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Ivan Yakovych Franko (Ukrainian: Іван Якович Франко, pronounced [iˈvɑn ˈjɑkovɪtʃ frɐnˈkɔ]) (August 27 [O.S. August 15] 1856 – May 28 [O.S. May 15] 1916) was a Ukrainian poet, writer, social and literary critic, journalist, interpreter, economist, political activist, doctor of philosophy, ethnographer, and the author of the first detective novels and modern poetry in the Ukrainian language.

Ivan Yakovych Franko
Іван Якович Франко
Іван Франко.jpg
Ivan Franko in 1910
Born Іван Якович Франко
August 27 [O.S. August 15] 1856
Nahuievychi, Austrian Empire (now Ukraine)
Died May 28 [O.S. May 15] 1916
Lemberg, Austria-Hungary (now Ukraine)
Pen name Myron, Kremin, Zhyvyi
Occupation poet, writer, political activist
Period 1874–1916
Genre epic poetry, short story, novels, drama
Literary movement Realism, Decadent movement
Spouse Olha Fedorivna Khoruzhynska
Children Andriy
Petro Franko
Taras Franko
Hanna Klyuchko (Franko)

He was a political radical, and a founder of the socialist and nationalist movement in western Ukraine. In addition to his own literary work, he also translated the works of such renowned figures as William Shakespeare, Lord Byron, Pedro Calderón de la Barca, Dante Alighieri, Victor Hugo, Adam Mickiewicz, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe and Friedrich Schiller into Ukrainian. Along with Taras Shevchenko, he has had a tremendous impact on modern literary and political thought in Ukraine.

Contents

LifeEdit

Franko was born in the Ukrainian village of Nahuievychi (Ukrainian: Нагуєвичі)[1] located then in the Austrian kronland Galicia, today part of Drohobych Raion, Lviv Oblast, Ukraine. As a child he was baptized as Ivan by Father Yosyp Levytsky known as a poet and the author of the first Galician-Ruthenian Hramatyka and who was exiled to Nahuyevychi for a "sharp tongue". At home, however, Ivan was called Myron because of a local superstitious belief that naming a person by different name will dodge a death.[2] Franko's family in Nahuyevychi was considered "well-to-do", with their own servants and 24 hectares (59 acres) of their own property.[3]

Franko senior was reportedly to be a Ukrainianized German colonist, or at least Ivan Franko himself believed.[citation needed] That statement is also supported by Timothy Snyder who describes Yakiv Franko as a village blacksmith of German descent. Snyder however stated that Ivan Franko's mother was of Polish petty noble origin,[4] while more detailed sources state that she came from an impoverished Ukrainian noble background, from the well-known Ukrainian noble family Kulchytsky[5] and was remotely related to Petro Konashevych-Sahaidachny.[citation needed] According to Yaroslav Hrytsak, Ivan Franko was of mixed German, Polish and Ukrainian ancestry.[6]

Ivan Franko attended school in the village Yasenytsia Sylna from 1862 until 1864, and from there attended the Basilian monastic school in Drohobych until 1867. His father died before Ivan was able to graduate from the gymnasium (realschule), but his stepfather supported Ivan in continuing his education. Soon, however, Franko found himself completely without parents after his mother died as well and later the young Ivan stayed with totally unrelated people. In 1875, he graduated from the Drohobych realschule, and continued on to Lviv University, where he studied classical philosophy, Ukrainian language and literature. It was at this university that Franko began his literary career, with various works of poetry and his novel Petriï i Dovbushchuky published by the students' magazine Druh (Friend), whose editorial board he would later join.

