Open main menu

Juan Gerardo Guaidó Márquez (Venezuelan Spanish pronunciation: [hwaŋ heˈɾaɾðo ɣwai̯ˈðo ˈmaɾ.kes] (About this soundlisten); born 28 July 1983)[2] is a Venezuelan politician who has been serving as President of the National Assembly of Venezuela and as the partially recognized acting President of Venezuela since January 2019. He is a member of the centrist social-democratic Popular Will party, and serves as a federal deputy to the National Assembly, representing the state of Vargas.

Juan Guaidó
Juan Guaidó in Group of Lima 2019 cropped.jpg
Acting President of Venezuela
Assumed office
23 January 2019
Disputed with Nicolás Maduro
Preceded byNicolás Maduro
10th President of the National Assembly of Venezuela
Assumed office
5 January 2019
Preceded byOmar Barboza
Federal Deputy for Vargas
Assumed office
5 January 2016
Personal details
Juan Gerardo Guaidó Márquez

(1983-07-28) 28 July 1983 (age 35)
La Guaira, Venezuela
Political partyVoluntad Popular
(Popular Will)
Spouse(s)Fabiana Rosales[1]
Children1 daughter (Miranda Guaidó)
EducationAndrés Bello Catholic University
George Washington University

During the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis, Guaidó took a public oath to serve as acting President of Venezuela, contesting the leadership of Nicolás Maduro. As of February 2019, his position on holding the acting presidency, based on an interpretation of Article 233 of the Constitution of Venezuela, has been recognized by more than 50 governments.[3][4] The Supreme Tribunal of Justice (TSJ) rejected the National Assembly decisions[5] while the Supreme Tribunal of Justice of Venezuela in exile welcomed him as acting president.[6]

Shortly after Guaidó became President of the National Assembly, he was briefly detained by authorities.[7] He has also been prohibited from leaving the country, has had his assets frozen, is the subject of a probe into accusations that he helped foreign countries interfere in internal matters,[8] and faces threats and intimidation from government officials in Venezuela.


Early life and education

Part of a large family,[a] and of modest origins,[1] Guaidó was raised in a middle-class home by his parents, Wilmer and Norka.[11] His father was an airline pilot[b] and his mother, a teacher.[9] One grandfather was a sergeant of the Venezuelan National Guard while another grandfather was a captain in the Venezuelan Navy.[12]

Guaidó lived through the 1999 Vargas tragedy which left his family temporarily homeless;[2] he lost friends and his school.[13] The tragedy, according to his colleagues, influenced his political views after the then-new government of Hugo Chávez allegedly provided ineffective response to the disaster.[14] He said, "I saw that if I wanted a better future for my country I had to roll up my sleeves and give my life to public service."[13] He earned his high school diploma in 2000[15] and earned his undergraduate degree in 2007 in industrial engineering from Andrés Bello Catholic University. He also completed two postgraduate programs in public administration at George Washington University in the United States and at the Instituto de Estudios Superiores de Administración in Caracas.[2][15]

He is married to Fabiana Rosales, a journalist,[16] and they have one daughter.[17]


Guaidó said, after "it became clear that under Chávez the country was drifting toward totalitarianism",[13] he helped found the student-led political movement that protested the Venezuelan government's decision not to renew the broadcasting license of independent television network RCTV[18] with other prominent student leaders when he was 23—the year he graduated from Andrés Bello Catholic University.[19] They also protested broader attempted government reforms by Chávez, including the 2007 constitutional referendum, which Chávez lost.[20]

Together with Leopoldo López and other politicians, Guaidó was a founding member of the Popular Will political party in 2009;[21] the party is affiliated with Socialist International, although his peers characterize Guaidó as a centrist, and Maduro places him on the right of the political spectrum.[22][23]

In 2014, Guaidó was the party's national coordinator.[24] López, one of Venezuela's main opposition politicians and under house arrest as of January 2019, "mentored Guaidó for years" according to CNN,[25] and the two speak several times daily.[1] As Lopez's protegé, Guaidó was well known in his party and the Assembly, but not internationally;[26] López named Guaidó to lead the Popular Will party in 2019.[27]

Venezuelan National Assembly

In the 2010 Venezuelan parliamentary election, Guaidó was elected as an alternate national deputy,[28] and was elected to a full seat in the National Assembly in the 2015 elections with 26% of the vote.[29][30] It is an impoverished area, and a majority of employers in Vargas are government companies; until Guaidó's 2015 election, chavista rule in the state was unchallenged.[14]

Relatively unknown until 2019, Guaidó was one of several politicians who went on a hunger strike to demand elections in 2015.[25] In 2017, he was named head of the Comptroller's Commission of the National Assembly and in 2018, he was named head of the legislature's opposition.[15] He contributed to research at the University of Arizona, giving testimony to analysts on the working conditions of Latin American politicians and, specifically, institutional crisis and political change.[24]

In the National Assembly, Guaidó investigated Maduro administration corruption cases, and worked with independent organizations to recover money stolen from the Venezuelan public.[14] He participated in the 2017 Venezuelan protests and was left scarred on his neck after he was shot with rubber bullets.[27] In January 2018 he was sworn in as the Leader of the Majority in the National Assembly.[31][32] He spoke at the Latin American Peace Summit held in Brazil at the start of August 2018, representing Venezuela. In October 2018, he was a pallbearer for Fernando Albán.[33]

President of the National Assembly

Guaidó in a 1 February Voice of America interview

Guaidó was elected President of the National Assembly of Venezuela in December 2018, and was sworn in on 5 January 2019.[34] Relatives of imprisoned politicians were invited to the inauguration, gathering on the balcony behind the banner of Juan Requesens.[12] He is the youngest to lead the opposition.[10] Shortly after assuming the presidency of the legislature, Guaidó took actions towards forming a transitional government.[35][36]

An often-fragmented opposition unified around Guaidó.[37][38] An article in Spain's El Pais says that two politicians were primarily responsible for the strategy that propelled Guaidó forward—Julio Borges (in exile[39]) and Leopoldo López (under house arrest)—in a plan elaborated after failed negotiations in the Dominican Republic [es] between representatives of chavismo and the opposition, and that took more than a year to come to fruition.[38] Bringing together Venezuelan Harvard economist Ricardo Hausmann and politicians from different political parties, Borges led the effort with the Lima Group, while Antonio Ledezma and Carlos Vecchio led in the United States, and María Corina Machado and López kept pressure on in Venezuela.[38] David Smolansky and Freddy Guevara also put their weight behind Guaidó, and Henrique Capriles—initially distant—joined in support.[38]

Javier Corrales, professor and author,[c] adds further support that Guaidó's rise as a presidential figure was started in Venezuela, not by foreign pressure.[41] He said that the Venezuelan opposition had obtained "decisive support from (...) many quarters" for Guaidó, while they had been mostly isolated in the past, and he attributes this to a backlash against the interventionist policies of Chávez. According to Corrales, "Latin American governments are not opposing Venezuela merely because they are on the right; instead, they are now on the right, and criticizing Venezuela, in response to what Venezuela did to their countries."[41] Corrales states that Latin America is "filled with anti-Chavista sentiment" because "Venezuela's foreign policy has exported corruption, poverty and death".[41] Further, Corrales says the opposition mobilized, both nationally and internationally, to combat and denounce Chavism, to gather support for a transition. Corrales concludes that, rather than being the product of foreign forces, "Guaidó created the international response he wanted".[41]

Upon taking office, Guaidó vowed to oppose Maduro, and elaborated an eight-point action plan.[12][42][43] The plan, approved by the National Assembly, envisions three phases (end of usurpation, transitional government, and free elections), with eight key points:[44]

  1. Reaffirm usurpation of presidency [by Maduro]
  2. National Assembly assumes representation of Venezuela in the international community
  3. Create a transitional body to restore constitutional order, coordinated among legitimate authorities of civil society and armed forces
  4. Re-take power of designation from usurpers
  5. Promote recognition among international organizations
  6. Authorize humanitarian aid
  7. Create a fund for recuperating assets lost through corruption
  8. Approve a legislative agenda for the transition

