Chrystia Freeland

Christina Alexandra Freeland PC MP (born August 2, 1968) is a Canadian journalist and politician who has served as the tenth and current deputy prime minister of Canada since 2019, and the minister of finance since 2020. Freeland has held a number of portfolios over her tenure in government including intergovernmental affairs, foreign affairs, and international trade. A member of the Liberal Party, Freeland represents the Toronto riding of University—Rosedale in the House of Commons. She is the first woman to hold the finance portfolio.[2]


Chrystia Freeland

Chrystia Freeland MSC 2018 (cropped).jpg
Freeland in 2018
10th Deputy Prime Minister of Canada
Assumed office
November 20, 2019
Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau
Preceded byAnne McLellan[a]
Minister of Finance
Assumed office
August 18, 2020
Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau
Preceded byBill Morneau
Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs
In office
November 20, 2019 – August 18, 2020
Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau
Preceded byDominic LeBlanc
Succeeded byDominic LeBlanc
Minister of Foreign Affairs
In office
January 10, 2017 – November 20, 2019
Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau
Preceded byStéphane Dion
Succeeded byFrançois-Philippe Champagne
Minister of International Trade
In office
November 4, 2015 – January 10, 2017
Prime MinisterJustin Trudeau
Preceded byEd Fast
Succeeded byFrançois-Philippe Champagne
Member of the Canadian Parliament
for University—Rosedale
Assumed office
October 19, 2015
Preceded byRiding created
Member of the Canadian Parliament
for Toronto Centre
In office
November 24, 2013 – October 19, 2015
Preceded byBob Rae
Succeeded byBill Morneau
Personal details
Born
Christina Alexandra Freeland

(1968-08-02) August 2, 1968 (age 52)[1]
Peace River, Alberta, Canada
Political partyLiberal
Spouse(s)Graham Bowley
Children3
ResidenceToronto, Ontario, Canada
EducationHarvard University (BA)
St Antony's College, Oxford (MSt)
AwardsRhodes Scholarship (1993)

Freeland began her career in journalism working in a variety of editorial positions at the Financial Times, The Globe and Mail and Reuters, becoming managing director of the latter. She was elected to the House of Commons in 2013 and following the 2015 election was appointed to the Cabinet by newly elected Prime Minister Justin Trudeau.

Over her political career, Freeland has emerged as the most influential Cabinet minister of Trudeau's premiership.[3] After the 2015 federal election, she was appointed as minister of international trade. She was then promoted to minister of foreign affairs in 2017, due to her instrumental role in successfully negotiating the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA) with the European Union, and the Canada-United States-Mexico Agreement.[4] She assumed her current role as deputy prime minister in 2019, also taking on the intergovernmental affairs portfolio until 2020, when she was made finance minister. Following her appointment as deputy prime minister and minister of finance, political commentators (notably from Macleans, The Wall Street Journal, Politico, and The Atlantic) have given Freeland the informal title of "Minister of Everything."[5][6][7][8][9]

Freeland is the author of Sale of the Century, a 2000 book about Russia's journey from Communist state rule to capitalism,[10] and Plutocrats: The Rise of the New Global Super-Rich and the Fall of Everyone Else in 2012.[11][12] Plutocrats was the winner of the 2013 Lionel Gelber Prize for non-fiction reporting on foreign affairs.[13] It also won the 2013 National Business Book Award for the most outstanding Canadian business-related book.

FamilyEdit

Her father, Donald Freeland, was a farmer and lawyer and a member of the Liberal Party,[14] and her mother, Halyna Chomiak (1946–2007), was also a lawyer who ran for the New Democratic Party (NDP) in Edmonton Strathcona in the 1988 federal election.[15][16]

Freeland's paternal grandfather, Wilbur Freeland, was a farmer and lawyer who rode in the Calgary Stampede, and his sister, Beulah, was the wife of a federal member of Parliament (MP), Ged Baldwin.[17] Her paternal grandmother, Helen Caulfield, was a WWII war bride from Glasgow.[18]

Freeland's mother, Halyna Chomiak, was born at a hospital administered by the US Army; her parents were staying at the displaced persons camp at a spa resort in Bad Wörishofen, Germany. Halyna's Ukrainian Catholic parents were Mykhailo Khomiak (Anglicized as Michael Chomiak), born in Stroniatyn, Galicia, and Alexandra Loban, originally of Rudniki, near Stanislaviv (now Ivano-Frankivsk).[15][19] As Ukraine experienced democratic backsliding from the 1990s, Freeland, who grew up in Alberta, saw "firsthand" the consequences of her mother's activism as a "prominent member of the Ukrainian Canadian community."[20]

