United Socialist Party of Venezuela
The United Socialist Party of Venezuela (Spanish: Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela, PSUV) is a socialist political party in Venezuela which resulted from the fusion of some of the political and social forces that support the Bolivarian Revolution led by President Hugo Chávez.
|Vice President||Diosdado Cabello|
|Founded||24 March 2007|
|Preceded by||Fifth Republic Movement|
|Youth wing||United Socialist Party of Venezuela Youth|
Socialism of the 21st century
|Political position||Left-wing to far-left|
|National affiliation||Great Patriotic Pole|
São Paulo Forum
|Seats in the National Assembly|
52 / 167
|Seats in the Latin American Parliament|
4 / 12
19 / 23
303 / 335
|Seats in the 2017 Constituent National Assembly|
503 / 545
At the 2015 parliamentary election, PSUV lost its majority in the National Assembly for the first time since the unicameral legislature's creation in 2000 against the Democratic Unity Roundtable, earning 55 out of the National Assembly's 167 seats.
The process of merging most of the unidentified parties involved in the pro-Bolivarian Revolution coalition was initiated by Venezuelan president Hugo Chávez after he won the Venezuelan presidential election of 2006. The process was led by Chávez' own party, the Fifth Republic Movement, and was supported by a range of smaller parties such as the People's Electoral Movement (MEP), Venezuelan Popular Unity (UPV), the Tupamaro Movement, the Socialist League and others which all together added up 45.99% of the votes received by Chávez during the 2006 election. Other pro-Bolivarian parties like the Communist Party of Venezuela (Partido Comunista de Venezuela, PCV), Fatherland for All (Patria Para Todos, PPT) and For Social Democracy (PODEMOS), that cast 14.60% of the votes from that election, declined to join the new party.
On 7 March 2007, Chávez presented a phased plan for founding the new party until November 2007. PODEMOS, PPT and PCV initially stated they would wait until PSUV had been founded and decide their membership in the new party based on its program. On 18 March 2007, Chávez declared on his programme Aló Presidente that he had "opened the doors for the For Social Democracy, the Fatherland for All, and the Communist Party of Venezuela if they want to go away from Chávez´s alliance, they may do so and leave us in peace". In his opinion, those parties were near to be on the opposition and they should choose wisely, between going "in silence, hugging us or throwing stones". PPT, at its 2007 congress on 10 and 11 April, decided not to join but re-affirmed its support for Chávez and the Bolivarian Revolution.
|Parties joining PSUV||Parties not joining PSUV|
|Fifth Republic Movement (MVR)||For Social Democracy (PODEMOS)|
|People's Electoral Movement (MEP)||Fatherland for All (PPT)|
|Everybody Wins Independent Movement (MIGATO)||Communist Party of Venezuela (PCV)|
|Venezuelan Popular Unity (UPV)||Revolutionary Middle Class (CMR)|
|Revolutionary Movement Tupamaro (MRT)||Emergent People (GE)|
|Socialist League (LS)||Action Networks of Communitary Change (REDES)|
|Movement for Direct Democracy (MDD)||Communitary Patriotic Unity (UPC)|
|Union Party||New People Concentration Movement (MCGN)|
|Militant Civic Movement (MCM)||Active Democracy National Organization (ONDA)|
|Action Force of Base Coordination (FACOBA)||National Independent Movement (MNI)|
|Independents for the National Community (IPCN)||Labor Power (PL)|
|Venezuelan Revolutionary Currents (CRV)|
As of 2014, the party has been described as "fracturing" and "weakening" due to the loss of Hugo Chávez, the poor state of Venezuela's economy and falling oil prices. Internal issues also appeared in the party, with an email address and telephone hotline created to report "internal enemies". In 23 November PSUV elections, it was reported by party dissidents that very few individuals participated, with less than 10% of the supposedly 7.6 million members casting a vote.
Chávez said that "[i]t's a very young party" with an average age of 35 among members. Analysts agreed, saying: "The assumption is that the younger people are going to be Chavistas (in support of Chávez), they are going to be the ones whose families have benefited from Chávez's social programs."
With the creation of PSUV, relationships greatly soured with former coalition parties that chose not to join. By the 2008 regional election campaign in October, Chávez declared that "Patria Para Todos and the Communist Party of Venezuela will disappear from the political map because they are liars and manipulators."
In April 2010, an Extraordinary Congress of the PSUV resulted in the endorsement of a range of "general principles", including among others socialism, Marxism, and Bolivarianism; humanism, internationalism, and patriotism; and the defense of participatory democracy and use of internal party democracy. It also defined the party as the "political vanguard of the revolutionary process".
The party held its 3rd Congress in 2014, which elected Nicolás Maduro as the 2nd party president and honored Hugo Chávez posthumously as the party's eternal president and founder, and party policies were updated. It was followed by the 4th Party Congress in 2018.
The party is headed at the national level by the Eternal President Hugo Chávez (a posthumous title), the president (currently Nicolas Maduro), vice-president (Jorge Arreaza), and a 29-member national board of directors:
- Adán Chávez
- Alí Rodríguez Araque
- Ana Elisa Osorio
- Antonia Muñoz
- Aristóbulo Istúriz
- Carlos Escarrá
- Darío Vivas
- Cilia Flores
- Elías Jaua
- Érika Farías
- Freddy Bernal
- Héctor Navarro
- Héctor Rodríguez
- Jacqueline Faría
- Jorge Rodríguez
- Luis Reyes Reyes
- María Cristina Iglesias
- María León
- Mario Silva
- Nicolás Maduro
- Nohelí Pocaterra
- Rafael Ramírez
- Ramón Rodríguez Chacín
- Rodrigo Cabezas
- Tarek El Aissami
- Vanessa Davies
- Willian Lara
- Yelitza Santaella
Units of Battle Hugo Chávez (UBCh)Edit
The Units of Battle Hugo Chávez (UBCh) is a collection of organizations with multiple members of PSUV involved that has both military and political characteristics. The UBCh originated as a group to defend the Bolivarian Revolution and support the party through electoral processes in Venezuela, and were transformed into their current name in 2013. They form the basic party unit in Venezuelan communities, and 4 or more of them form a People's Struggle Circle ( Círculo de Lucha Popular) in the community level. The Unit itself is divided into 10 Unit Patrols serving various functions for party members in various sectors.