Detention and release

While on his way to a 13 January 2019 public assembly, Guaidó was briefly detained by members of the Bolivarian Intelligence Service (SEBIN),[7] and released 45 minutes later.[9] The Lima Group[45] and the Secretary General of the Organization of American States (OAS), Luis Almagro, condemned the act.[46] The government said the detention was carried out unilaterally by the SEBIN personnel,[47] and twelve SEBIN officials were charged.[48]

Guaidó declared that the events demonstrated that there was a break in the chain of command in the Armed Forces, and that Maduro was not in control.[49]

Acting President of Venezuela

Assumption of presidential powers and duties

Nations recognizing presidential power:
  No statement
  Recognize Guaidó
  Support National Assembly
  Recognize Maduro

Article 233 of the Constitution of Venezuela provides that, "when the president-elect is absolutely absent before taking office, a new election shall take place [...] and until the president is elected and takes office, the interim president shall be the president of the National Assembly".[50]

After what he and others described as the "illegitimate" inauguration of Maduro on 10 January 2019, Guaidó challenged Maduro's claim to the presidency.[51] The National Assembly declared Guaidó had assumed the powers and duties of president, and continued to plan to remove Maduro.[51][52] They called for demonstrations on 23 January, the 61st anniversary of the overthrow of dictator Marcos Pérez Jiménez.[5] Guaidó told the Wall Street Journal that "[i]t's not about twisting arms, breaking kneecaps, but rather holding out a hand" and offered "amnesty to military officers who joined efforts for a transition in power".[10] With massive numbers of demonstrators coming out on 23 January in cities throughout Venezuela and across the world,[53][54] Guaidó swore "before Almighty God ... to formally assume the power of the national executive office as the president of Venezuela".[55]

The US, Canada, Brazil and several Latin American countries supported Guaidó as acting president the same day; Russia, China, and Cuba supported Maduro.[5][56] Maduro accused the US of backing a coup and said he would cut ties with them.[55] Guaidó denies the coup allegations, saying peaceful volunteers back his movement.[57] In December 2018, Guaidó had traveled to Washington D.C. where he met with OAS Secretary General Luis Almagro, and then on 14 January to Colombia for a Lima Group meeting, in which Maduro's mandate was rejected.[58] According to an article in El Pais, the January Lima Group meeting and the stance taken by Canada's Chrystia Freeland were key.[58] El Pais describes Trump's election—coinciding with the election of conservative presidents in Colombia and Brazil, along with deteriorating conditions in Venezuela—as "a perfect storm", influenced by hawks in the Trump administration.[58] Venezuelans Carlos Vecchio, Julio Borges and Gustavo Tarre were consulted, and the Trump administration decision to back Guaidó formed on 22 January, according to El Pais.[58]

As of February 2019, Guaidó is recognized as the acting president of Venezuela by more than 50 countries.[3][4] Since assuming the acting presidency on 23 January, Guaidó has used a slogan, "We're doing well, very well, Venezuela!" (Spanish: ¡Vamos bien, muy bien, Venezuela!).[59][60][61]

Intimidation and threats

Guaidó with his wife, Fabiana, and daughter, Miranda, in 2019

On 29 January, the TSJ launched a probe of Guaidó, froze his assets, and prohibited him from leaving the country.[62] The travel ban and freezing of assets was described as unconstitutional by Special Rapporteur on the Independence of Judges and Lawyers for the United Nations Diego García Sayán.[63]

While announcing the Plan País at the Central University of Venezuela on 31 January, Guaidó said special police had come to his home and asked for Fabiana, his wife. He then gave a general warning, saying that he would hold anyone who threatened his 20-month-old daughter personally accountable for such actions.[64] He was holding his daughter when he gave the announcement, saying that they had "crossed a red line".[65]

Maduro said Guaidó was a clown with a "virtual mandate" who could be imprisoned.[66]

During a speech given at the start of the judicial year, Maduro said, "I was thinking about sending my assistant to the self-proclaimed to end his life"; seconds later Maduro said that "it was a joke" and that "they don't know what humor is".[67] Diosdado Cabello, the president of the 2017 Constituent National Assembly and number two in the country,[68] made another threat against Guaidó on 5 February in a public, videotaped discussion before the Constituent Assembly.[68][69] Multiple news outlets reported that Cabello said that Guaidó had "never heard the whistle of a nearby bullet, you don't know what it feels like when a bullet hits three centimeters from you".[68][69][70] Cabello was reported to have asked Guaidó how far he was willing to go, because they were willing, saying that "We will not care about anything."[69] Guaidó's response was, "Caracas is the most violent capital in the world ... we have had political assassinations ... they have killed more than 40 children. Venezuelans have had to listen already to too many whistling bullets produced by a regime that does not care about the lives, the welfare of Venezuelans ... who need medicine and food ... you will not stop us with veiled threats."[71]

On 10 February, Guaidó said that his wife's grandmother was threatened by colectivos.[72] Guaidó told Euronews: "I am not worried about this costing my life or my freedom. If I give my life to serve the people. We know the risks we face. Our biggest fear is that what’s happening in Venezuela becomes normal."[57]

The Lima Group has stated that Guaidó and his family face "serious and credible threats" in Venezuela. Colombian Foreign Minister Carlos Holmes Trujillo said that "any violent actions against Guiado, his wife, or family" would be met by all "legal and political mechanisms."[73]

During the 2019 Venezuelan blackout, Tarek Saab called for an investigation of Guaidó, alleging that he had "sabotaged" the electric sector; Guaidó said that Venezuela's largest-ever power outage was "the product of the inefficiency, the incapability, the corruption of a regime that doesn't care about the lives of Venezuelans".[74]

Roberto Marrero, Guaidó's chief of staff, was arrested by SEBIN during a raid on his home in the early morning hours of 21 March.[75] He was accused of terrorism and involvement in the 2019 Venezuelan blackout.[76] During the 2019 Venezuelan presidential crisis, the US had repeatedly warned Maduro not to go after Guaidó; Haaretz reported that the arrest of Guaidó's number-two person was a test of the US.[75] A risk consultant for London's IHS Markit, Diego Moya-Ocampos, said to Bloomberg that "the regime is testing the international community and its repeated warnings against laying a hand on Maduro's rival [Guaidó] ... if they can’t touch him, they'll go after those close to him."[77] Nicholas Watson of Teneo Intelligence told The Wall Street Journal that "Marrero's arrest looks like a desperate attempt to break Guaidó's momentum .. The weakness in the regime's position is visible in the fact that arresting Guaidó himself would be seen as a step too far."[78] Guaidó called it a "vile and vulgar kidnapping", adding "Either Nicolas Maduro doesn't dare to arrest me, or he's not the one giving orders."[77] According to The Wall Street Journal, Guaidó said he had received calls from security force officials disclaiming any involvement in the arrest; he replied that they need say no more, per the 2019 Venezuelan Amnesty Law; he said the "incident was indicative of divides within the Maduro regime".[78]

Position on dialogue with Maduro

Guaidó has said that the National Assembly will not participate in dialogue with Maduro. His reasoning is that has already been done, "within and outside of Venezuela, in private and in public, alone and with international companions".[79] He says the result in every instance has been more repression, with Maduro taking advantage of the process to strengthen the dictatorship.[79] Offering as examples Leopoldo López, the detention of Juan Requesens, Julio Borges (in exile) and others, he says if Maduro really wanted dialogue, he would release political prisoners.[79] In an appeal to Uruguay and Mexico, he asked those countries to join him, and said he refused to participate in negotiations whose aim is to maintain in power those who commit human rights violations.[80]