Freeland's maternal grandfather, Michael Chomiak or Mykhailo Khomiak in Ukrainian, had been a journalist before World War II. During the war in Nazi-occupied Poland and later Nazi-occupied Austria he was chief editor of the antisemitic daily newspaper Krakivs'ki visti (News of Krakow) for the Nazi regime.[21] After Chomiak's death in 1984, John-Paul Himka, a professor of history at the University of Alberta, who was Chomiak's son-in-law (and also Freeland's uncle by marriage), used Chomiak's records, including old issues of the newspaper, as the basis of several scholarly papers focused on the coverage of Soviet mass murders of Ukrainian civilians. These papers also examined the use of these massacres as propaganda against Jews.[22][23][24] In 2017 when Russian-affiliated websites further publicized Chomiak's connection to Nazism, Freeland and her spokespeople responded by claiming that this was a Russian disinformation campaign during her appointment for the position of minister of foreign affairs.[25][26][27][28][21] Her office later denied Chomiak ever collaborated with the Nazi Germany.[29] However, Freeland has known of her grandfather's Nazi ties since at least 1996, when she helped edit a scholarly article by Himka for the Journal of Ukrainian Studies.[25]

Early lifeEdit

Freeland was born in Peace River, Alberta.[30][31]

Freeland attended Old Scona Academic High School in Edmonton, Alberta[32] for two years before attending the United World College of the Adriatic in Italy, on a merit scholarship from the Alberta government for a project that sought to promote international peace and understanding.[33] She received her bachelor of arts degree in Russian history and literature from Harvard University and a master of studies degree in Slavonic Studies from St Antony's College, Oxford as a Rhodes Scholar in 1993.[10][34]

Journalism careerEdit

Freeland started her journalism career as a stringer for the Financial Times, The Washington Post and The Economist while working in Ukraine.[35] Freeland later worked for the Financial Times in London as a deputy editor, and then as an editor for its weekend edition, FT.com, and UK news.[35] Freeland also served as Moscow bureau chief and Eastern Europe correspondent for the Financial Times.[35]

From 1999 to 2001 Freeland served as the deputy editor of The Globe and Mail.[35] Next she worked as the managing director and editor of consumer news at Thomson Reuters.[36] She was also a weekly columnist for The Globe and Mail.[37] Previously she was editor of Thomson Reuters Digital, a position she held since April 2011.[38] Prior to that she was the global editor-at-large of Reuters news since March 1, 2010,[39] having formerly been the United States managing editor at the Financial Times, based in New York City.

Published worksEdit

Freeland is the author of Sale of the Century, a 2000 book about Russia's journey from communism to capitalism[10] and Plutocrats: The Rise of the New Global Super-Rich and the Fall of Everyone Else in 2012.[11][12]

Sale of the Century is an account of privatization in Russia that is informed by interviews with leading Russian businessmen that Freeland conducted during four years from 1994 to 1998 that she lived in Russia as Moscow bureau chief for the Financial Times.[40] The book chronicles the challenges that the "young reformers" championing capitalism such as Anatoly Chubais and Yegor Gaidar had in wresting control of Russian industry out of the hands of the communist "red barons". The compromises they made, such as the loans for shares scheme, allowed businessmen such as Mikhail Friedman, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, and Vladimir Potanin to seize control of the economy and install themselves as Russian oligarchs.

Plutocrats was a New York Times bestseller, and the winner of the 2013 Lionel Gelber Prize for non-fiction reporting on foreign affairs.[13] It also won the 2013 National Business Book Award for the most outstanding Canadian business-related book.

Political careerEdit

 
Freeland with Justin Trudeau and Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi in New Delhi in February 2018.
 
Freeland in Copenhagen with Volodymyr Groysman and Roman Waschuk in June 2018.
 
Freeland with U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo, U.S. Secretary of Defense James Mattis and Canadian Minister of Defense Harjit Sajjan in December 2018.
 
Freeland with Retno Marsudi, Federica Mogherini, Kang Kyung-wha, and Julie Bishop at the ASEAN Regional Forum Retreat in Singapore on August 4, 2018.
 
