Bukovina District

The Bukovina District (German: Kreis Bukowina), also known as the Chernivtsi District (German: Kreis Czernowitz), was an administrative-territorial unit of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria[1] within the Habsburg monarchy in Bukovina, annexed from Moldavia.[2][3] It was first a military district from 1775 to 1786 until it was officially incorporated into Galicia and Lodomeria as its own district.

Bukovina
(1775–1786)
Bukowina; also Buchenland
Bukovina District / Chernivtsi District
(1786–1849)
Kreis Bukowina / Kreis Czernowitz
1775–1849
Territorial evolution of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, which used to include Bukovina
Territorial evolution of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, which used to include Bukovina
CapitalCzernowitz (Cernăuți / Chernivtsi)
Common languagesGerman, Romanian, Ukrainian
History 
• Habsburg annexation of Bukovina into Galicia and Lodomeria as a military district
1775
• Bukovina becomes a formal district of Galicia and Lodomeria
1876
• Establishment of the Duchy of Bukovina
1849
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Moldavia
Duchy of Bukovina
Today part ofRomania
Ukraine

Geographical locationEdit

 
1800 map of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria including the Bukovina District

The Bukovina district occupied the area between the Carpathians mountains and the Seret, from the middle reaches of the Dniester to about the middle reaches of Moldavia. It was located in the east of the Austrian Empire and in the southeast of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria.

Western Bukovina was part of the Habsburg monarchy from the second half of 1774 . Until May 1775 as a temporary military administrative-territorial unit - Chernivtsi General.[4] It was join the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria, and the south (districts of Seret and Suceava, and Dovgopol district) to the Kingdom of Hungary.

However, such intentions were strongly opposed by the local population of Dovhopil region (about 90% of the population were ethnic Ruthenians and Poles), which geographically separated the mostly Romanian Suceava from Transylvania, which forced to abandon this idea.[5]

The final decision on the future management of the region was made on August 6, 1786, during the stay in Lviv of Joseph II,[6] who liquidated his PatentThe Military Administration of Bukovina (as having fulfilled its mission during the transition period) and annexed the Bukovina District (in full) to the Kingdom of Galicia and Volodymyria as the Chernivtsi District, later renamed the Bukovina District.

PopulationEdit

The period of the region's status as a district of the Kingdom of Galicia and Lodomeria is characterized by a significant increase in population, mainly due to immigrants, colonizers and more. The tributary was recorded by both the Romanians from Transylvania and the Ruthenians from Galicia. Germans, Poles, and mostly Jews came from different regions. If as of 1786 the population of the region was estimated at 91,000 inhabitants, then in 1846

Prior to that, the population was rewritten exclusively for a religion that blurred the boundaries between Ruthenians (Ukrainians) and Wallachians (Romanians), generalizing them as Orthodox. According to the results of the 1846 census: 180,417 Ruthenians (Ukrainians) were recorded. (48.6%), Wallachians (Romanians) - 140,625 people. (37.9%), other nationalities (mainly Germans, Jews, Poles) - 50089 people. (13.5%).[2] Such results were obtained within the Bukovyna district as a whole (northern and southern parts).

Territorial division of the districtEdit

Bukovina district was divided into four counties (until August 1, 1794 – districts) and one separate district:[7]

  • Chernivtsi County ( German: Bezirk Czernowitz).
  • Vyzhnytsya district
  • Seret County
  • Suceava County
  • Dovhopil district

Each county consisted of 12 districts with 10 communities in each.

In the military organization, Bukovina district was divided into Chernivtsi and Suceava regimental districts, in the fiscal sphere - into eight tax districts.

The administrative center of the Bukovina district was the city of Chernivtsi.

