Righteous Among the Nations

Righteous Among the Nations (Hebrew: חֲסִידֵי אֻמּוֹת הָעוֹלָם ḥasidei ummot ha'olam) is an honourific used by the State of Israel to describe all of the non-Jews who, for purely altruistic reasons, risked their lives in order to save Jews from being exterminated by Nazi Germany during the Holocaust. The term originates from the concept of ger toshav, a legal term used to refer to non-Jewish observers of the Seven Laws of Noah.

Endowment edit

Criteria of the Knesset edit

When Yad Vashem, the Shoah Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority, was established in 1953 by the Knesset, one of its tasks was to commemorate the "Righteous Among the Nations". The Righteous were defined as non-Jews who risked their lives to save Jews during the Holocaust.

Since 1963, a commission headed by a justice of the Supreme Court of Israel has been charged with the duty of awarding the honorary title "Righteous Among the Nations". Guided in its work by certain criteria, the commission meticulously studies all documentation including evidence by survivors and other eyewitnesses, evaluates the historical circumstances and the element of risk to the rescuer, and then decides if the case meets the criteria. Those criteria are:[1]

  • Only a Jewish party can put forward a nomination
  • Helping a family member or helping a Jew who converted to Christianity is not ground for recognition;
  • Assistance has to be repeated or substantial
  • Assistance has to be given without any financial gain expected in return (although covering expenses such as food is acceptable)

The award has been given without regard to the social rank of the helper. It has been given to royalty such as Princess Alice of Battenberg, Queen Mother Helen of Romania and Queen Elisabeth of Belgium but also to others like the philosopher Jacques Ellul, Salvadoran diplomat José Castellanos Contreras and to Amsterdam department store employee Hendrika Gerritsen.[2][3]

Reception in Jerusalem edit

 
Memorial tree in Jerusalem, Israel honoring Irena Sendler, a Polish Roman Catholic nurse who saved 2,500 Jews
 
Obverse (left) and reverse (right) of the Righteous Medal

A person who is recognized as Righteous for having taken risks to help Jews during the Holocaust is awarded a medal in their name, a certificate of honor, and the privilege of having the name added to those on the Wall of Honor in the Garden of the Righteous at Yad Vashem in Jerusalem (the last is in lieu of a tree planting, which was discontinued for lack of space). The awards are distributed to the rescuers or their next of kin during ceremonies in Israel, or in their countries of residence through the offices of Israel's diplomatic representatives. These ceremonies are attended by local government representatives and are given wide media coverage.[citation needed]

Israeli citizenship and legal benefits edit

The Yad Vashem Law authorizes Yad Vashem "to confer honorary citizenship upon the Righteous Among the Nations, and if they have died, the commemorative citizenship of the State of Israel, in recognition of their actions". Anyone who has been recognized as "Righteous" is entitled to apply to Yad Vashem for the certificate. If the person is no longer alive, their next of kin is entitled to request that commemorative citizenship be conferred on the Righteous who has died.[4]

 
The Righteous Diploma of Maria Kotarba

In total, 27,921 (as of 1 January 2021)[5] men and women from 51 countries have been recognized,[5] amounting to more than 10,000 authenticated rescue stories. Yad Vashem's policy is to pursue the program for as long as petitions for this title are received and are supported by evidence that meets the criteria.[6]

Recipients who choose to live in the State of Israel are entitled to a pension equal to the average national wage and free health care, as well as assistance with housing and nursing care.[citation needed]

Recipients settled in Israel edit

At least 130 Righteous non-Jews have settled in Israel. They were welcomed by Israeli authorities, and were granted citizenship. In the mid-1980s, they became entitled to special pensions. Some of them settled in British Mandatory Palestine before Israel's establishment shortly after World War II, or in the early years of Israel, while others came later. Those who came earlier often spoke fluent Hebrew and have integrated into Israeli society.[7] Children and grandchildren of Righteous Gentiles are entitled to a temporary residence visa in Israel, but not Israeli citizenship.[8]

Non-Jewish initiatives for the Righteous edit

 
A Righteous Among the Nations award ceremony in the Polish Senate, 2012

Christian honours edit

One Righteous Among the Nations, Saint Elizabeth Hesselblad of Sweden, has been canonized a saint in the Catholic Church.[9] Five others have been beatified: Giuseppe Girotti and Odoardo Focherini of Italy,[10][11] Klymentiy Sheptytsky of Ukraine,[12] Bernhard Lichtenberg of Germany,[13] and Sára Salkaházi of Hungary.

