Miami, officially the City of Miami, is the cultural, economic and financial center of South Florida. Miami is the seat of Miami-Dade County, the most populous county in Florida. The city covers an area of about 56.6 square miles (147 km2), between the Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay on the east; with a 2017 estimated population of 463,347, Miami is the sixth most densely populated major city in the United States. The Miami metropolitan area is home to 6.1 million people and the seventh-largest metropolitan area in the nation. Miami's metro area is the second-most populous metropolis in the southeastern United States and fourth-largest urban area in the U.S. Miami has the third tallest skyline in the United States with over 300 high-rises, 80 of which stand taller than 400 feet.
|City of Miami|
Magic City, The Gateway to the Americas, Capital of Latin America
Miami city limits in and around Miami-Dade County and Florida
|Incorporated||July 28, 1896|
|• Mayor||Francis X. Suarez (R)|
|• City Manager||Emilio T. Gonzalez, PhD|
|• Metropolitan City||56.06 sq mi (145.20 km2)|
|• Land||35.99 sq mi (93.20 km2)|
|• Water||20.08 sq mi (52.00 km2)|
|• Urban||1,116.1 sq mi (2,891 km2)|
|• Metro||6,137 sq mi (15,890 km2)|
|Elevation||6 ft (2 m)|
|Highest elevation||42 ft (13 m)|
|Lowest elevation||0 ft (0 m)|
|• Metropolitan City||399,457|
| • Estimate |
|• Rank||2nd in Florida|
43rd in United States
|• Density||12,604.32/sq mi (4,866.49/km2)|
|• Urban||5,502,379 (US: 4th)|
|• Metro||6,158,824 (US: 7th)|
|• CSA||6,828,241 (US: 10th)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern (EST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
|Area code(s)||305 and 786|
|GNIS feature IDs||277593, 2411786|
|Primary Airport||Miami International Airport|
|Secondary Airports||Fort Lauderdale–Hollywood International Airport|
Palm Beach International Airport
|Commuter Rail||Tri-Rail, Virgin Trains USA|
Miami is a major center, and a leader in finance, commerce, culture, media, entertainment, the arts, and international trade. The Miami Metropolitan Area is by far the largest urban economy in Florida and the 12th largest in the United States with a GDP of $344.9 billion as of 2017. In 2012, Miami was classified as an Alpha − level world city in the World Cities Study Group's inventory. In 2010, Miami ranked seventh in the United States and 33rd among global cities in terms of business activity, human capital, information exchange, cultural experience, and political engagement. In 2008, Forbes magazine ranked Miami "America's Cleanest City", for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets, and citywide recycling programs. According to a 2009 UBS study of 73 world cities, Miami was ranked as the richest city in the United States, and the world's seventh-richest city in terms of purchasing power. Miami is nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America" and is the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality.
Greater Downtown Miami has one of the largest concentrations of international banks in the United States, and is home to many large national and international companies. The Civic Center is a major center for hospitals, research institutes, medical centers, and biotechnology industries. For more than two decades, the Port of Miami, known as the "Cruise Capital of the World", has been the number one cruise passenger port in the world. It accommodates some of the world's largest cruise ships and operations, and is the busiest port in both passenger traffic and cruise lines. Metropolitan Miami is also a major tourism hub in the southeastern U.S. for international visitors, ranking number two in the country after New York City.
The Miami area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous Native American tribes. The Tequestas occupied the area for a thousand years before encountering Europeans. An Indian village of hundreds of people dating to 500–600 B.C. was located at the mouth of the Miami River.
In 1566 admiral Pedro Menéndez de Avilés, Florida's first governor, claimed the area for Spain. A Spanish mission was constructed one year later in 1567. Spain and Great Britain successively ruled Florida, (France did rule Pensacola and West Florida). Spain ceded it to the United States in 1821. In 1836, the US built Fort Dallas as part of its development of the Florida Territory and attempt to suppress and remove the Seminole. The Miami area subsequently became a site of fighting during the Second Seminole War.