A meeting with Mykhailo Drahomanov at Lviv University made a huge impression on Ivan Franko. It later developed into a long political and literary association. Franko's own socialist writings and his association with Drahomanov led to his arrest in 1877, along with Mykhailo Pavlyk and Ostap Terletsky, among others. They were accused of belonging to a secret socialist organization, which did not in fact exist. However, the nine months in prison did not discourage his political writing or activities. In prison Franko wrote the satire Smorhonska Akademiya (The Smorhon Academy). After release, he studied the works of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, contributed articles to the Polish newspaper Praca (Labor) and helped organize workers' groups in Lviv. In 1878 Franko and Pavlyk founded the magazine Hromads'kyi Druh (Public friend). Only two issues were published before it was banned by the government; however, the journal was reborn under the names Dzvin (Bell) and Molot (Mallet). Franko published a series of books called Dribna Biblioteka (Petty Library) from 1878 until his second arrest for arousing the peasants to civil disobedience in 1880. After three months in the Kolomyia prison, the writer returned to Lviv. His impressions of this exile are reflected in his novel Na Dni (At the Bottom). Upon his release Franko was kept under police surveillance. At odds with the administration, Franko was expelled from Lviv University, an institution that would be renamed Ivan Franko National University of Lviv after the writer's death.

Franko was an active contributor to the journal Svit (The World) in 1881. He wrote more than half of the material, excluding the unsigned editorials. Later that year, Franko moved to his native Nahuievychi, where he wrote the novel Zakhar Berkut, translated Goethe's Faust and Heine's poem Deutschland: ein Wintermärchen into Ukrainian. He also wrote a series of articles on Taras Shevchenko, and reviewed the collection Khutorna Poeziya (Khutir poetry) by Panteleimon Kulish. Franko worked for the journal Zorya (Sunrise), and became a member of the editing board of the newspaper Dilo (Action) a year later.

 
Franko with his wife Olha Khoruzhynska in 1886

He married Olha Khoruzhynska from Kiev in May 1886, to whom he dedicated the collection Z vershyn i nyzyn (From tops and bottoms), a book of poetry and verse. The couple for some time lived in Vienna, where Ivano Franko met with such people as Theodor Herzl and Tomáš Garrigue Masaryk. His wife was to later suffer from a debilitating mental illness due to the death of the first-born son, Andrey,[7] one of the reasons that Franko would not leave Lviv for treatment in Kiev in 1916, shortly before his death.

In 1888, Franko was a contributor to the journal Pravda, which, along with his association with compatriots from Dnieper Ukraine, led to a third arrest in 1889. After this two-month prison term, he co-founded the Ruthenian-Ukrainian Radical Party with Mykhailo Drahomanov and Mykhailo Pavlyk. Franko was the Radical party's candidate for seats in the Parliament of Austria-Hungary and the Galicia Diet, but never won an election.

In 1891, Franko attended Chernivtsi University (where he prepared a dissertation on Ivan Vyshensky), and afterwards attended Vienna University to defend a doctoral dissertation on the spiritual romance Barlaam and Josaphat under the supervision of Vatroslav Jagić, who was considered the foremost expert of Slavic languages at the time. Franko received his doctorate of philosophy from University of Vienna on July 1, 1893. He was appointed lecturer in the history of Ukrainian literature at Lviv University in 1894; however, he was not able to chair the Department of Ukrainian literature there because of opposition from Vicegerent Kazimierz Badeni and Galician conservative circles.

One of his articles, Sotsiializm i sotsiial-demokratyzm (Socialism and Social Democracy), a severe criticism of Ukrainian Social Democracy and the socialism of Marx and Engels, was published in 1898 in the journal Zhytie i Slovo, which he and his wife founded. He continued his anti-Marxist stance in a collection of poetry entitled Mii smarahd (My Emerald) in 1898, where he called Marxism "a religion founded on dogmas of hatred and class struggle."[citation needed] His long-time collaborative association with Mykhailo Drahomanov was strained due to their diverging views on socialism and the national question. Franko would later accuse Drahomanov of tying Ukraine's fate to that of Russia in Suspil'nopolitychni pohliady M. Drahomanova (The Sociopolitical Views of M. Drahomanov), published in 1906. After a split in the Radical Party, in 1899, Franko, together with the Lviv historian Mykhailo Hrushevsky, founded the National Democratic Party, where he worked until 1904, when he retired from political life.

In 1902, students and activists in Lviv, embarrassed that Franko was living in poverty, purchased a house for him in the city. He lived there for the remaining 14 years of his life. The house is now the site of the Ivan Franko Museum.

