbaum
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- Nikolay Bogolyubov
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- Erwin Chargaff
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- Ivan Mykolaychuk (1941–1987)
- Grigore Nandriș (1895–1968), Romanian linguist, philologist and memoirist
- Miron Nicolescu (1903–1975), Romanian mathematician
- Ion Nistor (1876–1962), Romanian historian and politician
- Dimitrie Onciul (1856–1923), Romanian historian
- Israel Polack
- George Popovici (1863–1905), Romanian agrarian politician, jurist and poet
- Ciprian Porumbescu (1853–1883), Romanian composer
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- Vasile Tărâțeanu (born 1945), Romanian journalist and writer
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- From 1538 under the Ottoman Empire
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Chernivtsi.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Chernivtsi.|
|Look up chernivtsi in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikisource has the text of the 1905 New International Encyclopedia article "Czernowitz".|
- Information Portal Chernivtsi
- "Main Page". Chernivtsi City Official Site/English. Archived from the original on 26 September 2011. Retrieved 12 April 2010.
- "Main Page". Chernivtsi City Official Site/English(mirror). Retrieved 12 December 2009.
- Chernivtsi article by Vladislav Davidzon Tablet Magazine
- "Per le vie di Chernivtsi, città dei sogni yiddish" article by Tommy Cappellini Corriere del Ticino (Italian)
- Chernivtsi Photos
- Chernivtsi, Ukraine at JewishGen
- Virtual 3D Tour