Maria Skobtsova of Paris and her companions are recognised as martyrs in the Eastern Orthodox Church. Her feast day is 20 July.

Secular honours edit

 
1940 issued visa by Consul Chiune Sugihara in Lithuania
 
Polish passport extended in 1941 by Righteous Among the Nations Chilean diplomat Samuel del Campo
 
University study booklet issued to Polish Righteous Among the Nations Wladyslaw Smolski in 1938

In 2015, Lithuania's first street sign honoring a Righteous Among the Nations was unveiled in Vilnius.[14] The street is named Onos Šimaitės gatvė, after Ona Šimaitė, a Vilnius University librarian who helped and rescued Jewish people in the Vilna Ghetto.[14]

In Zvolen, Slovakia, the Park of Generous Souls commemorates the Righteous Among the Nations from Slovakia.[15]

Beginning in 2018, China's most significant World War II museum, the War of Resistance Museum, features China's Righteous Among the Nations and other Chinese figures who helped Jews escape Europe.[16]

Number of awards by country edit

As of 10 August 2023, the award has been made to 28,217 people. Yad Vashem emphasises that the table is not representative of the effort or proportion of Jews saved per country, and notes that these numbers "are not necessarily an indication of the actual number of rescuers in each country, but reflect the cases that were made available to Yad Vashem."[5]

Country Number of awards Notable recipients 1939 population Recipients per 100,000 inhabitants
  Poland 7,177 Jan Karski, Maria Kotarba, Irena Sendler, Irena Adamowicz 34,849,000 20.59
  Netherlands 5,910 Frits Philips, Jan Zwartendijk, Miep Gies, Bep Voskuijl, Corrie ten Boom, Henk Zanoli 8,729,000 67.70
  France 4,150 Anne Beaumanoir, Jeanne Brousse, André and Magda Trocmé 42,000,000 9.88
  Ukraine 2,673 Klymentiy Sheptytsky 32,425,000 8.24
  Belgium 1,774 Queen Elisabeth of Belgium 8,387,000 21.15
  Lithuania 918 Ona Šimaitė 2,575,000 35.65
  Hungary 876 Endre Szervánszky, Sára Salkaházi 9,129,000 9.60
  Italy 744 Giorgio Perlasca, Gino Bartali, Giuseppe Girotti, Odoardo Focherini, Carlo Angela 43,400,000 1.71
  Belarus 676 5,568,994 12.14
  Germany 641 Oskar Schindler, Wilm Hosenfeld, Hans von Dohnanyi, Bernhard Lichtenberg, Gustav Schröder, Karl Plagge 69,314,000 0.92
  Slovakia 621 Pavel Peter Gojdič 2,655,000 23.39
  Greece 362 Queen Helen, Queen Mother of Romania,
Princess Alice of Battenberg, Damaskinos of Athens
7,222,000 5.01
  Russia 215 108,377,000 0.20
  Serbia 139
  Latvia 138 Jānis Lipke 1,994,500 6.97
  Croatia 130 Ivan Vranetić 4,235,000[17]: 120  3.07
  Czech Republic 119 Victor Kugler
  Austria 113 6,658,000 1.7
  Moldova 79
  Albania 75 Arslan Rezniqi 1,073,000 6.99
  Romania 69 Queen Helen, Queen Mother of Romania 19,933,800 0.35
  Norway 67 2,945,000 2.27
   Switzerland 49 Paul Grüninger 4,200,000 1.17
  Bosnia and Herzegovina 49 Nurija Pozderac
  Armenia 24
  United Kingdom 22 Frank Foley, Sofka Skipwith, Jane Haining
  Denmark[a] 22 Danish resistance movement 3,795,000 0.58
  Bulgaria 20 Dimitar Peshev 6,458,000 0.31
  Slovenia 15
  North Macedonia 10
  Sweden 10 Raoul Wallenberg, Elizabeth Hesselblad
  Spain 9 Ángel Sanz Briz, Eduardo Propper de Callejón
  United States 5 Varian Fry, Martha Sharp, Waitstill Sharp, Roddie Edmonds, Lois Gunden
  Estonia 3 Uku Masing 1,134,000 0.26
  Indonesia 3 Tole Madna, Mima Saina
  Peru 3 José Maria Barreto
  Portugal 3 Aristides de Sousa Mendes
  Brazil 2 Luis Martins de Souza Dantas, Aracy de Carvalho
  Chile 2 Samuel del Campo
  Republic of China 2 Ho Feng-Shan, Pan Junshun
  Cuba 1 Ámparo Otero Pappo
  Egypt 1 Mohammed Helmy
  Turkey 1 Selahattin Ülkümen
  Montenegro 1 Petar Zanković
  Ecuador 1 Manuel Muñoz Borrero
  Japan 1 Chiune Sugihara
  Luxembourg 1 Victor Bodson
  Vietnam 1 Paul Nguyễn Công Anh
  Ireland 1 Mary Elmes
  El Salvador 1 José Castellanos Contreras
  Georgia 1 Sergei Metreveli