Referencing a letter Maduro wrote asking Pope Francis to assist, Guaidó refused the Vatican's offer to mediate if both parties accepted, calling the attempt a "false dialogue", and saying that the Vatican could assist those who "refused to see the Venezuelan reality".[81] Guaidó said that Maduro did not respect conditions of 2016 negotiations, and suggested the Pope could encourage Maduro to allow an orderly transition of power.[82] Corriere della Sera cited a 7 February 2019 reply from Pope Francis addressed to "Mr. Maduro", in which Pope Francis also stated that what had been agreed in earlier negotiations (open a channel for humanitarian aid, hold free elections, free political prisoners, and re-establish the constitutionally-elected National Assembly[83]) had not been followed.[84][85]

Guaidó characterizes Uruguay as failing to defend democracy, even as he says "[b]etween 2015 and 2017, the number of extrajudicial executions by the repressive machine was more than 9,200, more than three times the number of disappeared in Chile during the Pinochet military dictatorship."[79] He said Uruguay's stance was surprising, considering Venezuela has 300,000 starving people at risk of dying.[79]


Mike Pence meets with Carlos Vecchio, Julio Borges, and other Washington-based Venezuelan representatives on 29 January 2019

According to El Pais, Guaidó has had help, along with National Assembly vice-presidents Stalin González and Edgar Zambrano, from young representatives of various political parties: Miguel Pizarro for humanitarian aid, Carlos Paparoni heading a Finance Commission, and Marialbert Barrios working with embassies.[38] Delsa Solórzano worked with Luisa Ortega Díaz on the Amnesty Law.[38] David Smolansky is the OAS coordinator for the Venezuelan Migrant and Refugee crisis.[86]

Carlos Vecchio was accredited by Pompeo as the Guaidó administration's diplomatic envoy to the US.[87] Gustavo Tarre Briceño was named Venezuela's Permanent Representative to the Organization of American States,[88] and ratified by the National Assembly according to the constitution.[89][90] Julio Borges was named to represent Venezuela in the Lima Group.[91] The National Assembly made more than a dozen[92][93][94] other diplomatic appointments, including Elisa Trotta Gamus to Argentina,[95][96] María Teresa Belandria to Brazil,[97] and Humberto Calderón Berti to Colombia.[98][99] Diplomats to Europe and the Dominican Republic were named on 19 February.[100]

The National Assembly authorized Guaidó's appointment of a new ad hoc directors board of Petróleos de Venezuela (PDVSA), of Citgo, Pdvsa Holding Inc, Citgo Holding Inc. and Citgo Petroleum Corporation. The appointed members of PDVSA were Simón Antúnez, Gustavo J. Velasquez, Carlos José Balza, Ricardo Prada and David Smolansky. Likewise, the appointed members of Citgo Holding y Citgo Petroleum Corporation were Luisa Palacios, Edgar Rincón, Luis Urdaneta, Ángel Olmeta, Andrés Padilla and Rick Esser.[101] With Citgo under the control of Guaidó's administration, the US Department of Treasury extended its license to operate in spite of US sanctions.[102]

Guaidó named José Ignacio Hernández as special solicitor, making Hernández the first official named with state power.[103] Ricardo Hausmann was named as Venezuela's representative to the Inter-American Development Bank,[104] who recognized Hausmann as a replacement for Maduro's representative.[105]

According to AP News, Tarek William Saab said the "appointments by Guaido and his National Assembly are part of an illegal power grab backed by foreign governments"[106] and opened a probe into the ambassador and oil industry appointees; a magistrate of "Venezuela’s pro-Maduro Supreme Court later read a statement ... nullifying the appointments and accusing the National Assembly of overstepping its constitutional powers".[106]

Domestic affairs

Guaidó at a 2 February demonstration

In a 30 January New York Times editorial, Guaidó said,

"We have one of the highest homicide rates in the world, which is aggravated by the government’s brutal crackdown on protesters. This tragedy has prompted the largest exodus in Latin American history, with three million Venezuelans now living abroad. ... Under Mr. Maduro at least 240 Venezuelans have been murdered at marches, and there are 600 political prisoners."[13]

He said his response to these problems was three-fold: restore the democratic National Assembly, gain international support, and allow for the people's right to self-determination.[13]

Guaidó announced on 31 January, before a packed theatre at the Central University of Venezuela,[107] that the National Assembly had approved a commission to implement a plan for the reconstruction of Venezuela.[108][109] Called Plan País (Plan for the Country), it has been under elaboration for some time, and was initially developed through a series of public and private meetings in the US and Venezuela.[110][111] According to Guaidó, the aims of the plan are to "stabilize the economy, attend to the humanitarian emergency immediately, rescue public services, and overcome poverty".[112] It has provisions to revitalize PDVSA, restore the health sector, and offer assistance to the most poverty-stricken.[107] Implementation of the plan requires Maduro's exit.[110]


Guaidó told CNN in February 2019 that he would call elections 30 days after Maduro leaves power.[113] He has not stated if he will run for president when elections occur,[57] but said that "talking about a presidential candidacy separates him from his role at this time".[114]

The Statute Governing the Transition to Democracy to Re-establish the Validity of the Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (Spanish: Estatuto que Rige la Transición a la Democracia para Restablecer la Vigencia de la Constitución de la República Bolivariana De Venezuela) was approved on 5 February,[115] and the National Assembly second vice-president Stalin González announced that a commission to set a route towards elections was established on 6 March 2019.[116]

Humanitarian aid

Guaidó and Sebastián Piñera, on 22 February 2019 at Venezuela Aid Live

In a Euronews interview, Guaidó said that hospitals in Venezuela lacked basic supplies and that "children were dying due to malnutrition".[57] He has made bringing humanitarian aid to the hundreds of thousands of Venezuelans who could die if aid does not arrive a priority, and a test of the military's allegiance.[117] The day after assuming the acting presidency, Guaidó requested humanitarian aid for Venezuela from the US and from the United Nations.

Guaidó said Venezuela's neighbors, in a "global coalition to send aid to Venezuela", will help get humanitarian aid and medicine into the country; products will be shipped to neighboring ports and brought overland via convoys.[118] He said that the 250,000 people whose lives are in danger will be the recipients of the first phase of the humanitarian effort.[119]

Amnesty Law

On 25 January, Guaidó offered an amnesty law, approved by the National Assembly, for military personnel and authorities who help to restore constitutional order.[121] He suggested that if Maduro gives up power, he may receive amnesty.[122] Over his first weekend, he held another public assembly, asking supporters to disseminate the Amnesty Law throughout the country to military, police and other functionaries.[123][124] On 30 January, demonstrators took to the streets across the country to encourage the military to allow humanitarian aid and reject Maduro.[125] Maduro also held meetings with the military; top military command remains loyal to Maduro as of February 2019.[125]

In an editorial published by the New York Times on the evening of 30 January, Guaidó explained that the Amnesty Law would only apply to individuals who were not found to have committed crimes against humanity.[65]

Finance and economy

Guaidó asked the Bank of England and British Prime Minister Theresa May not to return to the Maduro administration the £1.2 billion in gold reserves the UK holds for Venezuela, and to allow the opposition to access it instead.[126][127] In the same week, the US Treasury levied sanctions against PDVSA[128] and transferred control of some Venezuelan assets to Guaidó.[129]

Guaidó said the Maduro administration was attempting to move some of the country's assets to Uruguay, "to keep stealing from the people of Venezuela".[130] On 5 February, Paparoni announced that the transfer from Portugal to Uruguay had been stopped.[131]

Guaidó seeks to open up the economy by allowing foreign, private oil companies greater participation in ventures with PDVSA;[132] the requirement for 51% PDVSA ownership in joint ventures would be dropped.[133] Pledging to honor "legal" and "financial" debt, Carlos Vecchio said that agreements in which Venezuela pays debt with oil (signed by the Maduro administration) may not be honored.[132]

Foreign affairs

Juan Guaidó with Colombian president Ivan Duque and US vice president Mike Pence in February 2019