Miami is noted as "the only major city in the United States conceived by a woman, Julia Tuttle", a local citrus grower and a wealthy Cleveland native. The Miami area was better known as "Biscayne Bay Country" in the early years of its growth. In the late 19th century, reports described the area as a promising wilderness. The area was also characterized as "one of the finest building sites in Florida". The Great Freeze of 1894–95 hastened Miami's growth, as the crops of the Miami area were the only ones in Florida that survived. Julia Tuttle subsequently convinced Henry Flagler, a railroad tycoon, to expand his Florida East Coast Railway to the region, for which she became known as "the mother of Miami". Miami was officially incorporated as a city on July 28, 1896, with a population of just over 300. It was named for the nearby Miami River, derived from Mayaimi, the historic name of Lake Okeechobee.
Black labor played a crucial role in Miami's early development. During the beginning of the 20th century, migrants from the Bahamas and African-Americans constituted 40 percent of the city's population.:25 Whatever their role in the city's growth, their community's growth was limited to a small space. When landlords began to rent homes to African-Americans in neighborhoods close to Avenue J (what would later become NW Fifth Avenue), a gang of white men with torches visited the renting families and warned them to move or be bombed.:33
During the early 20th century, northerners were attracted to the city, and Miami prospered during the 1920s with an increase in population and infrastructure. The legacy of Jim Crow was embedded in these developments. Miami's chief of police, H. Leslie Quigg, did not hide the fact that he, like many other white Miami police officers, was a member of the Ku Klux Klan. Unsurprisingly, these officers enforced social codes far beyond the written law. Quigg, for example, "personally and publicly beat a colored bellboy to death for speaking directly to a white woman".:53
The collapse of the Florida land boom of the 1920s, the 1926 Miami Hurricane, and the Great Depression in the 1930s slowed development. When World War II began, Miami, well-situated on the southern coast of Florida, became a base for US defense against German submarines. The war brought an increase in Miami's population; by 1940, 172,172 people lived in the city.
After Fidel Castro rose to power in Cuba in 1959, many wealthy Cubans sought refuge in Miami, further increasing the population. The city developed businesses and cultural amenities as part of the New South. In the 1980s and 1990s, South Florida weathered social problems related to drug wars, immigration from Haiti and Latin America, and the widespread destruction of Hurricane Andrew. Racial and cultural tensions were sometimes sparked, but the city developed in the latter half of the 20th century as a major international, financial, and cultural center. It is the second-largest US city (after El Paso, Texas) with a Spanish-speaking majority, and the largest city with a Cuban-American plurality.
Miami and its metropolitan area grew from just over 1,000 residents to nearly 5.5 million residents in just 110 years (1896–2006). The city's nickname, The Magic City, comes from its rapid growth. This rapid growth was noticed by winter visitors when they remarked that the city grew so much from one year to the next that it was like magic.
Miami and its suburbs are located on a broad plain between the Florida Everglades to the west and Biscayne Bay to the east, which also extends from Florida Bay north to Lake Okeechobee. The elevation of the area never rises above 40 ft (12 m) and averages at around 6 ft (1.8 m) above mean sea level in most neighborhoods, especially near the coast. The highest undulations are found along the coastal Miami Rock Ridge, whose substrate underlies most of the eastern Miami metropolitan region. The main portion of the city lies on the shores of Biscayne Bay which contains several hundred natural and artificially created barrier islands, the largest of which contains Miami Beach and South Beach. The Gulf Stream, a warm ocean current, runs northward just 15 miles (24 km) off the coast, allowing the city's climate to stay warm and mild all year.
The surface bedrock under the Miami area is called Miami oolite or Miami limestone. This bedrock is covered by a thin layer of soil, and is no more than 50 feet (15 m) thick. Miami limestone formed as the result of the drastic changes in sea level associated with recent glaciations or ice ages. Beginning some 130,000 years ago the Sangamonian Stage raised sea levels to approximately 25 feet (8 m) above the current level. All of southern Florida was covered by a shallow sea. Several parallel lines of reef formed along the edge of the submerged Florida plateau, stretching from the present Miami area to what is now the Dry Tortugas. The area behind this reef line was in effect a large lagoon, and the Miami limestone formed throughout the area from the deposition of oolites and the shells of bryozoans. Starting about 100,000 years ago the Wisconsin glaciation began lowering sea levels, exposing the floor of the lagoon. By 15,000 years ago, the sea level had dropped to 300 to 350 feet (90 to 110 m) below the contemporary level. The sea level rose quickly after that, stabilizing at the current level about 4000 years ago, leaving the mainland of South Florida just above sea level.