In 1904, he took part in an ethnographical expedition in the Boyko areas with Filaret Kolesa, Fedir Vovk and a Russian ethnographer.

In 1914, his jubilee collection, Pryvit Ivanovi Frankovi (Greeting Ivan Franko), and the collection Iz lit moyeyi molodosti (From the Years of My Youth) were published.

The last nine years of his life, Ivan Franko rarely wrote himself as he suffered from rheumatism of joints that later led to a paralysis of his right arm. He was greatly assisted by his sons to write his latter works, particularly Andrey.

In 1916, Josef Zastyretz and Harald G Hjärne nominated Franko as a candidate for the 1916 Nobel Prize in Literature, but he died before the nomination materialized.[8]

 
The grave of Ivan Franko in the Lychakivskiy Cemetery in Lviv, Ukraine. He is depicted here as a stone breaker (kamenyar) in reference to one of his most famous poems.

DeathEdit

He died in poverty at 4 p. m. on May 28, 1916. Those who came to pay their respects saw him lying on the table covered with nothing but a ragged sheet. His burial and burial-clothes were paid for by his admirers, and none of his family came to visit him.

Franko was buried at the Lychakivskiy Cemetery in Lviv.

Soon after his death the world witnessed the creation of two Ukrainian republics.

FamilyEdit

Wife

Olha Fedorivna Khoruzhynska (m. 1886-1916), a graduate of the Institute of Noble Dames in Kharkiv and later the two-year higher courses in Kiev, she knew several languages and played a piano, died in 1941

Children

According to Roland Franko his grandfather was 1.74 metres (5.7 ft) tall, had a red hair, always wore mustache and the Ukrainian embroidered shirt (vyshyvanka) even with a dress-coat.

Some of Franko's descendants emigrated to the USA and Canada. His grand-nephew, Yuri Shymko, is a Canadian politician and human rights activist living in Toronto, who was elected to Canada's Parliament as well as the Ontario Legislature during the 1980s.

 
One of the many portraits of Ivan Franko by Ukrainian impressionist artist Ivan Trush.

Literary worksEdit

Lesyshyna Cheliad and Dva Pryiateli (Two Friends) were published in the literary almanac Dnistrianka in 1876. Later that year he wrote his first collection of poetry, Ballads and Tales. His first of the stories in the Boryslav series were published in 1877.

Franko depicted the harsh experience of Ukrainian workers and peasants in his novels Boryslav Laughs (1881–1882) and Boa Constrictor (1878). His works deal with Ukrainian nationalism and history (Zakhar Berkut, 1883), social issues (Basis of Society, 1895 and Withered Leaves, 1896), and philosophy (Semper Tiro, 1906).

He has drawn parallels to the Israelite search for a homeland and the Ukrainian desire for independence in In Death of Cain (1889) and Moses (1905). Stolen Happiness (1893) is considered as his best dramatic masterpiece. In total, Franko has written more than 1,000 works.

He was widely promoted in Ukraine during the Soviet period particularly for his poem Kamenyari (groundbreakers) which contains revolutionary political ideas, hence earning him the name Kamenyar (groundbreaker).

Franko and Jews. Anti-Jewish motivated resentments exist in the journalistic and literary work of the author Ivan FrankoEdit

In 2010, the Jewish Community (Israelitische Kultusgemeinde - IKG) informed the University Vienna in writing that the literary and journalistic work of the Ukrainian poet Ivan Franko contains anti-Jewish motivated resentments and that the IKG is thus requesting the removal of the plaque that had been mounted on the Institute for Contemporary History in honour of the poet. Subsequently, the University decided to organise a conference with international participation to validate the allegations against Franko on a scientific level. The conference was held on the 24th and 25th of October 2013 at the University Vienna and was entitled “Ivan Franko and the Jewish Question in Galicia”. The findings of this validation were published in 2016 in the book “Ivan Franko und die jüdische Frage in Galizien: Interkulturelle Begegnungen und Dynamiken im Schaffen des ukrainischen Schriftstellers“ [Ivan Franko and the Jewish Question in Galicia: Intercultural Encounters and Dynamics in the Work of the Ukrainian Writer], edited by Alois Woldan and Olaf Terpitz, Vienna University Press, published by the V & R unipress GmbH publishing house.