In an interview with Christiane Amanpour, Guaidó did not rule out accepting support from the US armed forces, but said that pressure was being applied in every other way possible to avoid coming to that.[134]

Guaidó said there is room for long term Chávez/Maduro allies like Russia and China in Venezuela, adding that legal security under a new plan for the country would benefit all businesses, including theirs.[107][135] He has approached China to establish diplomatic ties, stating "China’s support will be very important in boosting our country’s economy and future development."[136] According to Euronews, he says he has been "working to convince China and Russia that it was in their economic interest to withdraw support from Maduro".[57]

According to CNN, following a long history of Fidel Castro's interest in the country, "Venezuelan oil is the lifeblood of Cuban economy, under a barter system where Cuba receives billions of dollars of crude in exchange for Cuban doctors, teachers, sports trainers, and military and intelligence advisers."[137] Guaidó has vowed that Cuban influence in Venezuela will end.[137] Referring to Cubans as "brothers", he said that Cuban individuals are welcome to stay in the country, but not in decision-making positions, and not in the armed forces.[138] Former President Hugo Chávez severed relations with Israel more than ten years ago, favoring support for Palestine during Operation Cast Lead; Guaidó seeks to restore relations with Israel.[139]

Guaidó has supported Venezuela's sovereignty claim of Guayana Esequiba.[140]

Latin American tour 2019

Juan Guaidó with the Vice-president of Brazil, Hamilton Mourão

Guaidó defied the restriction imposed by the Maduro administration on him leaving Venezuela, and attended Richard Branson's February 2019 Venezuela Live Aid concert in Cúcuta, Colombia,[141] whose purpose was to raise funds and awareness for humanitarian aid to Venezuela. In a move that tested Maduro's authority, Guaidó was met by Colombian president Iván Duque, and welcomed by a crowd chanting, "Juan arrived!"[141] Amid continuing tension, and having failed to get humanitarian aid into Venezuela, Guaidó and US vice president Pence attended a 25 February meeting of the Lima Group in Bogotá.[142][143] From there, he embarked on a regional tour to meet with the presidents of Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, and Ecuador,[144] and discuss ways to rebuild Venezuela and defeat Maduro.[145]

Guaidó's trip was approved by Venezuela's National Assembly, as required by the Constitution of Venezuela.[146] Because he left the country under a travel restriction placed upon him by the Maduro administration, he could face prison upon his return to Venezuela.[144] Maduro said that Guaidó was welcome to return to Venezuela, but would have to face justice in the courts for breaching his travel ban.[147] Guaidó announced that he planned to return to Venezuela despite the threats of imprisonment, and said Maduro's "regime" was "weak, lacking support in Venezuela and international recognition".[148]

Guaidó returned to Caracas from Panama via a commercial flight;[149] the Washington Post described his "triumphant return" to "wild cheers from supporters" at Venezuela's main airport at Maiquetía, Vargas state on 4 March.[150] He proceeded from the airport to an anti-government demonstration—organized in advance on social media—in Las Mercedes, Caracas, where he addressed a crowd of thousands,[149] offered a tribute to people who had lost their lives in the border clashes beginning on 23 February, and said that immigration officials had "greeted him at the airport with the words 'welcome, president'."[151] He added: "It is evident that after the threats, somebody did not follow orders. Many did not follow orders. The chain of command [in the government security forces] is broken", according to the BBC.[151]

Public perception

Argentine writer and journalist Andrés Oppenheimer said that Guaidó is "the most courageous and inspiring political figure that has emerged in Latin America in years".[152] A Time reporter described Guaidó as charismatic, saying that he had "unified a divided opposition".[153] He is known for "building unity among fellow legislators", according to a Bloomberg article.[1] Michael Shifter said that he "has tried to reach out to the military, tried to unify the opposition and tried to reach Chavista folks as well".[10] The Wall Street Journal quoted Father Alfredo Infante, who said that people in the barrios "feel connected to Guaidó in a way they haven't with other opposition leaders. He comes from a poor background, and looks like he belongs in the barrio."[154]

An article in The Nation calls Guaidó a "second-string politician" who "simply declared himself acting president" in a brazen power grab.[155] The Guardian said the UK's Emily Thornberry had raised concerns that among the governments that supported Guaidó were those of far-right leaders; Brazil's Jair Bolsonaro and the United States' Donald Trump.[127]

Venezuelan lawyer and columnist Gustavo Tovar-Arroyo, who was active with Guaidó in the early days of the student protests against Hugo Chávez, described Guaidó and Guevara as the "conciliators" of the student movement, saying that Guaidó had been a force for conciliation in the defeat of Chávez's 2007 Venezuelan constitutional referendum, the 2015 Venezuelan parliamentary election that delivered defeat to Maduro, and that he was named [acting president] at a time when Venezuela needed conciliation.[156]

Vox interviewed Ronal Rodriguez, an expert on Venezuelan politics, who said in January 2019 that Guaidó is perceived in Venezuela as "uncharismatic"; Rodriguez argued that photographs of Guaidó at public addresses made him appear like the former US President Barack Obama.[157] The Guardian noted that Guaidó had used the same "rallying cry" as Obama's "Yes we can": "Sí, se puede!".[107][158]


Reuters in 2013 described Venezuelan polls as being "notoriously controversial and divergent".[159] The Wall Street Journal described Datanálisis as "a respected pollster in Venezuela" in March 2019.[154]

Polling company Dates Location Number
Meganálisis[160] 11–14 March 2019 16 Venezuelan states,
32 cities
1,100 89% want Maduro to leave the presidency
Datanálisis[161] Published
2 March
Guaidó approval at 61%; Maduro all-time low at 14%
In an election, Guaidó would win 77% to Maduro's 23%
Invamer[162] 7–11 February 2019 20 Colombian cities 1,008 70% of Colombians surveyed had a favorable view of Guaidó, 93% had a negative impression of Maduro
Meganálisis[163][164] 30 January –
1 February 2019
16 Venezuelan states,
32 cities
1,030 84.6% recognized Guaidó as acting president, 11.2% undecided, 4.1% say Maduro is president
Hercon Consultores[165] 25–30 January 2019 999 81.9% recognized Guaidó as president, 13.4% said Maduro was president, 4.6% undecided
Meganálisis[166] 24–25 January 2019 16 Venezuelan states,
32 cities
870 83.7% recognized Guaidó as president, 11.4% undecided, 4.8% recognized Maduro as president
Meganálisis[167] 19–20 January 2019 900 81.4% hoped that Guaidó would be sworn in on 23 January, 84.2% supported a transitional government to replace Maduro's government
Hercon Consultores[168] 15–19 January 2019 1,100 79.9% agreed with Maduro leaving the presidency. To the National Assembly swearing in Guaidó as acting president, 68.6% agreed and 19.4% disagreed.