Enrique Peña Nieto, Donald Trump, and Justin Trudeau sign the Canada–United States–Mexico Agreement during the G20 summit in Buenos Aires, Argentina, on November 30, 2018.

On July 26, 2013, Freeland left journalism to enter Canadian politics as a candidate for the nomination of the Liberal Party in the riding of Toronto Centre. On September 15, 2013 she won the nomination,[41] with an opportunity to replace outgoing MP Bob Rae in the November 25, 2013 by-election.[42] During the campaign she received criticism for purchasing a 1.3 million dollar home, although the price was consistent with Toronto's home prices.[43][44] Freeland won 49% of the vote and was elected.[45]

As the Liberal's trade critic,[46] Freeland interviewed noted economist Larry Summers in a formal event at the 2014 Liberal Party convention;[47] the interview is available on YouTube and the party website. Freeland wrote an op-ed in The New York Times, in which she contraposed the rise of the plutocrats with the popularity of the television series Downton Abbey.[48]

On January 27, 2014, during the demonstrations leading up to the 2014 Ukrainian revolution, Freeland wrote an op-ed for The Globe and Mail, in which she excoriated the government of Viktor Yanukovich.[49] She is a proponent of personal asset seizures and travel bans as part of economic sanction programs.[47] Later, at the beginning of March, Freeland visited Ukraine on behalf of the Liberal Party, and tweeted her progress in meeting community leaders and members of the government in Kyiv. She lunched with the chief rabbi of Kyiv, met with Mustafa Dzhemilev, leader of the Crimean Tatars and an MP, and with Vitaly Klitchko, who is leader of the Ukrainian Democratic Alliance for Reform party, and with Ukrainian MP Petro Poroshenko, who was subsequently elected president of Ukraine in May 2014,[50] Ukrainian presidential elections.

Freeland was one of thirteen Canadians banned from travelling to Russia under retaliatory sanctions imposed by Russian President Vladimir Putin in March 2014.[51] She replied through her official Twitter feed, "Love Russ lang/culture, loved my yrs in Moscow; but it's an honour to be on Putin's sanction list, esp in company of friends Cotler & Grod."[51]

In the riding redistribution of 2012 and 2013, much of Freeland's base was shifted from Toronto Centre to the new riding of University—Rosedale, while seemingly making Toronto Centre less safe for her. Then, in the 2015 federal election, Freeland opted to run in University—Rosedale, and defeated NDP challenger Jennifer Hollett.[52]

Minister of international tradeEdit

On November 4, 2015, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau chose Freeland as minister of international trade.[53]

Freeland was involved in negotiations leading up to the Comprehensive Economic and Trade Agreement (CETA), between Canada and the European Union, former-prime minister Stephen Harper's "legacy project". CETA is Canada's "biggest trade deal since NAFTA".[20][54] After it was signed October 30, 2016, Freeland made comments about "building bridges and not building walls".[55]

She worked closely with the Advisory Council on Economic Growth, which advised on economic policies to achieve long-term sustainable growth. The Council called for a gradual increase in permanent immigration to Canada to 450,000 people a year.[56][57]

Minister of foreign affairsEdit

In a Cabinet reshuffle on January 10, 2017, Freeland was appointed to the foreign affairs portfolio, replacing Stéphane Dion.[58] On March 6, 2017, together with National Defence Minister Harjit Sajjan, Freeland announced Canada's military training mission in Ukraine would be extended until March 2019,[59] maintaining the 200 soldiers previously mandated by the Harper government.[59]

In August 2017, Freeland has instructed her department and officials to 'energetically' review reports of Canadian-made military vehicles being used against civilians in Shia-populated city of Al-Awamiyah by Saudi Arabian security forces.[60]

Freeland condemned the persecution of Rohingya Muslims in Myanmar. She said the violence against the Rohingya "looks a lot like ethnic cleansing and that is not acceptable."[61]

Freeland issued a statement via Twitter on August 2, 2018 expressing Canada's concern over the recent arrest of Samar Badawi, a human rights activist and sister of imprisoned Saudi blogger Raif Badawi. She advocated their release.[62] In response to Canada's criticism, Saudi Arabia expelled Canada's ambassador, and froze trade with Canada.[63] Freeland asked for help from allies including Germany, Sweden, the United Arab Emirates and the United Kingdom.[64][65]

In September 2018, Freeland raised the issue of Xinjiang re-education camps and human rights abuses against the Uyghur Muslim minority in a meeting with Chinese Foreign Minister Wang Yi.[66]