According to the Ukrainian scholars, there are no anti-Jewish motivated aversions in Franko’s work with Jewish topics, they seem to be merely a report of the visually perceived occurrences. For example, the Ukrainian literary scholar Tamara Gundorova stated that the Jewish topic portrayed in Franko’s work has an accentuated melodramatic background. Quote: “Melodrama as a genre and as a mode of creation is part of the string of popular culture, and we certainly do not spare it when it comes to high literature. In Franko’s work, there are many melodramas. He uses them as a tool to unlock the humanist side of man.” Gundorova in “On Franko as not philo-Semite or anti-Semite, but as a challenge for the Ukrainian Literature” (Про Франка не як філосеміта чи антисеміта, а як виклик українському літературознавству, Тамара Гундорова/Tamara Gundorova, Листопад 2013/November 2013, in http://krytyka.com/ua/community/blogs/pro-franka-ne-yak-filosemita-chy-antysemita-yak-vyklyk-ukrayinskomu#sthash.r2NwCDwh.dpuf). The Ukrainian historian Yaroslav Hrytsak shares the opinion that Franko’s political or ideological point of view on the Jewish topic in his journalistic work can be assigned to the “progressive - liberal - anti-Semitism”. See “A Prophet in His Country” - “Між семітизмом й антисемітизмом: Іван Франко та єврейське питання”, УДК 821.161.2(477.83=411.16) Г85. "The quintessence of the investigation of the Franko work is to brand the Ukraine as an anti-Semitic and nationalist state," said Yaroslav Hrytsak on 11. 11. 2013 in a news issue of the TV channel "zik", in Lviv.

This tendentious presentation of the Jewish question in Franko’s work on the part of the Ukrainian scholars rarely shared by scholars from other countries.

Franko repeatedly introduced an ideological element of an anti-Semitic worldview into the Galician public debate, which was a matrix: “The Jew as bloodsucker and parasite”, while on the other hand the Ruthenians are always depicted in a positive way. Franko was drawing this emblematic constellation also in his extensive literary work, which is full with anti-Semitic passages.

The cycle “Jewish Melodies” (Жидівські мелодії) includes a series of poems, all with anti-Semitic background. All include associations with morally negative connoted characteristics and with ugly appearance: “At the Zadik”, “Surke” (Sara), “Pir’ja” (The Feathers), “Zapowit Yakowa” (Jacobs Legacy), “Hawa” (Гава), “Hawa and Wowkun” (Гава і Вовкун), “Herschko, the gold-maker” (Гершко Гольдмахер), “Assimilatoram” (Ассиміляторам), “Sambation” (Самбатіон).

In the stage play “The Teacher” (Utschitel), Ivan Franko shows how “the village teacher Omeljan Tkatsch is fighting against the Jewish owner, chairman of the School Council, trader, smuggler and usurer Wolf Silberglanz who in the end gets arrested. But after a short while, the crook returns to the village and the teacher Tkatsch is forced by the provincial authorities to move to a mountain village even farther away...” Franko shows that “...a person such as the Jew Wolf Silberglanz will face no difficulties on his path, he slides over any obstacle and wins.”

Franko stigmatises the Jews as collective exploiters of the people and flatly labels them as parasites. The strong increase of the aggressive character of his metaphor - subsequently following his “Borislav cycle” up until later years - can be demonstrated with this example: in the poem “Po ljudsky” - (По людськи - Human) Ivan Franko lets his protagonist, Rabbi Chaїm say the following: “Our tribe in this country only sucks the blood from it,(...) like a bloodsucker with no blood on his own is sucking the blood from others.” The same aggressive tone can be found in the metaphoric image hanging in Hermann Goldkremer’s workroom, depicting a gigantic boa ambushing and strangling a gazelle, so to say: this is what will happen to Goldkremer’s adversaries, the workers of the Boryslav oil pits.