Electoral history

2010 parliamentary vote

Candidate Party Votes % Result
Oswaldo Vera PSUV 84 241
Simón Escalona Reserve deputy
Bernardo Guerra MUD 66 553
Juan Guaidó Reserve deputy
Others 2865
Disqualified votes 4352
Total valid votes 153 659

2012 MUD primary

Candidate Party Votes % Result
José Manuel Olivares PJ 17547
Juan Guaidó VP 5184
Not elected
Salomón Bassim PJ 2280
Not elected
Arquímides Rivero GDV 1819
Not elected
Ramón Díaz Ind. 1625
Not elected
Luis Pino CC 264
Not elected
Total valid votes 28 719

2015 parliamentary vote

Candidate Party Votes % Result
Milagros Eulate MUD 98 530
Juan Guaidó MUD 97 492
María Carneiro PSUV 84 872
Not elected
José Pinto PSUV 83 462
Not elected
Jesús Sánchez DR 2098
Not elected
Estela Romero DR 1886
Not elected
Disqualified votes 35 569
Total valid votes 374 773


  1. ^ The Washington Post says Guaidó is one of eight siblings;[9] Bloomberg says he is one of seven;[1] The Wall Street Journal says he is one of six.[10]
  2. ^ The Washington Post says his father was an airline pilot;[9] The Wall Street Journal says his father was a cab driver;[10] La Patilla says his father, Wilmer Guaidó, escaped from Venezuela's chavismo and worked driving a taxi in Tenerife, Spain, but that he was an airline pilot in Venezuela.[11]
  3. ^ Professor of Political Science at Amherst College, author, and journal editor.[40]