Beneath the plain lies the Biscayne Aquifer, a natural underground source of fresh water that extends from southern Palm Beach County to Florida Bay, with its highest point peaking around the cities of Miami Springs and Hialeah. Most of the Miami metropolitan area obtains its drinking water from this aquifer. As a result of the aquifer, it is not possible to dig more than 15 to 20 ft (5 to 6 m) beneath the city without hitting water, which impedes underground construction, though some underground parking garages exist. For this reason, the mass transit systems in and around Miami are elevated or at-grade.
Most of the western fringes of the city extend into the Everglades, a subtropical marshland located in the southern portion of the U.S. state of Florida. Alligators have ventured into Miami communities and on major highways.
In terms of land area, Miami is one of the smallest major cities in the United States. According to the US Census Bureau, the city encompasses a total area of 56.06 sq mi (145.2 km2). Of that area, 35.99 sq mi (93.2 km2) is land and 20.08 sq mi (52.0 km2) is water. That means Miami comprises over 400,000 people in 36 square miles (93 km2), making it one of the most densely populated cities in the United States, along with New York City, San Francisco, Boston, Chicago, and Philadelphia.
Miami is split into many different sections, roughly into North, South, West and Downtown. The heart of the city is Downtown Miami and is technically on the eastern side of the city. This area includes Brickell, Virginia Key, Watson Island, and PortMiami. Downtown is South Florida's central business district, and Florida's largest and most influential central business district. Downtown has the largest concentration of international banks in the U.S. along Brickell Avenue. Downtown is home to many major banks, courthouses, financial headquarters, cultural and tourist attractions, schools, parks and a large residential population. East of Downtown, across Biscayne Bay is South Beach. Just northwest of Downtown, is the Civic Center, which is Miami's center for hospitals, research institutes and biotechnology with hospitals such as Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami VA Hospital, and the University of Miami's Leonard M. Miller School of Medicine.
The southern side of Miami includes Coral Way, The Roads and Coconut Grove. Coral Way is a historic residential neighborhood built in 1922 connecting Downtown with Coral Gables, and is home to many old homes and tree-lined streets. Coconut Grove was established in 1825 and is the location of Miami's City Hall in Dinner Key, the Coconut Grove Playhouse, CocoWalk, many nightclubs, bars, restaurants and bohemian shops, and as such, is very popular with local college students. It is a historic neighborhood with narrow, winding roads, and a heavy tree canopy. Coconut Grove has many parks and gardens such as Villa Vizcaya, The Kampong, The Barnacle Historic State Park, and is the home of the Coconut Grove Convention Center and numerous historic homes and estates.
The western side of Miami includes Little Havana, West Flagler, and Flagami, and is home to many of the city's traditionally immigrant neighborhoods. Although at one time a mostly Jewish neighborhood, today western Miami is home to immigrants from mostly Central America and Cuba, while the west central neighborhood of Allapattah is a multicultural community of many ethnicities.
The northern side of Miami includes Midtown, a district with a great mix of diversity with many West Indians, Hispanics, European Americans, bohemians, and artists. Edgewater, and Wynwood, are neighborhoods of Midtown and are made up mostly of high-rise residential towers and are home to the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts. The wealthier residents usually live in the northeastern part, in Midtown, the Design District, and the Upper East Side, with many sought after 1920s homes and home of the MiMo Historic District, a style of architecture originated in Miami in the 1950s. The northern side of Miami also has notable African-American and Caribbean immigrant communities such as Little Haiti, Overtown (home of the Lyric Theater), and Liberty City.