In January 2019, at the request of the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Canada granted asylum to 18-year-old Saudi teenager Rahaf Mohammed, who was fleeing her abusive family in Kuwait; Freeland personally greeted Mohammed at Toronto Pearson International Airport.[67]

Freeland condemned Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro, who had "seized power through fraudulent and anti-democratic elections."[68]

On April 18, 2019, she was ranked 37th among the world's leading leaders in Fortune Magazine's annual list.[69]

Freeland voiced support for the 2019–20 Hong Kong protests.[70] In October 2019, Freeland condemned the unilateral Turkish invasion of the Kurdish areas in Syria.[71]

Deputy prime ministerEdit

After the 2019 federal election, she was appointed deputy prime minister and minister of intergovernmental affairs. As deputy prime minister, Freeland has been entrusted with several key portfolios such as: Canada-US relations, strengthening Medicare, implementing the Pan-Canadian Framework, introducing firearms regulations, developing a pan-Canadian childcare system, facilitating interprovincial free trade, and reconciliation with Indigenous peoples.[72] As minister of intergovernmental affairs, her primary task was to address renewed tensions between the federal government and the western provinces, most notably with the rise of Alberta separatism.[73] In March 2020, she was chosen as the chair for the Cabinet committee on the federal response to the COVID-19 pandemic.[74] As a result of public backlash from the WE Charity scandal, Freeland replaced Bill Morneau as the minister of finance, the first woman to hold the post.

Minister of intergovernmental affairsEdit

Freeland took over the intergovernmental affairs portfolio following the 2019 election when she was appointed deputy prime minister.[75] In her new capacity she was responsible for handling regional issues such as western alienation—particularly in Alberta and Saskatchewan where the Liberals had failed to win a single seat—as well as the resurgence of the Bloc Québécois. Furthermore, she remained in charge of Canada-US relations, including the ratification of the renegotiated free-trade agreement with the United States and Mexico (CUSMA), roles that have traditionally resided with the minister of foreign affairs.[76] The CUSMA was ratified in March 2020 as the number of COVID-19 cases began to climb rapidly.[77]

During the pandemic Freeland developed a close working relationship with the premier of Ontario, Doug Ford—a Progressive Conservative—despite the Liberals having used the Ford government's track record to campaign against the federal Conservatives during previous fall's election campaign.[78]

Minister of financeEdit

Following the resignation of Bill Morneau on August 17, 2020, Justin Trudeau announced a cabinet shuffle with Freeland being appointed as minister of finance and Dominic LeBlanc, president of the Privy Council, replacing her as minister of intergovernmental affairs.[2][79]

Media appearancesEdit

Freeland appeared several times between 2010 and 2015 as a panellist on Real Time with Bill Maher.[80][81][82][83][84][85] She has also made appearances on The McLaughlin Group, The Dylan Ratigan Show, Imus in the Morning, Fareed Zakaria GPS, and The Colbert Report. She is a frequent guest on public radio's political debate program Left, Right & Center, produced by KCRW. In addition, Freeland was featured on a panel discussion on Tom Ashbrook's On Point regarding inequality and democracy in the United States.[86] In June 2013 she gave a speech at the TED Talks, speaking on the subjects of economic inequality, plutocracy, globalization,[87] and "the growing gap between the working poor and the increasingly disconnected mega-rich."[88]

Electoral historyEdit

2019 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Liberal Chrystia Freeland 29,652 51.7 +1.90
New Democratic Melissa Jean-Baptiste Vajda 12,573 21.9 -6.60
Conservative Helen-Claire Tingling 9,342 16.3 -1.03
Green Tim Grant 4,861 8.5 +5.57
People's Aran Lockwood 510 0.9 -
Animal Protection Liz White 159 0.3 +0.08
Communist Drew Garvie 143 0.2 -0.02
Stop Climate Change Karin Brothers 124 0.2 -
Marxist–Leninist Steve Rutschinski 27 0.0 -0.10
Total valid votes/Expense limit 100.0  
Total rejected ballots
Turnout
Eligible voters
Source: Elections Canada[89]
2015 Canadian federal election
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Liberal Chrystia Freeland 27,849 49.80 +19.23 $185,406.36
New Democratic Jennifer Hollett 15,988 28.59 -15.24 $142,562.73
Conservative Karim Jivraj 9,790 17.51 -2.62 $83,600.78
Green Nick Wright 1,641 2.93 -1.73 $19,152.70
Libertarian Jesse Waslowski 233 0.42 $393.64
Animal Alliance Simon Luisi 126 0.22 $153.10
Communist Drew Garvie 125 0.22
Bridge David Berlin 122 0.21
Marxist–Leninist Steve Rutchinski 51 0.10
Total valid votes/Expense limit 55,925 100.0   $206,261.82
Total rejected ballots
Turnout
Eligible voters 71,945
Liberal notional gain from New Democratic Swing +17.24
Source: Elections Canada[90][91]