  1. ^ a b c d e Rosati, Andrew and Alex Vasquez (23 January 2019). "Who Is Juan Guaido? A Quick Look at the Young Venezuelan Leader". Bloomberg. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  2. ^ a b c "Diputado por Vargas Juan Guaidó" (in Spanish). Popular Will Party. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  3. ^ a b "Venezuela opposition plans aid hub in Brazil, mobilizes volunteers". France 24. 11 February 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  4. ^ a b Meredith, Sam (12 February 2019). "How a nationwide protest against Maduro could shape Venezuela's future". CNBC. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  5. ^ a b c "Guaido vs Maduro: Who backs Venezuela's two presidents?". CNBC. Reuters. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  6. ^ "Maduro vs. Guaido: Who is backing whom?". France24. 28 January 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  7. ^ a b "Juan Guaidó: Venezuela's opposition leader briefly detained". BBC. 13 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  8. ^ "Venezuela targets Guaido with probe, travel ban, asset freeze". Reuters. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  9. ^ a b c d "Venezuela's opposition is gambling it all on a young and untested activist named Juan Guaidó". The Washington Post. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  10. ^ a b c d e Castro, Maolis and Juan Forero (24 January 2019). "From Quiet Beginnings, Maduro's Challenger Raises Voice in Venezuela". Wall Street Journal. via ProQuest: Dow Jones Institutional News. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  11. ^ a b "El padre de Juan Guaidó desde Tenerife: "Siempre adelante, hijo"" (in Spanish). 27 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  12. ^ a b c Long, Gideon (13 January 2019). "Venezuela's opposition vows to help end Maduro's rule". Financial Times. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  13. ^ a b c d e Guaidó, Juan (30 January 2019). "Juan Guaidó: Venezuelans, Strength Is in Unity". New York Times. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  14. ^ a b c Zubillaga, Guillermo (9 January 2019). "Meet the New Face of Venezuela's Opposition". Americas Quarterly. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  15. ^ a b c Sanchez, Fabiola and Scott Smith (14 January 2019). "Guaidó, político de poca experiencia que asume rol crucial". La Patilla (in Spanish). Associated Press. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  16. ^ "Periodista de 26 años: así es Fabiana Rosales, la mujer de Juan Guaidó y su máximo apoyo". ABC España (in Spanish). 25 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  17. ^ Puglie, Frederic (24 January 2019). "Juan Guaido wins support of Venezuela youth with age, vigor and Twitter outreach". Washington Times. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  18. ^ "Juan Guaidó, el presidente más joven de la Asamblea que deberá tomar la decisión más difícil" (in Spanish). NTN 24. 3 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  19. ^ "The day that Chávez and Guaidó crossed destinies". El Espectador (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  20. ^ Romero, Simon (3 December 2007). "Venezuela Hands Narrow Defeat to Chávez Plan". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  21. ^ "Voluntad Popular will propose Juan Guaidó as president of the National Assembly and ratifies his ignorance of Nicolás Maduro". Voluntad Popular. 20 December 2018. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  22. ^ "Quién es Juan Guaidó, el líder venezolano reconocido como presidente interino". El Nuevo Herald. 5 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019. [Guaidó] es definido como de centro por sus colaboradores, pese a que milita en una agrupación que es miembro pleno de la Internacional Socialista y que voceros del Gobierno de Nicolás Maduro ubican, a manera de insulto, a la derecha del espectro político.
  23. ^ "Quién es Juan Guaidó y por qué su juramento es constitucional". FAES. 23 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019. Forma parte del partido Voluntad Popular, liderado por Leopoldo López, y que pertenece a la Internacional Socialista.
  24. ^ a b Cyr, Jennifer (9 June 2017). The fates of political parties: institutional crisis, continuity, and change in Latin America. New York, NY, USA: University of Cambridge Press. p. 259. ISBN 9781107189799. OCLC 986236528.
  25. ^ a b Chavez, Nicole and Rafael Romo (24 January 2019). "Who is Venezuela's Juan Guaido?". CNN. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  26. ^ Rosati, Andrew and Alex Vasquez (15 January 2019). "Venezuela's Moribund Opposition Stirs With Lawmaker's Emergence". Bloomberg. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  27. ^ a b Parkin Daniels; Joe and Mariana Zúñiga (15 January 2019). "Who is Juan Guaidó, the opposition leader challenging Maduro's rule?". The Guardian. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  28. ^ Rodriguez Rosas, Ronny (20 December 2018). "Voluntad Popular confirma que propondrá a Juan Guaidó para presidir la AN en 2019" (in Spanish). Efecto Cocuyo. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  29. ^ "Diputado Juan Guaidó ingresó al Palacio Federal Legislativo en compañía de su familia #5Ene" (in Spanish). El Impulso. 5 January 2019. Archived from the original on 6 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  30. ^ "Elecciones a la Asamblea Nacional 2015" (in Spanish). National Electoral Council of Venezuela. 22 January 2016. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
  31. ^ "Guaidó: Ante propuesta de realizar los comicios presidenciales debe prevalecer la unidad". Asamblea Nacional. Retrieved 1 February 2019. El jefe de la fracción parlamentaria de la Asamblea Nacional (AN) diputado Juan Guaidó (Unidad/Vargas)
  32. ^ "Juan Guaidó: El Viernes asumí la responsabilidad de llevar la jefatura de fracción mayoritaria de la unidad". 8 January 2018. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  33. ^ "Juan Guaidó on Instagram Respeto dar Albán". Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  34. ^ "Maduro's long standoff against Venezuela's parliament". France 24. 2 February 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  35. ^ "Asamblea Nacional arranca proceso para Ley de Transicion". Archived from the original on 9 January 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  36. ^ Smith, Scott (10 January 2019). "Isolation greets Maduro's new term as Venezuela's president". AP News. Archived from the original on 11 January 2019. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  37. ^ Nugent, Ciara (23 January 2019). "Who is Juan Guaidó, the opposition leader Trump just recognized as Venezuela's president?". Time. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  38. ^ a b c d e f Moleiro, Alonso and Javier LaFuente (30 January 2019). "La estrategia coral que resucitó a la oposición y echa el pulso más firme a Maduro". El Pais. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  39. ^ Phillips, Tom and Joe Parkin Daniels (9 August 2018). "Venezuela: Maduro critic rejects 'absurd' claim he plotted to kill president". The Guardian. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  40. ^ "Javier Corrales: About me". Amherst College. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  41. ^ a b c d Corrales, Javier (30 January 2019). "Opinion: Foreign Forces Did Not Start Venezuela's Transition. Venezuela Did". National Public Radio. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  42. ^ "Venezuela's parliament rejects legitimacy of Maduro second term". Agence France-Presse. ABS CBN News. 5 January 2019. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  43. ^ Smith, Scott (5 January 2019). "Venezuela's congress names new leader, vows to battle Maduro". ABC News. Retrieved 15 January 2019.
  44. ^ "AN: Los ocho puntos claves propuestos por Juan Guaidó". El Nacional (in Spanish). 7 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  45. ^ "Panama and the Lima Group condemn the arrest of National Assembly President, Mr. Juan Guaido" (Press release). Embassy of Panama. 14 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  46. ^ "Almagro: Detención de Guaidó enfatizó el amedrentamiento y la coacción". El Nacional Web (in Spanish). 13 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  47. ^ "Privan de libertad a funcionarios del Sebin que detuvieron a Juan Guaidó". El Universal (in Spanish). 16 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  48. ^ "Venezuela: 12 charged in detention of opposition leader". The Washington Post. 16 January 2018. Retrieved 17 January 2018.
  49. ^ "Presidente de Asamblea Nacional de Venezuela detenido brevemente por SEBIN". Voz de American Noticias (in Spanish). 13 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  50. ^ Bello, Camille. "Is it legal for Juan Guaido to be proclaimed Venezuela's interim president?". Euronews. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  51. ^ a b Phillips, Tom (11 January 2019). "Venezuela: opposition leader declares himself ready to assume presidency". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  52. ^ "Juan Guaidó: Me apego a los artículos 333, 350 y 233 para lograr el cese de la usurpación y convocar elecciones libres con la unión del pueblo, FAN y comunidad internacional". Retrieved 24 January 2019.
  53. ^ "Protestas en Venezuela: miles de personas participan en manifestaciones masivas contra el gobierno de Maduro". BBC NewsMundo (in Spanish). 23 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  54. ^ "Las 50 fotos de las masivas marchas contra la dictadura de Nicolás Maduro en Venezuela y Latinoamérica". Infobae (in Spanish). 24 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  55. ^ a b Sanchez, Ray and Nicole Chavez (23 January 2019). "Maduro defiant as Venezuelan opposition leader declares himself acting president". CNN. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  56. ^ "Maduro faces off with U.S. over Venezuela rival's power claim". PBS. 24 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  57. ^ a b c d e Borges, Anelise (18 February 2019). "'I'm ready to die for my country's future,' Juan Guaido tells Euronews". Euronews. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  58. ^ a b c d Mars, Amanda (3 February 2019). "Así se lanzó Trump al derribo de Maduro". El Pais (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  59. ^ "Guaidó: "¡Vamos bien, muy bien Venezuela!"". 800 Noticias (in Spanish). 28 January 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  60. ^ Guaidó, Juan (4 February 2019). "Juan Guaidó on Twitter" (in Spanish). Guaidó official Twitter feed. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  61. ^ Villarroel, Astolfo (25 January 2019). "Guaido envia un mensaje de esperanza: Vamos bien, Muy bien". Punto de Corte Agencia de Informacion (in Spanish). Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  62. ^ "Venezuela top court curbs opposition leader Juan Guaidó". BBC. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  63. ^ "Travel ban on Venezuela's Guaido breaches legal standards: U.N. expert". Reuters. 8 February 2019. Retrieved 11 February 2019.