Quote I: “Despite the mimetic character of the description, Franko uses stereotypes for the characterisation of his figures. It is important to note that stereotypes do not have an author. By taking over anti-Jewish stereotypes, Franko did not invent them, and also did not question them. Here, at the latest, it should be noted that anti-Jewish stereotypes were particularly prevalent in Galicia, especially in the last decades of the 19th century, on the one hand in the numerous texts dedicated to the literary description of the oil boom, and on the other hand in the city text of Lviv. With these early works, Franko surely also wanted to achieve a political effect: the drastic descriptions with often naturalistic character should rouse the public, perhaps even accuse the political leaders”. (A. Woldan, page 94) Quote II: “In ‘Navernnenyj hrišnyk’ (‘The Converted Sinner’): Šmilo, the opponent of the hero, is not individualised, but sketched with a stencil, in complete contrast to the Ruthenian heroes in this and other stories. This is already evident in his outward appearance: he is bony, pale and ‘carp eyed’ (карповоокий); his black clothing is dirty, his thick red beard gives him a somewhat demonic appearance. He is also linguistically distinguished in this story - he speaks broken Ukrainian (apart from some Yiddish insertions), and he cannot pronounce certain consonants. Another stereotype characterizes him with the bloodsucker metaphor, the moral cripple”. (A. Woldan, p. 95), Quote III: “The anti-Jewish stereotype of the bloodsucker and parasite, well-defined in the Galician literary tradition, is at hand for the characterization of one side, while the positive description of the Ruthenians stems from of the author's national commitment - Franko always feels like an advocate of his ethnic group”. (A. Woldan, page 107), “Ivan Franko and the Jewish Question in Galicia: Intercultural Encounters and Dynamics in the Work of the Ukrainian Writer”. Franko's relations with leading Jewish intellectuals of his time were only tight until it turned out that Franko was indeed an ambivalent personality, a guy with double moral standards and with a strong nationalist attitude. For example, young Martin Buber, who resided in Vienna, had good relations with Franko for some time and wanted to publish Franko’s contributions on the situation of the Jews in Galicia in his magazine “Der Jude”. Nothing came out of it in the end, because Franko’s publications did not correspond with the intentions of the monthly magazine. This was also confirmed by the exchange of letters with the brothers L. and A. Inländer, N. Bierbaum, H. Barac, K. Lippe, etc.

Quote IV: “The material published to this day gives room for the conclusion that Franko’s attitude to Judaism was essentially characterised by inner contradictions, doubts, ambivalence and a psychological complex. (...) In this context, it seems important to point out to the later psychological burden, a kind of mystification, be it in terms of social circumstances or because of Franko's illness”. (R. Mnich, page 10), “Ivan Franko and the Jewish Question in Galicia: Intercultural Encounters and Dynamics in the Work of the Ukrainian Writer”.

Up until now, nobody has proofed the story of the “Zionist idea of the state”. There is no evidence for a correspondence between Ivan Franko and the main drafter of political Zionism, Theodor Herzl, or that the two had met somewhere. The same is true with regard to the Polish-Jewish writer Eliza Orzeszkowa. Franko only tried to get in touch with Jews in Vienna, and to then act against them and to polemicize against them in the media, to speak ill of them and to condemn them. K. Lippe wrote a book about Franko with the title “Symptoms of anti-Semitic mental illness”.

Quote V: “Cargel Lippe (actually Nathan Petachja, 1830-1915) - Jewish medical practitioner in Jassy (Romania) and publicist. In his book ‘Symptoms of anti-Semitic mental illness’, Lippe discusses the following of Ivan Franko’s publications: 1) Ivan Franko: A diabolical and discarded instigation, in: ‘Przeglad Społeczny’ 1886, S. 458-461; 2) Ivan Franko: Co znaczy Solidarność? (What does solidarity mean?). Galician Purposes. Ze statystyki większych posiadłościw Galiziji (From the statistics of large landowners in Galicia), in: ‘Przeglad Społeczny’ 1886, S. 310-314. Footnote 134“ (R. Mnich in “Ivan Franko in the context of Theodor Herzl and Martin Buber”, page 82, edited by Erhard Roy Wiehn, Hartung-Gorre publishing house, Konstanz, Edition 2012).