Canadian federal by-election, November 25, 2013: Toronto Centre
Party Candidate Votes % ±% Expenditures
Liberal Chrystia Freeland 17,194 49.38 +8.37 $ 97,609.64
New Democratic Linda McQuaig 12,640 36.30 +6.09 99,230.30
Conservative Geoff Pollock 3,004 8.63 −14.01 75,557.39
Green John Deverell 1,034 2.97 −2.05 21,521.10
Progressive Canadian Dorian Baxter 453 1.30   –    
Libertarian Judi Falardeau 236 0.68 +0.18 –    
Independent Kevin Clarke 84 0.24   560.00
Independent John "The Engineer" Turmel 56 0.16   –    
Independent Leslie Bory 51 0.15   633.30
Online Michael Nicula 43 0.12   200.00
Independent Bahman Yazdanfar 26 0.07 −0.12 1,134.60
Total valid votes/Expense limit 34,821 99.49 –   $ 101,793.06
Total rejected ballots 177 0.51 +0.12
Turnout 34,998 37.72 −25.21
Eligible voters 92,780    
Liberal hold Swing +1.14
By-election due to the resignation of Bob Rae.
Source(s)
"November 25, 2013 By-elections Poll-by-poll results". Elections Canada. Retrieved August 20, 2020.
"November 25, 2013 By-election – Financial Reports". Retrieved May 9, 2014.


Personal lifeEdit

Freeland is married to Graham Bowley, a British writer and The New York Times reporter.[92] They have three children.[93]

She has lived in Toronto since the summer of 2013 when she returned from abroad to run for election.[35][94][42] She speaks Ukrainian at home with her children.[95] She also speaks English, Russian, Italian, and French.[96] She is the co-owner, with her sister, of an apartment which overlooks the Maidan square in Kyiv.[47]