  64. ^ "Venezuela crisis: Juan Guaidó says family has been threatened". BBC. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  65. ^ a b "Juan Guaidó Says Venezuelan Opposition Had Secret Talks With Military". New York Times. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  66. ^ "Nicolás Maduro le advierte a Juan Guaidó que podría terminar en la cárcel". Noticias Caracol (in Spanish). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2019. Cuestionó que el 'payaso' que se proclamó presidente no haya convocado elecciones, como dicta la Constitución. ¿Hasta cuándo irá su mandato?, preguntó. '¿Va a continuar en su mandato virtual? ¿Hasta cuándo, hasta el 2025 también? ¿O hasta que termine en la cárcel por mandato del Tribunal Supremo de Justicia? ¿Hasta cuándo?, le advirtió al presidente interino.
  67. ^ Soto, Claudio (24 January 2019). ""Estaba pensando enviar a mi asistente al autoproclamado, a que le acabe la vida": El comentario sobre Guaidó que Maduro calificó como "chiste"" (in Spanish). La Tercera. Retrieved 9 February 2019.
  68. ^ a b c "¿Amenaza chavista? Video: "Señor Guaidó, usted no ha escuchado el silbido de una bala cerca"". Urgente 24 (in Spanish). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019. El chavismo/madurismo está descontrolado, y este martes 05/02 el presidente de la ilegítima Asamblea Nacional Constituyente (ANC) y número 2 de Venezuela, Diosdado Cabello, lanzó una nueva amenaza al presidente encargado de la República. Mire señor Guaidó usted no ha escuchado el silbido de una bala cerca de usted, no sabe qué se siente cuando una bala pega a tres centímetros o aun cuarto de donde está a usted y se escucha cuando pega, no tiene la más mínima idea de lo que eso significa'. Explicó que 'quien se atreva intentar atropellar a la patria tendrá una respuesta 'contundente'. 'No nos va a importar absolutamente nada', añadió.
  69. ^ a b c "Diosdado amenazó con una bala a Juan Guaidó". Noticias Venezuela (in Spanish). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019. ... le advirtió que el chavismo estaba dispuesto a todo con tal de defender la “revolución” y su permanencia en el poder. 'Así como el pueblo salió el 2 de febrero a celebrar la revolución, nos van a ver en la calle movilizados, moralizados y listos para el combate', agregó. Le pregunté hasta dónde estaba dispuesto a llegar, porque nosotros sí estamos dispuestos. Le dije ‘señor Guaidó, usted no ha escuchado el silbido de una bala cerca’”, contó Diosdado en su discurso ante la ANC chavista.
  70. ^ "Diosdado Cabello: Guaidó no ha escuchado el silbido de una bala cerca". El Nacional (in Spanish). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  71. ^ "Guaido says Venezuela's opposition is 'not going anywhere' in CBC interview". CBC Canada. 7 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019. Spanish text and video of Guaidó's full response also at ElEstimulo and ATodoMomento "Con respecto a las supuestas amenazas; aquí seguimos ... triste y lamentablemente, al pueblo de Venezuela le ha tocado escuchar muchos silbidos de bala. Caracas es la capital más violenta del mundo ... Ha sufrido asasinatos politicos ... han matado a más de cuarenta niños. ... El pueblo de Venezuela ha tenido que escuchar demasiado ya silbidos de balas producidos por un régimen que no le interesa la vida, el bienestar de los venezolanos. ... que necesitan hoy medicina y comida ... Así que, con amenazas veladas no nos va a detener”.
  72. ^ "Guaidó afirma que la abuela de su esposa fue amenazada por colectivos" (in Spanish). La República. 10 February 2019. Retrieved 12 February 2019.
  73. ^ "Lima Group: There Are 'Serious and Credible' Threats on Guaido's Life". VOA news. 26 February 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  74. ^ Phillips, Tom (12 March 2019). "Guaidó under investigation for sabotage of power grid". The Guardian. Retrieved 13 March 2019.
  75. ^ a b "Venezuela detains top aide to Guaido in test of Trump's red line". Haaretz. Reuters. 21 March 2019. Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  76. ^ Garcia, Jacobo (21 March 2019). "La policía venezolana detiene de madrugada al jefe de Gabinete de Guaidó" [Venezuelan police arrest the head of the Guaidó Cabinet at dawn]. El Pais (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 March 2019.
  77. ^ a b Rosati, Andrew and Patricia Laya (21 March 2019). "Venezuela police detain Guaido's chief of staff after raid". Bloomberg – via ProQuest. Also available online with a subscription.
  78. ^ a b Vyas, Kejal (21 March 2019). "Venezuela intelligence police detain top opposition aide; Arrest threatens to raise tensions and provoke U.S. punitive measures". Wall Street Journal – via ProQuest.
  79. ^ a b c d e Correa, Juan Pablo (7 February 2019). "Juan Guaidó : 'Uruguay ha hecho falta para defender la democracia". El Pais (in Spanish). Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  80. ^ Aguilar Ybarra, Rafael (4 February 2019). "'¡Únanse a nuestro llamado democrático!', pide Guaidó". Impulso (in Spanish). Agencia Sun. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  81. ^ "Guaidó reitera que solo dialogará si se concreta salida de Maduro del poder". Ultima Hora (in Spanish). 6 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  82. ^ "Juan Guaidó pidió al papa Francisco que "haga ver" a Nicolás Maduro la necesidad "de ir hacia un proceso de transición"". InfoBAE (in Spanish). 6 February 2019. Retrieved 7 February 2019.
  83. ^ Gagliarducci, Andrea (16 February 2019). "Analysis: Pope Francis' position on Venezuela". Catholic News Agency. Retrieved 17 February 2019.
  84. ^ Isaac, Lindsay and Hilary McGann, Livia Borghese (13 February 2019). "El papa Francisco le responde en una carta a Maduro". CNN en Espanol (in Spanish). Retrieved 14 February 2019.CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link)
  85. ^ Franco, Massimo. "Lettera del Papa al «signor Maduro»: Francesco deluso, accordi disattesi". Corriere della Sera (in Italian). Retrieved 14 February 2019.
  86. ^ Macías, Basyl (11 February 2019). "Guaidó y diputados de la AN lideran Conferencia Mundial de la Crisis Humanitaria en Venezuela". El Carbobeño (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  87. ^ "Trump administration accepts Guaido ally as Venezuela envoy in U.S." Reuters. 27 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  88. ^ "A Conversation with Venezuela's New Permanent Representative to the OAS, Special Ambassador Gustavo Tarre". Center for Strategic and International Studies. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  89. ^ "De Grazia respaldó a Tarre Briceño como representante del país ante la OEA". El Nacional (in Spanish). 22 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  90. ^ "Este es Gustavo Tarre Briceño, representante de Venezuela ante la OEA". Lapatilla (in Spanish). 22 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  91. ^ "Venezuelan Parliament OKs Guaido's diplomatic appointments". Alianza News. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  92. ^ "Asamblea Nacional designa 11 representantes diplomáticos en el mundo". NTN24 (in Spanish). 29 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  93. ^ "El Parlamento de Venezuela nombra "representantes diplomáticos" ante una decena de países y el Grupo de Lima". Europa Pres. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  94. ^ "AN designó nuevos embajadores de Venezuela en Brasil, Paraguay y Guatemala". Noticiero 52 (in Spanish). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  95. ^ Guaidó, Juan (29 January 2019). "Venezolanos en #Argentina: a partir de hoy cuentan con una representante oficial y legítima. A esta hora, la Diplomática designada, Elisa Trotta Gamus, es recibida por el Presidente @mauriciomacri. Al Gob. de Argentina ¡Gracias por su reconocimiento y compromiso con Venezuela!". @jguaido (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  96. ^ "Quién es Elisa Trotta Gamus, la representant nombró Guaidó en Argentina". Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  97. ^ "AN nombró a tres nuevos representantes de Venezuela en el exterior". El Nacional (in Spanish). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  98. ^ Trujillo, Carlos Holmes (29 January 2019). "El Gobierno Nacional reconoce a Humberto Calderón Berti, designado como representante diplomático de la República Bolivariana de Venezuela en Colombia". @CarlosHolmesTru (in Spanish). Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  99. ^ "Colombia reconoció a Humberto Calderón Berti como representante diplomático de Venezuela". Noticias Caracol (in Spanish). 29 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  100. ^ Rodriguez Rosas, Ronny (19 February 2019). "Guaidó nombra representantes diplomáticos para Europa". Efecto Cocuyo (in Spanish). Retrieved 20 February 2019.
  101. ^ De Vita, Antonella (13 February 2019). "El Universal". El Nacional. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  102. ^ Wethe, David and Lucia Kassai (15 March 2019). "Citgo avoids a shutdown With U.S. Treasury deadline extension". Yahoo News. Bloomberg. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  103. ^ Marchán, Victor (27 February 2019). "¿Quién es José Ignacio Hernández, el procurador summa cum laude designado por Guaidó?". Caraota Digital (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  104. ^ "Venezuela's Guaido names Hausmann as Inter-American Development Bank rep". Reuters. Thomson Reuters Foundation Trust. 4 March 2019. Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  105. ^ Wroughton, Lesley (15 March 2019). "Latam lender replaces Venezuela's Maduro representative with Guaido economist". Reuters. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  106. ^ a b Smith, Scott (14 February 2019). "Venezuelan prosecutor to investigate Guaido appointments". Associated Press News. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  107. ^ a b c d Phillips, Tom (31 January 2019). "'¡Sí se puede!' shouts rapturous crowd at Juan Guaidó rally". The Guardian. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  108. ^ "En vivo: Juan Guaidó presenta su Plan País para rescatar a Venezuela". El Comercio. 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  109. ^ "Instalada Comision Plan Pais de la Asamblea Nacional". Caraboboes Noticia (in Spanish). 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  110. ^ a b Adams, David and Tamoa Calzadilla (30 January 2019). "Venezuela's Guaidó to announce national reconstruction plan 'for the day after'". Univision. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  111. ^ "Plan País" (in Spanish). Plan País, Inc. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  112. ^ Adams, David and Tamoa Calzadilla (30 January 2019). "Guaidó presentará este jueves el 'Plan País': te contamos de qué se trata". Univision (in Spanish). Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  113. ^ Cullinane, Susannah and Jackie Castillo (24 February 2019). "Mike Pompeo calls Venezuela's Nicolas Maduro a 'sick tyrant' over aid blockage". CNN. Retrieved 24 February 2019.
  114. ^ Martínez, Sammy Paola (16 February 2019). "Juan Guaidó: Hablar de candidatura presidencial se aparta de mi rol en este momento" [Juan Guaidó: Speaking of presidential candidacy departs from my role at this moment] (in Spanish). El Pitazo. Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  115. ^ Brito, Estefani (8 February 2019). "El estatuto que rige la transición entró en vigencia el martes" [The statute governing the transition took effect on Tuesday]. El Nacional (in Spanish). Retrieved 9 March 2019.