Leading scholars and intellectuals in the period prior to 1990 have sharply criticized Ivan Franko's mindset because of its nationalism, including the philologist and academician Prof. E.P. Kyryljuk and the playwright and composer M. Lysenko in “Sociolohiczny pohl’ady”, etc.

Quote VI: The socialism we find in Franko’s work is a “mishmash of unclear terms, from socializing to co-determine, protection of the weak and anarchism up to nihilism, which emerged as the autonomist mainstream, and one can hardly think of a Cesare Battisti or Benito Mussolini dedicating themselves to the maximum or minimum program of ‘The Internationale’. The intelligentsia sought to snatch the leadership from the aristocracy by using, to a large extent, nationalist aspirations, and they also made use of the - later canonical - writings of the great theoreticians. But it took a really long time until the formation of the Labour Party and of similar sister parties in the world”. (...) “The way Franko sketches Jewish financiers speaks very much for the fact that beneath all the mimicry, he was also bearing the latent Slavonic anti-Semitism in an embryonic form in himself, and that these prejudices did not allow the element of class-struggle to come to the foreground”. (K. Treimer in “Ivan Franko”, page 23, Notring publishing house, Vienna 1971).

Quote VII: “(...) in three of Franko's contributions to the ‘Jewish question’ in the Lviv monthly magazine ‘Przegląd Społeczny’, the anti-Semitic statements were clearly more dominant (...)” (Kai Struve in “The Jew Question” - a European Phenomenon? page 110, (Ed.) Manfred Hettling, Michael G. Müller and Guido Hausmann, Metropol publishing house, Berlin 2013.) In footnote 53, page 111, Prof. Struve noted the following: “In the copy of ‘Przegląd Społeczny’ that I was using in the Jagiellonian library in Kraków, the pages 455 - 463 were missing”.

The Ukrainian version of Franko’s publication “On the Jew Question”, which is available today, published by “The Interregional Academy of Personnel Management” (private university in Kiev, Ukraine) - Межрегиональная Академия управления персоналом (МАУП) - Киев, 2002., shows clear language differences: the article “On the Jew Question” is printed unadorned in the old Ruthenian language, while the articles “The Jewish State” and “My Jewish acquaintances” are written in a friendly and flawless Ukrainian language of today. The Ukrainian scientist and philologist Mychajlo Vosnjak (1881 - 1954) had translated this edition from Polish and first published it in 1913. It is suspected that the content of the last two contributions is not authentic.

Quote VIII: “The ‘Ruthenian-Ukrainian Radical Party’, co-founded by Franko, was nationalistic, as becomes evident by its program and the further development of its founders and active members towards a militant nationalism and fascism (...)”. Prof. and member of the Academy of Sciences Jevhen Prokopovitsch Kyryljuk in his book “The life and work of Ivan Franko”, “Naukowa dumka”, Kiev 1983.

Quote IX: “Franko and Pavlyk were critical about Marxism. They were in close contact with Mykhailo Drahomanov, a resident of Kiev and later of Switzerland, and supported his evolutionary, anarchist and peasant-oriented ideas of socialism”. (Kai Struve in “The Jew Question” - a European Phenomenon? Footnote 14, page 99).

Quote X: “The already evident tensions between the Marxists (the so-called ‘young guys’) on one hand, who welcomed the merging with the Polish socialists, and the Drahomanovists (the so-called ‘old people’) on the other hand, who preferred an independent path, based ‘on the people’ and thus on the masses of Ruthenian peasants, and who accepted the ideological malus of a cooperation with the Ukrainophiles, were initially discharged within the editorship of ‘Tovaryš’ (The Comrade). (...) While the ‘old’ like Franko and Pavlyk wanted to keep an ideological distance to Marxism and feared that the movement would be taken in by the Polish socialists, the ‘young’ were opposing these views. Franko was in particular accused (by the young - E.L.) for having anti-Semitic resentments”. (Kerstin S. Jobst in “Between Nationalism and Internationalism”, page 38, footnote 57, “Dölling und Galitz” publishing house, Hamburg, 1996).