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ This position was vacant from February 6, 2006, until November 20, 2019.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Chrystia Freeland – Parliament of Canada biography
  2. ^ a b Aiello, Rachel (August 18, 2020). "PM to name Freeland finance minister, replacing Morneau". CTV News.
  3. ^ Bensadoun, Emerald (November 21, 2019). "'There is no job description:' What exactly does a deputy prime minister do?". Global News. Archived from the original on September 15, 2020.
  4. ^ Kassam, Ashifa (January 10, 2017). "Canada names Chrystia Freeland, leading Russia critic, as foreign minister". The Guardian. Archived from the original on July 17, 2020.
  5. ^ Taylor-Vaisey, Nick (March 5, 2020). "The minister of everything, Chrystia Freeland, takes on the coronavirus". Maclean's. Archived from the original on April 7, 2020.
  6. ^ Taube, Michael (August 20, 2020). "Meet Canada's 'Minister of Everything'". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on August 27, 2020.
  7. ^ Gardner, Lauren (August 8, 2020). "Freeland rises to Canada's first female finance minister amid Trudeau scandal". Politico. Archived from the original on August 21, 2020.
  8. ^ Neklason, Annika (March 14, 2020). "How Canada's 'Minister of Everything' Sees the World". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on September 7, 2020.
  9. ^ Paez, Beatrice (March 6, 2020). "Minister of everything, Freeland, risks burnout in adding oversight of feds' coronavirus response to growing portfolio, say politicos". The Hill Times. Archived from the original on March 7, 2020.
  10. ^ a b c "Chrystia Freeland." The Financial Times biography. February 3, 2004; May 26, 2007.
  11. ^ a b Plutocrats: the rise of the new global super-rich and the fall of everyone else. New York: Penguin. 2012. ISBN 9781594204098. OCLC 780480424.
  12. ^ a b Ezra Klein (November 28, 2012). "Romney is Wall Street's worst bet since the bet on subprime". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on July 22, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2017. Interview with Chrystia Freeland.
  13. ^ a b "Plutocrats author Chrystia Freeland wins $15,000 book prize for international affairs". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. March 25, 2013. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  14. ^ "Halyna Freeland's quest to 'change the world' influenced feminism in Alberta and Ukraine, and left a mark on her family and friends". Canada.com. July 14, 2007. Archived from the original on October 20, 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  15. ^ a b "Obituary: Halyna Chomiak Freeland". Edmonton Journal. Archived from the original on September 27, 2013. Retrieved September 26, 2013.
  16. ^ LeBlanc, Daniel (July 27, 2013). "Journalist Chrystia Freeland to seek Liberal nod for Toronto Centre". The Globe and Mail. Archived from the original on September 20, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2013.
  17. ^ "Peace River Woman Set to Join Trudeau Liberal Government as a Toronto MP". AM 610 Newsroom. October 23, 2015. Archived from the original on December 8, 2015. Retrieved November 29, 2015.
  18. ^ "An audit of affluence". Financial Times. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
  19. ^ Rebecca Wetherbee (May 20, 2013). "Chrystia Freeland – U.S. Managing Editor, Financial Times". Little Pink Book. Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2013.
  20. ^ a b Lewsen, Simon (February 14, 2018). "Chrystia Freeland Wants to Fix the Twenty-first Century". The Walrus. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  21. ^ a b Simons, Paula (March 8, 2017). "Paula Simons: 'School of hate': Was Foreign Affairs Minister Chrystia Freeland's grandfather a Nazi collaborator?". Edmonton Journal. Archived from the original on June 9, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  22. ^ John-Paul Himka. "Ethnicity and the Reporting of Mass Murder: Krakivs'ki visti, the NKVD Murders of 1941, and the Vinnytsia Exhumation". Time and Space. Lviv: University of Alberta. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Krakivs'ki visti published materials from German papers, especially the Nazi party organ Völkischer Beobachter, which appeared frequently. Articles were also translated from Berliner Illustrierte Nachtausgabe and all most important Berlin papers.
  23. ^ "Іван-Павло Химка: "Історична політика є хворобою всіх посткомуністичних країн"". Archived from the original on December 6, 2018. Retrieved January 18, 2019. Himka's account of the Khomiak story from an interview (in Ukrainian).
  24. ^ John-Paul Himka (2013). Omer Bartov; Eric D. Weitz (eds.). Ethnicity and the Reporting of Mass Murder. Shatterzone of Empires: Coexistence and Violence in the German, Habsburg, Russian, and Ottoman Borderlands. Indiana University Press. ISBN 978-0253006394.
  25. ^ a b Fife, Robert (March 7, 2017). "Freeland knew her grandfather was editor of Nazi newspaper". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. Archived from the original on April 9, 2018. Retrieved May 10, 2018.
  26. ^ Pugliese, David (March 8, 2017). "Chrystia Freeland's granddad was indeed a Nazi collaborator – so much for Russian disinformation". Ottawa Citizen. Ottawa. Archived from the original on June 12, 2018. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  27. ^ Cosh, Colby (March 8, 2018). "Colby Cosh: Of course it's 'news' that Freeland's grampa was a Nazi collaborator, even if the Russians are spreading it". National Post. Archived from the original on October 28, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  28. ^ Glavin, Terry (March 8, 2017). "Terry Glavin: Enter the Freeland-Nazi conspiracy — and the amping-up of Russia's mischief in Canada". National Post. Archived from the original on October 28, 2020. Retrieved June 10, 2018.