Other assisting groups include:
- PSUV National Political Bureau
- PSUV Regional Departments, led by Regional Vice Presidents
- PSUV Sectors Organizations, led by Sectoral Vice Presidents
- United Socialist Party of Venezuela Youth
|Election year||Name||First Round||Second Round|
|2012||Hugo Chávez||8,191,132||55.1 (#1)|
|Major party in the "Great Patriotic Pole".|
|2013||Nicolás Maduro||7,587,579||50.6 (#1)|
|Major party in the "Great Patriotic Pole".|
|2018||Nicolás Maduro||6,205,875||67.8% (#1)|
|Major party in the "Great Patriotic Pole".|
|Election year||# of
overall seats won
96 / 165
55 / 167
- PSUV, July 2014 7.632.606 militantes del PSUV elegirán sus delegados este domingo
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- PSUV, December 2014, Libro Rojo, p. 46
- María, Eva. "Why "Twenty-First-Century Socialism" Failed". jacobinmag.com. Retrieved 27 January 2019.
- "Conference Proceedings Library". www.ipsa.org. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- Steve Ellner & Daniel Hellinger, eds., Venezuelan politics in the Chávez era: class, polarization, and conflict. Boulder: Lyne Rienner, 2003, ISBN 1-58826-297-9, p. 67
- Kryt, Jeremy (7 December 2015). "Venezuela's Opposition Wins Big, But Maduro's Still There". The Daily Beast. The Daily Beast Company, LLC. Retrieved 10 January 2017.
- Hausmann, Ricardo; Rodríguez, Francisco R., eds. (2014). Venezuela Before Chávez: Anatomy of an Economic Collapse. Penn State Press. ISBN 9780271064642.
- Ciccariello-Maher, George (28 March 2007). "Against Party Bureaucracy: Venezuela's PSUV and Socialism from Below". MROnline. Monthly Review Foundation.
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- "Venezuela Opposition Won Majority of National Assembly Seats". Bloomberg. 7 December 2015. Retrieved 7 December 2015.
- Greg Morsbach (19 December 2006). "Venezuela head seeks party merger". BBC. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
- "Home – Grupo Milenio". Milenio. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "Presidential Election December 3, 2006" (in Spanish). National Electoral Council of Venezuela. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
- http://www.tribuna-popular.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=698&Itemid=1 Archived 28 September 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) El Universal, 5 March 2007, José Albornoz: El PPT no se disolverá Archived 22 April 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "Podemos no se disuelve y propuso una constituyente: "No participaremos jamás de pensamientos únicos"" (in Spanish). 5 March 2007. Archived from the original on 5 March 2007. Retrieved 10 April 2017.
- Chris Carlson (7 March 2007). "Chavez Presents Plan for Socialist Unity Party of Venezuela". www.venezuelanalysis.com. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
- Gregory Wilpert (5 March 2007). "Chavez Allies Delay Decision on Merging with New Venezuelan Socialist Party". www.Venezuelanalysis.com. Retrieved 16 October 2013.
- Buckman, Robert T. (2012), The World Today Series, 2012: Latin America, Stryker-Post, p. 366
- ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) El Universal, 19 March 2007, "Los que se quieran ir, váyanse, pero escojan bien cómo irse"
- http://www.ppt.org.ve/20070411.php Archived 11 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- Agencia Bolivariana de Noticias (ABN). "MEP aceptó propuesta de Partido Socialista Unido de Venezuela". Aporrea. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Agencia Bolivariana de Noticias (ABN). "UPV se disuelve para formar parte del Partido Socialista Único de Venezuela". Aporrea. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "El Tiempo – El Periódico del Pueblo Oriental". Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- Agencia Bolivariana de Noticias (ABN). "Liga Socialista se adhiere al PSUV". Aporrea. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- Prensa MDD. "MDD apoya el llamado a conformar el PSUV". Aporrea. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
- "PSUV: Partido Unión se disuelve para incorporarse al PSUV". Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "PSUV: Propuestas del Movimiento Cívico Militante (MCM) sobre el Partido Único y el Socialismo del Siglo XXI". Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "PSUV: Partido Independientes por la Comunidad se incorpora al PSUV". Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- Kiraz Janicke; Federico Fuentes (14 January 2008). "Chavez Inaugurates Founding Congress of New Socialist Party of Venezuela". Venezuelanalysis.com. Retrieved 17 January 2009.
- PSUV, Somos un faro para América Latina y el Mundo, accessed 12 May 2011
- "Venezuela Is On Borrowed Time". Business Insider. 29 November 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- Bloomberg, 11 October 2007, Venezuela May Lower Voting Age, Add Gay Rights in Constitution
- ‹See Tfd›(in Spanish) Radio Mundial, 11 October 2008, "Chávez: PPT y PCV desaparecerán del mapa político por "mentirosos y manipuladores" Archived 17 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine
- PSUV, June 2010, Libro Rojo, pp. 45–46
- "Fourth PSUV congress gets underway". country.eiu.com. Retrieved 22 February 2019.
- "Contraataque de Maduro: alista las "Unidades de Batalla Hugo Chávez"". Infobae. 18 February 2014. Retrieved 19 November 2014.