Quote XI: “After Franko started supporting the nationalist Ruthenian party, the relationship broke up with his mentor, the anarchist Mykhailo Dragomanov”. (K. Treimer in “Ivan Franko”, page 31, Notring publishing house, Vienna 1971). Franko's party program was characterized by political anti-Semitism. The following article gives insight into the party program of the RURP: “The Jewish question in the Ruthenian-Ukrainian Radical Party program and the party’s activities at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century”.

Quote XII: “By the year 1898, the RURP (Ruthenian-Ukrainian Radical Party) had already worked out a clear position on the Jewish question. Ivan Franko had taken on the mission of the program designer on this issue. He also wrote a program supplement called ‘The Radical Tactic’. The primer includes a separate chapter on the topic ‘The Jewish question’. Franko had noted in one of the sections that practically the entire program of the RURP is composed in a way to make it impossible ‘for the Jews and the parasites to rule over the working people’ in the future (...) ‘the radicals are not anti-Semites’(...) The rock shatterer (I. Franko) justified the point of view of the party in the following way: ‘The Radicals can differentiate well, and they know that the Jewish sluggard with the payot (sidelocks) (...) is a far lesser enemy to the peasants than the civilized, embellished Jewish financier, millionaire, speculator and mafiosi in his dress coat (...)’”, written by Nasar Waskiv, Docent in modern and contemporary history at the Franko University of Lviv. Franko in his journalistic article “The Radicals and the Jews”.

Quote XIII: “There is in fact no people's assembly of the Radicals, where our speakers do not warn against the Jewish bloodsuckers (...) We are not enemies of the Jews, just because they are Jews, because they are from Palestine, or because they wear sidelocks and dressing gowns and smell of onions”. (R. Mnich in “Ivan Franko in the context of Theodor Herzl and Martin Buber”, page 82, edited by Erhard Roy Wiehn, Hartung-Gorre publishing house, Konstanz, Edition 2012).

In the run-up to the Franko Conference in October 2013, the University of Vienna announced in a press release that it would add a supplementary plaque to the Franko bust with regard to the Jewish theme in Franko’s work. This did not happen yet. The City Councilor for Culture and Science Vienna, Dr. Andreas Mailath-Pokorny, also expressed in an e-mail release his willingness to add an additional plaque next to the Franko statue in Postgasse 8. Also in this case, nothing has happened so far.

Literary Works Translated into EnglishEdit

English translations of Ivan Franko's works include:

  • "How a Ruthenian Busied Himself in the Other World", "How Yura Shykmanyuk Forded the Cheremosh", "A Thorn in His Foot" and "As in a Dream";[10]
  • "Mykytych's Oak Tree, The Gypsies", "It's His Own Fault" and "The Forest Nymph";[11]
  • "Hryts and the Young Lord", "The Cutthroats", "The Involuntary Hero" and "The Raging Tempest";[12]
  • "Unknown Waters" and "Lel and Polel";[13]
  • "Fateful Crossroads";[14]
  • "For the Home Hearth" and "Pillars of Society";[15]
  • "From the Notes of a Patient", "The High Life" and "The Postal Clerk";[16]
  • "Amidst the Just", "Fatherland", "The Jay's Wing" and "William Tell".[17]

LegacyEdit

 
Ivan Franko portrait on obverse ₴20.00 bill circa 2003

In 1962 the city of Stanyslaviv in western Ukraine (formerly Stanisławów, Poland) was renamed Ivano-Frankivsk in the poet's honor.

He also is associated with the name Kamenyar for his famous poem, Kamenyari (The Rock breakers), particularly during the Soviet regime, although his political views mostly did not correspond to the Soviet ideology. In the late 1970s astronomer Nikolai Chernykh named an asteroid which honored Franko in this manner, 2428 Kamenyar.