Miami has a tropical monsoon climate (Köppen climate classification Am) with a marked drier season in the winter. Its sea-level elevation, coastal location, position just above the Tropic of Cancer, and proximity to the Gulf Stream shape its climate. With January averaging 68.2 °F (20.1 °C), winter features highs generally ranging between 73–80 °F (23–27 °C). Cool air usually settles after the passage of a cold front, which produces much of the little amount of rainfall during the season. Lows fall below 50 °F (10 °C), an average of 10–15 nights during the winter season following the passage of cold fronts.
The wet season begins some time in June, ending in mid-October. During this period, temperatures are in the mid 80s to low 90s (29–35 °C), accompanied by high humidity, though the heat is often relieved by afternoon thunderstorms or a sea breeze that develops off the Atlantic Ocean, which then allow lower temperatures, but conditions still remain very muggy. Much of the year's 61.9 inches (1,572 mm) of rainfall occurs during this period. Dew points in the warm months range from 71.9 °F (22.2 °C) in June to 73.7 °F (23.2 °C) in August.
Extremes range from 27 °F (−2.8 °C) on February 3, 1917 to 100 °F (38 °C) on July 21, 1940. While Miami has never officially recorded snowfall at any official weather station since records have been kept, snow flurries fell in some parts of Miami on January 19, 1977.
Hurricane season officially runs from June 1 through November 30, although hurricanes can develop beyond those dates. The most likely time for Miami to be hit is during the peak of the Cape Verde season, which is mid-August through the end of September. Although tornadoes are uncommon in the area, one struck in 1925 and again in 1997. Around 40% of homes in Miami are built upon floodplains and are considered as flood-risk zones.
|Climate data for Miami (MIA), 1981−2010 normals,[a] extremes 1895−present[b]|
|Record high °F (°C)||88
|Mean maximum °F (°C)||84.3
|Average high °F (°C)||76.4
|Daily mean °F (°C)||68.2
|Average low °F (°C)||59.9
|Mean minimum °F (°C)||43.1
|Record low °F (°C)||28
|Average rainfall inches (mm)||1.62
|Average rainy days (≥ 0.01 in)||6.9||6.5||7.0||6.4||10.0||16.4||16.9||18.9||17.9||12.7||8.4||7.2||135.2|
|Average relative humidity (%)||72.7||70.9||69.5||67.3||71.6||76.2||74.8||76.2||77.8||74.9||73.8||72.5||73.2|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||219.8||216.9||277.2||293.8||301.3||288.7||308.7||288.3||262.2||260.2||220.8||216.1||3,154|
|Percent possible sunshine||66||69||75||77||72||70||73||71||71||73||68||66||71|
|Source: NOAA (relative humidity and sun 1961–1990), The Weather Channel|
|U.S. Decennial Census|
The city proper is home to less than one-thirteenth of the population of South Florida. Miami is the 42nd-most populous city in the United States. The Miami metropolitan area, however, which includes Miami-Dade, Broward and Palm Beach counties, had a combined population of more than 5.5 million people, ranked seventh largest in the United States, and is the largest metropolitan area in the southeastern United States. As of 2008[update], the United Nations estimates that the Miami Urban Agglomeration is the 44th-largest in the world.
In 1960, non-Hispanic whites represented 80% of Miami-Dade county's population. In 1970, the Census Bureau reported Miami's population as 45.3% Hispanic, 32.9% non-Hispanic White, and 22.7% Black. Miami's explosive population growth has been driven by internal migration from other parts of the country, primarily up until the 1980s, as well as by immigration, primarily from the 1960s to the 1990s. Today, immigration to Miami has continued and Miami's growth today is attributed greatly to its fast urbanization and high-rise construction, which has increased its inner city neighborhood population densities, such as in Downtown, Brickell, and Edgewater, where one area in Downtown alone saw a 2,069% increase in population in the 2010 Census. Miami is regarded as more of a multicultural mosaic, than it is a melting pot, with residents still maintaining much of, or some of their cultural traits. The overall culture of Miami is heavily influenced by its large population of Hispanics from the Caribbean and South America and blacks mainly from the Caribbean islands.
Race, ethnicity, religion, and languagesEdit
Miami has a minority-majority population, as non-Hispanic whites comprise less than half of the population, 11.9%, down from 41.7% in 1970. Hispanic or Latino (of any race) make up 70% of Miami's population. As of the 2010 census, the ethnic makeup of the population of Miami included: whites (Including White Hispanic) (72.6%), African Americans (19.2%), Asians (1%), and others.