  29. ^ Pugliese, David. "Exclusive: Russian diplomat booted from Canada has some advice for Trudeau — it won't work". National Post. Archived from the original on October 28, 2020. Retrieved August 19, 2020.
  30. ^ "Home". Little PINK Book. Archived from the original on July 31, 2020. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
  31. ^ Marco Levytsky. "Shevchenko Lecture focuses on Ukrainians and the media". Archived from the original on September 28, 2013. Retrieved October 30, 2012.
  32. ^ Thompson, Allister. "Chrystia Freeland". The Canadian Encyclopedia. Historica Canada. Archived from the original on March 21, 2020. Retrieved November 21, 2019.
  33. ^ "Chrystia Freeland". United World College of the Adriatic. Archived from the original on September 19, 2012. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  34. ^ "My Oxford". Oxford Today. Archived from the original on September 29, 2013. Retrieved September 6, 2013.
  35. ^ a b c d e "Chrystia Freeland". Foreign Affairs, International Trade and Development Canada (DFAIT). April 25, 2013. Archived from the original on July 20, 2013. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
  36. ^ "'Journalistic excellence paramount' in the new Reuters". The Baron. December 19, 2012. Archived from the original on September 19, 2013.
  37. ^ "Chrystia Freeland's Plutocrats wins National Business Book Award". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. May 28, 2013. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved August 25, 2017.
  38. ^ Saba, Jennifer (April 7, 2011). "Chrystia Freeland named Thomson Reuters Digital editor". Thomson Reuters. Archived from the original on December 13, 2012. Retrieved December 6, 2012.
  39. ^ "Chrystia Freeland Joins Reuters as Global Editor-at-large" (Press release). March 1, 2010. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved October 21, 2012.
  40. ^ Sale of the Century: Russia's Wild Ride from Communism to Capitalism. Doubleday Canada. 2000. ISBN 0-385-25869-0.
  41. ^ Mok, Tanya (September 15, 2013). "Liberals choose Chrystia Freeland to face NDP candidate Linda McQuaig in upcoming byelection in Toronto Centre". National Post. Retrieved September 15, 2013.
  42. ^ a b Gustin, Sam (July 29, 2013). "Prominent Journalist Chrystia Freeland in Surprise Canadian Political Bid". Time. Archived from the original on March 5, 2016. Retrieved July 29, 2013.
  43. ^ Glen McGregor (October 11, 2013). "Slumming in Summerhill: LPC candidate Freeland now a Toronto homeowner". Ottawa Citizen. Retrieved October 15, 2013. The Liberal Party's star Toronto candidate, who has promised to advocate for the interests of Canada's middle class, had to get her parents to co-sign a mortgage on a $1.3-million home in an affluent Toronto neighbourhood. Chrystia Freeland on Friday closed on the purchase of a three-storey townhouse in Summerhill, in the Toronto Centre riding.
  44. ^ Siekierski, BJ (October 15, 2013). "Chrystia Freeland defends $1.3-million home purchase". Archived from the original on December 22, 2017. Retrieved September 18, 2017. With the Ottawa Citizen's Glenn McGregor reporting on Friday that Chrystia Freeland and her husband recently bought a $1.3-million townhouse in Toronto's distinctly upper-class Summerhill neighbourhood, it was only a matter of time before the Toronto-Centre Liberal candidate was asked how she reconciled that with her and the party's 'struggling middle-class' mantra.
  45. ^ "Complete results from Toronto Centre and three other federal by-elections". The Globe and Mail. Toronto. February 24, 2014. Archived from the original on November 26, 2013. Retrieved November 26, 2013.
  46. ^ "Conservative report calls middle-class dreams a 'myth'". The Star. February 23, 2014. Archived from the original on April 14, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  47. ^ a b c "Liberal MP Chrystia Freeland on Ukraine". Maclean's. February 20, 2014. Archived from the original on April 13, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  48. ^ (Freeland), "Sympathy for the Toffs". The New York Times. January 24, 2014. Archived from the original on April 15, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  49. ^ "Why Canada should support Ukraine's democratic protesters". The Globe and Mail. January 27, 2014. Archived from the original on February 5, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  50. ^ "Government to send military observers to Ukraine". CBC news. Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. March 5, 2014. Archived from the original on April 15, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2014.
  51. ^ a b Susana Mas (March 24, 2013). "Russian sanctions against Canadians a 'badge of honour'". CBC News. Archived from the original on March 24, 2014. Retrieved March 24, 2014.
  52. ^ Otis, Daniel (October 20, 2015). "Liberal Chrystia Freeland wins in University-Rosedale". The Star. Archived from the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
  53. ^ "Full list of Justin Trudeau's cabinet". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 4, 2015. Archived from the original on April 3, 2019. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
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External linksEdit

29th Ministry – Cabinet of Justin Trudeau
Cabinet posts (5)
Predecessor Office Successor
Bill Morneau Minister of Finance
August 18, 2020 – present
Incumbent
Anne McLellan Deputy Prime Minister of Canada
November 20, 2019 – present
Incumbent
Dominic LeBlanc Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs
November 20, 2019 – August 18, 2020
Dominic LeBlanc
Stéphane Dion Minister of Foreign Affairs
January 10, 2017 – November 20, 2019
François-Philippe Champagne
Ed Fast Minister of International Trade
November 4, 2015 – January 10, 2017
François-Philippe Champagne