AdministrationEdit

The last head of the military administration of Bukovina was General Karl von Enzenberg, who also became the first head of the Chernivtsi district.[8] The governing body of the district was the K. k. Bukowiner Kreisamt ( German: K. k. Bukowiner Kreisamt ), which was directly subordinated to the specially created Galician Provincial Administration for Bukovina (K. k. Galizische Statthalterei (Angelegenheiten der Bukowina) ) in Lviv .The board was headed by the district elder, who together with the commissioners was personally appointed by Caesar, and the rest of the officials - the district headman himself. During the 63 years of existence of the Bukovina district, 11 district elders have changed.[9] County councils were subordinated to county councils ( K. k Bezirkshauptmannschaften ), headed by county elders . Subordinated to the Bukovina District Administration, the Chernivtsi City Council continued to operate, which on September 2, 1832, was reorganized into the Chernivtsi City Magistrate, headed by the mayor.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Welisch, Sophie (March 1984). "The Second World War resettlement of the Bukovina‐Germans". Immigrants & Minorities. 3 (1): 49–68. doi:10.1080/02619288.1984.9974569. ISSN 0261-9288.
  2. ^ a b Stambrook, Fred (January 2004). "National and Other Identities in Bukovina in Late Austrian Times". Austrian History Yearbook. 35: 185–203. doi:10.1017/s0067237800020981. ISSN 0067-2378. S2CID 145290239.
  3. ^ Savelyev, Yuriy (2018). "Соціальне включення як вимір модернізації європейських суспільств. Автореферат дисертації на здобуття наукового ступеня доктора соціологічних наук (Социальная включенность как измерение модернизации европейских обществ. Автореферат диссертации на соискание ученой степени доктора социологических наук. Social Inclusion as Dimension of Modernization of European Societies. Synopsis of Doctoral Dissertation in Sociology)". SSRN Electronic Journal. doi:10.2139/ssrn.3423957. ISSN 1556-5068.
  4. ^ "Аурел Ончул. Румынский вопрос на Буковине". buktolerance.com.ua. Retrieved 2022-02-09.
  5. ^ Rechter, David (2013). Becoming Habsburg: the Jews of Austrian Bukovina, 1774–1918. ISBN 978-1-904113-95-9. OCLC 231588598.
  6. ^ Боярко, Ірина Миколаївна (2017-01-10). "ОРГАНІЗАЦІЯ РУХУ ІНФОРМАЦІЙНИХ ПОТОКІВ У ПРАКСЕОЛОГІЧНО-КАТАЛАКТИЧНІЙ МОДЕЛІ ІНФОРМАЦІЙНОГО ЗАБЕЗПЕЧЕННЯ СТРАТЕГІЧНОГО УПРАВЛІННЯ". Вісник Університету банківської справи. 2 (29): 62–68. doi:10.18371/2221-755x2(29)2017120622. ISSN 2221-755X.
  7. ^ Жук, Валентина (2020-08-07). "ОСОБЛИВОСТІ ВЖИВАННЯ ПАСИВНИХ КОНСТРУКЦІЙ (НА МАТЕРІАЛІ ТЕКСТІВ ХХ – ПОЧАТКУ ХХІ СТОЛІТТЯ)". ЗДОБУТКИ ТА ДОСЯГНЕННЯ ПРИКЛАДНИХ ТА ФУНДАМЕНТАЛЬНИХ НАУК XXI СТОЛІТТЯ - ТОМ 2. Міжнародний центр наукових досліджень. doi:10.36074/07.08.2020.v2.16. S2CID 225377054.
  8. ^ "ДЕРЖАВНИЙ ЛАД І ПРАВО НА БУКОВИНІ". 2014-08-18. Archived from the original on 18 August 2014. Retrieved 2022-02-09.
  9. ^ Povoroznyuk, V.V.; Pankiv, I.V. (2021-09-24). "Статус вітаміну D у населення Буковини і Прикарпаття залежно від місця проживання над рівнем моря". Pain, Joints, Spine. 2 (22): 7–10. doi:10.22141/2224-1507.2.22.2016.75755. ISSN 2307-1133.