In the new world, Ivan Franko’s legacy is very much alive to this day. Cyril Genik, the best man at Franko’s wedding, emigrated to Canada. Genik became the first Ukrainian to be employed by the Canadian government – working as an immigration agent. With his cousin Ivan Bodrug, and Bodrug’s friend Ivan Negrich, the three were known as the Березівѕка Трійця (the Bereziv Triumvirate) in Winnipeg. Imbued by Franko’s nationalism and liberalism, Genik and his Triumvirate had no compunction about bringing Bishop Seraphim to Winnipeg in 1903 – a renegade Russian monk, consecrated a bishop on Mount Athos – to free the Ukrainians of all the religious and political groups in Canada who were wrangling to assimilate them. Within two years, the charismatic Seraphim built the notorious Tin Can Cathedral in Winnipeg’s North-End, which claimed nearly 60,000 adherents. Today, the bust of Ivan Franko, which stands triumphantly on a pillar in the courtyard of the Ivan Franko Manor on McGregor St. in Winnipeg, looks fondly across the street. Two churches stood here, the first (this building has since been demolished) that Seraphim blessed and opened for service upon his arrival, before building his Cathedral. The second was the Independent Greek Church (this building is still intact) of which Ivan Bodrug became the head after Seraphim was removed. Franko’s consciousness had been bold, and on the level playing ground of the new world it served Ukrainians in Canada to find their own identity as Ukrainian-Canadians.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Облікова картка Archived 2015-12-25 at the Wayback Machine. (in Ukrainian)
  2. ^ Film about Ivan Franko by Sofia Chemerys part 1 on YouTube (in Ukrainian)
  3. ^ Film about Ivan Franko by Sofia Chemerys, part 2 on YouTube
  4. ^ Timothy Snyder (2003). The Reconstruction of Nations: Poland, Ukraine, Lithuania, Belarus, 1569-1999. Yale University Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-300-12841-3. Retrieved 9 March 2016. 
  5. ^ Yaroslav Hrytsak. (2006). Ivan Franko - Peasant son? Україна: культурна спадщина, національна свідомість, державність vol. 15
  6. ^ Yaroslav Hrytsak. One World is not enough or my Adventures with National Paradigm. Scripta ucrainica europaea. Greifswald. September 2007. p. 18.
  7. ^ Zhanna Kuyava (6 October 2010). Онук "Вічного революціонера" Роланд Франко: "Дід міг годинами ловити рибу … руками..." [The grandson of the "Eternal revolutionary" Roland Franko: "My grandfather could spend hours fishing ... with his hands ..."] (in Ukrainian). sumno.com. Archived from the original on 13 June 2015. 
  8. ^ https://www.nobelprize.org/nomination/archive/show.php?id=1392
  9. ^ "Lviv region: Registered candidates for deputy". Ukrainian Central Election Commission. 31 March 2002. Retrieved 9 March 2016.  Roland T. Franko is a Ukrainian politician
  10. ^ Franko, I., 2008, Down Country Lanes, pp.66-159, Language Lantern Publications, Toronto, (Engl. transl.)
  11. ^ Franko, I., 2008, From Days Gone By , pp.51-93, Language Lantern Publications, Toronto, (Engl. transl.)
  12. ^ Franko, I., 2006, Winds of Change: A Trilogy of Selected Prose Fiction by Ivan Franko, (Vol. 1), Language Lantern Publications, Toronto, (Engl. transl.)
  13. ^ Franko, I., 2006, Beacons in the Darkness: A Trilogy of Selected Prose Fiction by Ivan Franko (Vol. 2), Language Lantern Publications, Toronto, (Engl. transl.)
  14. ^ Franko, I., 2006, Fateful Crossroads: A Trilogy of Selected Prose Fiction by Ivan Franko, (Vol. 2), Language Lantern Publications, Toronto, (Engl. transl.)
  15. ^ Franko, I., 2006, Behind Decorum's Veil: Selected Prose Fiction by Ivan Franko, Language Lantern Publications, Toronto, (Engl. transl.)
  16. ^ Franko, I., 2004, Passion's Bitter Cup, pp.91-145, Language Lantern Publications, Toronto, (Engl. transl.)
  17. ^ Franko, I., 2004, Riddles of the Heart, pp.21-129, Language Lantern Publications, Toronto, (Engl. transl.)

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