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ Paulsson, Gunnar S. (June 1998). "The Rescue of Jews by Non-Jews in Nazi-Occupied Poland". The Journal of Holocaust Education. 7 (1–2): 19–44. doi:10.1080/17504902.1998.11087056.
  2. ^ "Gerritsen, Hendrika Jacoba (Heinsius)". The Righteous Among the Nations. Jerusalem: Yad Vashem. Archived from the original on 7 April 2018. Retrieved 6 April 2018.
  3. ^ "Familieberichten" [Family notices]. Het Parool. 28 December 1990. Archived from the original on 28 September 2023. Retrieved 13 April 2018 – via Delpher.
  4. ^ Honoring the Righteous
  5. ^ a b c "About the Righteous: Statistics". Names of Righteous by Country. Yad Vashem The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority. 1 January 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2021.
  6. ^ "First Arab Nominated for Holocaust Honor". Associated Press. 30 January 2007. Archived from the original on 8 July 2011. Retrieved 1 February 2007.
  7. ^ Jeffay, Nathan (6 October 2011). "'Righteous' Moved to Israel After Saving Jews in Holocaust". The Forward. Archived from the original on 24 April 2014. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  8. ^ "Righteous Among the Nations Visa \ Residence permit in Israel". 6 October 2011. Archived from the original on 24 April 2014. Retrieved 3 July 2021.
  9. ^ Greaves, Mark (18 December 2015). "Swedish Sister who hid Jews from the Nazis is to be canonised". Catholic Herald. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2015.
  10. ^ "Blessed Giuseppe Girotti: Another Dominican Saint in the Making". Order of Preachers. Archived from the original on 28 December 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
  11. ^ "Odoardo Focherini: Late journalist, hero and Blessed of the Catholic Church". Rome Reports. Archived from the original on 7 November 2021. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
  12. ^ "Beatification of the Servants of God on June 27, 2001". Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014.
  13. ^ Gaydosh, Brenda (2017). Bernhard Lichtenberg. Roman Catholic Priest and Martyr of the Nazi Regime. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books. p. 175. ISBN 978-1-4985-5311-7.
  14. ^ a b "Lithuania's first street honoring Holocaust Righteous unveiled in Vilnius". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. 25 September 2015. Archived from the original on 26 September 2015. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
  15. ^ Nižňanský, Eduard (2014). "On Relations between the Slovak Majority and Jewish Minority During World War II". Yad Vashem Studies. 42 (2): 89. ISSN 0084-3296.
  16. ^ Mitter, Rana (2020). China's good war : how World War II is shaping a new nationalism. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-0-674-98426-4. OCLC 1141442704. Archived from the original on 2 April 2023. Retrieved 18 October 2022.
  17. ^ Geiger, Vladimir (2012). "Human losses of Croats in World War II and the immediate post-war period caused by the Chetniks (Yugoslav Army in the Fatherland) and the Partisans (People's Liberation Army and the partisan detachment of Yugoslavia/Yugoslav Army) and the Yugoslav Communist authoritities. Numerical indicators". Review of Croatian History. Croatian institute of history. 8 (1): 77–121. Archived from the original on 17 November 2015. Retrieved 16 August 2023.

Notes edit

  1. ^ While the title of Righteous is awarded to individuals, not groups, the Danish resistance viewed the Rescue of the Danish Jews as a collective act, and asked Yad Vashem not to recognize resistance members individually. Yad Vashem respected the request, and hence the number of Danish Righteous is relatively small.

Bibliography edit

External links edit