The 2010 US Census reported that the Latino population in Miami accounted for 70% of its total population, with 34.4% being of Cuban origin, 15.8% had a Central American background (7.2% Nicaraguan, 5.8% Honduran, 1.2% Salvadoran, and 1.0% Guatemalan), 8.7% were of South American descent (3.2% Colombian, 1.4% Venezuelan, 1.2% Peruvian, 1.2% Argentinean, and 0.7% Ecuadorian), 4.0% had other Hispanic or Latino origins (0.5% Spaniard), 3.2% descended from Puerto Ricans, 2.4% were Dominican, and 1.5% had Mexican ancestry.
As of 2010[update], those of African ancestry accounted for 19.2% of Miami's population. Out of the 19.2%, 5.6% were West Indian or Afro-Caribbean American origin (4.4% Haitian, 0.4% Jamaican, 0.4% Bahamian, 0.1% British West Indian, and 0.1% Trinidadian and Tobagonian, 0.1% Other or Unspecified West Indian), 3.0% were Black Hispanics, and 0.4% were Subsaharan African origin.
As of 2010[update], those of (non-Hispanic white) European ancestry accounted for 11.9% of Miami's population. Out of the 11.9%, 1.7% were German, 1.6% Italian, 1.4% Irish, 1.0% English, 0.8% French, 0.6% Russian, and 0.5% were Polish.
As of 2010[update], those of Asian ancestry accounted for 1.0% of Miami's population. Out of the 1.0%, 0.3% were Indian people/Indo-Caribbean American (1,206 people), 0.3% Chinese (1,804 people), 0.2% Filipino (647 people), 0.1% were other Asian (433 people), 0.1% Japanese (245 people), 0.1% Korean (213 people), and 0.0% were Vietnamese (125 people).
According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, Christianity is the most prevalently practiced religion in Miami (68%), with 39% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant, and 27% professing Roman Catholic beliefs. followed by Judaism (8%); Islam, Buddhism, Hinduism, and a variety of other religions have smaller followings; atheism or no self-identifying organized religious affiliation was practiced by 24%.
There has been a Norwegian Seamen's church in Miami since the early 1980s. In November 2011, Crown Princess Mette-Marit opened a new building for the church. The church was built as a center for the 10,000 Scandinavians that live in Florida. Around 4,000 of them are Norwegian. The church is also an important place for the 150 Norwegians that work at Disney World.
As of 2016[update], a total of 73% of Miami's population age five and over spoke a language other than English at home. Of this 73%, 64.5% of the population only spoke Spanish at home while 21.1% of the population spoke English at home. About 7% spoke other Indo-European languages at home, while about 0.9% spoke Asian languages or Pacific Islander languages/Oceanic languages at home. The remaining 0.7% of the population spoke other languages at home.
As of 2010[update], 70.2% of Miami's population age five and over spoke only Spanish at home while 22.7% of the population spoke English at home. About 6.3% spoke other Indo-European languages at home. About 0.4% spoke Asian languages or Pacific Islander languages/Oceanic languages at home. The remaining 0.3% of the population spoke other languages at home. In total, 77.3% spoke another language other than English.
Education, households, and incomeEdit
As of 2010[update], there were 158,317 households of which 14.0% were vacant. 22.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.3% were married couples living together, 18.1% have a female head of household with no husband present, and 43.1% were non-families. 33.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older (4.0% male and 7.3% female.) The average household size was 2.47 and the average family size was 3.15.
In 2010, the city population was spread out with 18.8% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 33.1% from 25 to 44, 25.0% from 45 to 64, and 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38.8 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.1 males.
In 2010, 58.1% of the county's population was foreign born, with 41.1% being naturalized American citizens. Of foreign-born residents, 95.4% were born in Latin America, 2.4% were born in Europe, 1.4% born in Asia, 0.5% born in Africa, 0.2% in North America, and 0.1% were born in Oceania.