  116. ^ "Stalin González: Se instaló comisión para fijar ruta electoral en el país". El Nacional (in Spanish). 6 March 2019. Retrieved 6 March 2019.
  117. ^ "Venezuela opposition warns military against preventing entry of aid". France24. 5 February 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  118. ^ Rueda, Manuel and Clbyburn Saint John (31 January 2019). "AP Interview: Venezuela's Guaido vows to defy ban on aid". Washington Post. Associated Press. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  119. ^ "Guaidó pedirá una "gran movilización" para resguardar el ingreso de la ayuda humanitaria al país". El Universal (in Spanish). 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019.
  120. ^ Torchia, Christopher (18 March 2019). "Colombia: 1,000 Venezuelan forces crossed border since Feb". ABC News. Associated Press. Retrieved 19 March 2019.
  121. ^ "Juan Guaidó ofreció detalles sobre Ley de Amnistía". El Nacional (in Spanish). 25 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  122. ^ "Venezuela's Maduro 'could get amnesty'". BBC. 25 January 2019. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  123. ^ Vinogradoff, Ludmila and David Alandete (28 January 2019). "Guaidó difunde su ley de amnistía en los cuarteles para conseguir adhesiones". ABC International (in Spanish). Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  124. ^ "Guaidó aumenta presión contra Maduro con amnistía a militares y marcha". El Tiempo (in Spanish). 27 January 2019. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  125. ^ a b "Venezuela's Guaido, protesters urge military to reject Maduro". Agence France Press. 30 January 2019. Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  126. ^ Buitrago, Deisy (27 January 2019). "Venezuela opposition leader urges UK not to give gold to Maduro". Reuters. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  127. ^ a b Wintour, Patrick (28 January 2019). "Bank of England urged to give Juan Guaidó Venezuela's gold". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  128. ^ DiChristopher, Tom (28 January 2019). "Treasury sanctions Venezuela state-owned oil firm in bid to transfer control to Maduro opposition". CNBC. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  129. ^ "US gives Juan Guaido control over some Venezuelan assets". Al Jazeera. 29 January 2019. Retrieved 30 January 2019.
  130. ^ "Juan Guaidó denunció que el régimen de Nicolás Maduro quiere transferir 1.200 millones de dólares a Uruguay". InfoBAE (in Spanish). 4 February 2019. Retrieved 4 February 2019. Guaidó no dio más detalles de su denuncia pero sí agregó que, además, el chavismo "planea robar" la ayuda humanitaria que está recolectando con colaboración de la comunidad internacional. "En este momento el régimen trata de seguir robándonos el dinero, están tratando de mover desde el Bandes (El Banco de Desarrollo Económico y Social de Venezuela) 1.200 millones de dólares a Uruguay", denunció Juan Guaidó cuando la conferencia de prensa ya estaba terminando. Y agregó: "Entre 1000 y 1200 millones de dólares, pretende la dictadura, trasladar al Bandes se Uruguay, con el objeto de seguir robando al pueblo Venezolano".
  131. ^ "Diputado venezolano dice que se detuvo una transferencia del gobierno de Maduro a Uruguay". El Observador (in Spanish). 5 February 2019. Retrieved 6 February 2019.
  132. ^ a b Embury-Dennis, Tom (5 February 2019). "Venezuela: Juan Guaido will open up oil deals to foreign private companies, opposition leader's US envoy says". Independent. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  133. ^ Paraskova, Tsvetana (5 February 2019). "Guaido Set To Open Venezuela's Oil Sector To Private Firms". Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  134. ^ Mackintosh, Elize (31 January 2019). "Venezuela's Guaido refuses to rule out accepting US military support amid escalating political crisis". CNN. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  135. ^ "Juan Guaidó lanzó el "Plan País" con un mensaje para Rusia y China: "A ustedes también les conviene un cambio de Gobierno"". InfoBAE (in Spanish). 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  136. ^ "Self-declared leader of Venezuela extends olive branch to China". South China Morning Post. 2 February 2019. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
  137. ^ a b Oppmann, Patrick (2 February 2019). "The history that chains Cuba to Venezuela's crisis". CNN. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  138. ^ "Guaidó advirtió que es hora de sacar a los cubanos de la Fuerza Armada de Venezuela". Caraota Digital (in Spanish). 25 January 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  139. ^ "Venezuela's Guaido says he is working to restore ties with Israel". Reuters. 12 February 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  140. ^ "Juan Guaidó, un opositor emergente, se convierte en el mayor desafío de Maduro" [Juan Guaidó, an emerging opposition leader, becomes Maduro's biggest denouncer]. RTVE (in Spanish). Retrieved 1 February 2019.
  141. ^ a b "The Latest: Venezuela's Guaido shows up at benefit concert". Associated Press. 22 February 2019. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
  142. ^ "Lima Group urges ICC to declare Venezuela aid blockade 'crime against humanity'". Business Times. 26 February 2019. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  143. ^ Kraul, Chris and Patrick J. McDonnell (25 February 2019). "Pence says U.S. will up the ante as it seeks ouster of Venezuelan President Maduro". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  144. ^ a b Rosati, Andrew and Ken Parks (1 March 2019). "Facing jail in Caracas, Guaido travels across South America". Yahoo news. Bloomberg. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  145. ^ Meredith, Sam (1 March 2019). "Venezuela's Guaido vows to return to Caracas despite 'life-threatening' risks". CNBC. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  146. ^ "Juan Guaidó visitará Paraguay este viernes". El Nacional (in Spanish). 28 February 2019. Retrieved 2 March 2019.
  147. ^ Llamas, Tom (28 February 2019). "Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro's defiant interview with Tom Llamas: TRANSCRIPT". ABC News. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  148. ^ Boadle, Anthony (1 March 2019). "Venezuela's Guaido vows to return to Caracas despite threat of prison". Reuters. Retrieved 1 March 2019.
  149. ^ a b Gallon Natalie and Tara John (4 March 2019). "Opposition leader Juan Guaido returns to Venezuela, risking arrest". CNN. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  150. ^ Sheridan, Mary Beth Sheridan and Mariana Zuñiga (4 March 2019). "Juan Guaidó returns to Venezuela, risking arrest". Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  151. ^ a b "Juan Guaidó flies back to Venezuela despite arrest risk". BBC. 4 March 2019. Retrieved 4 March 2019.
  152. ^ Delgado, Franklin (5 March 2019). "Andrés Oppenheimer: Guaidó es la figura política más valiente que ha surgido en América Latina en años". Caraota Digital (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 March 2019.
  153. ^ Nugent, Ciara (15 January 2019). "How a Little-Known Opposition Leader Could Turn Venezuela Back Toward Democracy". TIME. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  154. ^ a b Luhnow, David (19 March 2019). "Maduro loses grip on Venezuela's poor, a vital source of his power". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 20 March 2019.
  155. ^ Ciccariello-Maher, George (25 January 2019). "Venezuela: Call It What It Is—a Coup". The Nation. Retrieved 28 January 2019.
  156. ^ Tovar-Arroyo, Gustavo (5 February 2019). "¿Quién es Juan Guaidó?". El Nacional (in Spanish). Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  157. ^ Ward, Alex (23 January 2019). "Why thousands of protesters—and Trump—are demanding Venezuela's president step down". Vox. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  158. ^ Phillips, Tom. "Bolsonaro pressures Venezuelan leader with vow to 're-establish democracy'". The Guardian. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  159. ^ "Most Venezuelans think Chavez will recover: poll". Reuters. 26 February 2013. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  160. ^ "Meganálisis: 88.9 % de venezolanos quiere que Maduro y el chavismo se vayan ya" [Meganalisis: 88.9% of Venezuelans want Maduro and Chavismo to leave]. La Patilla (in Spanish). 15 March 2019. Retrieved 15 March 2019.
  161. ^ Wyss, Jim (4 March 2019). "'The chain of command is broken,' Guaidó tells supporters upon his return to Venezuela". Miami Herald. Retrieved 19 March 2019. According to a recent Datanalisis poll, Guaidó has an approval rating of 61 percent while Maduro’s has hit an all-time low of 14 percent. citing Francisco Monaldi Tweet of 2 March, "Maduro cae a su mínimo histórico de aprobación con 14%. Guaidó logra 61% de aprobación y arrasaría en una elección con 77% vs. 23% Maduro."
  162. ^ "Guaidó goza de 70 % de popularidad entre los colombianos, según encuesta". NTN 24 (in Spanish). Retrieved 18 February 2019.
  163. ^ "Solo 4.1 % de venezolanos reconocen a Maduro como presidente: Guaidó se alza con 84.6 % de apoyo popular (Flash Meganálisis)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 2 February 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
  164. ^ Maria Delgado, Antonio (5 February 2019). "Venezuela's Nicolás Maduro orders multiple arrests within military to squelch dissent". Miami Herald. Retrieved 6 February 2019. Also at Chicago Tribune
  165. ^ "81,9 % de venezolanos reconoce a Juan Guaidó como presidente de Venezuela (Encuesta Hercón)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 31 January 2019. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
  166. ^ "83.7 % de los venezolanos reconocen a Guaidó como el Presidente legítimo de Venezuela (Flash Meganálisis)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 26 January 2019. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
  167. ^ "Ni diálogo, ni elecciones... esto es lo que quieren los venezolanos después del #23Ene, según revela encuestadora Meganálisis". La Patilla (in Spanish). 21 January 2019. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  168. ^ "El 79.9% de los venezolanos quiere que Maduro negocie ya su salida (encuesta flash Hercon)". La Patilla (in Spanish). 20 January 2019. Retrieved 20 January 2019.
  169. ^ "Divulgación Elecciones Parlamentarias" (in Spanish). Consejo Nacional Electoral. 26 September 2010. Archived from the original on 1 January 2011. Retrieved 23 December 2018.
  170. ^ "Resultados de las primarias de la MUD 2012" (PDF). El Universal (in Spanish). Retrieved 29 January 2019.
  171. ^ "Divulgación Elecciones Parlamentarias" (in Spanish). Consejo Nacional Electoral. 6 December 2015. Archived from the original on 22 January 2016. Retrieved 20 December 2018.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
Omar Barboza
President of the National Assembly of Venezuela
Preceded by
Nicolas Maduro
Acting President of Venezuela
disputed with Maduro