In 2004, the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) reported that Miami had the highest proportion of foreign-born residents of any major city worldwide (59%), followed by Toronto (50%).
|2010 Census||Miami||Miami-Dade County||Florida|
|Population, percent change, 2000 to 2010||+10.2%||+10.8%||+17.6%|
|Population density||11,135.9/sq mi||1,315.5/sq mi||350.6/sq mi|
|White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic)||72.6%||73.8%||75.0%|
|Hispanic or Latino (of any race)||70.0%||65.0%||22.5%|
|Black or African-American||19.2%||18.9%||16.0%|
|(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian)||11.9%||15.4%||57.9%|
|Native American or Native Alaskan||0.3%||0.2%||0.4%|
|Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian||0.0%||0.0%||0.1%|
|Two or more races (Multiracial)||2.7%||2.4%||2.5%|
|Some Other Race||4.2%||3.2%||3.6%|
Miami is a major center of commerce, finance, and boasts a strong international business community. According to the ranking of world cities undertaken by the Globalization and World Cities Study Group & Network (GaWC) in 2010 and based on the level of presence of global corporate service organizations, Miami is considered an Alpha minus world city. Miami has a Gross Metropolitan Product of $257 billion and is ranked 20th worldwide in GMP, and 11th in the United States.
Several large companies are headquartered in or around Miami, including but not limited to Akerman Senterfitt, Alienware, Arquitectonica, Arrow Air, Bacardi, Benihana, Brightstar Corporation, Burger King, Celebrity Cruises, Carnival Corporation, Carnival Cruise Lines, Crispin Porter + Bogusky, Duany Plater-Zyberk & Company, Espírito Santo Financial Group, Fizber.com, Greenberg Traurig, Holland & Knight, Inktel Direct, Interval International, Lennar, Navarro Discount Pharmacies, Norwegian Cruise Lines, Oceania Cruises, Perry Ellis International, RCTV International, Royal Caribbean Cruise Lines, Ryder Systems, Seabourn Cruise Line, Sedano's, Telefónica USA, UniMÁS, Telemundo, Univision, U.S. Century Bank, Vector Group, and World Fuel Services. Because of its proximity to Latin America, Miami serves as the headquarters of Latin American operations for more than 1400 multinational corporations, including AIG, American Airlines, Cisco, Disney, Exxon, FedEx, Kraft Foods, LEO Pharma Americas, Microsoft, Yahoo, Oracle, SBC Communications, Sony, Symantec, Visa International, and Wal-Mart.
Miami is a major television production center, and the most important city in the U.S. for Spanish language media. Univisión, Telemundo and UniMÁS have their headquarters in Miami, along with their production studios. The Telemundo Television Studios produces much of the original programming for Telemundo, such as their telenovelas and talk shows. In 2011, 85% of Telemundo's original programming was filmed in Miami. Miami is also a major music recording center, with the Sony Music Latin and Universal Music Latin Entertainment headquarters in the city, along with many other smaller record labels. The city also attracts many artists for music video and film shootings.
During the mid-2000s, the city witnessed its largest real estate boom since the Florida land boom of the 1920s. During this period, the city had well over a hundred approved high-rise construction projects in which 50 were actually built. Rapid high-rise construction led to fast population growth in the city's inner neighborhoods, primarily in Downtown, Brickell and Edgewater, with these neighborhoods becoming the fastest-growing areas in the city. Miami's skyline is ranked third-most impressive in the U.S., behind New York City and Chicago, and 19th in the world according to the Almanac of Architecture and Design. The city currently has the eight tallest (as well as thirteen of the fourteen tallest) skyscrapers in the state of Florida, with the tallest being the 789-foot (240 m) Four Seasons Hotel & Tower.
A housing market crash in 2007 caused a foreclosure crisis in the area. In 2012, Forbes magazine named Miami the most miserable city in the United States because of a crippling housing crisis that has cost multitudes of residents their homes and jobs. The metro area has one of the highest violent crime rates in the country and workers face lengthy daily commutes. Like other metro areas in the United States, crime in Miami is localized to specific neighborhoods. In a 2016 study by the website 24/7 Wall Street, Miami was rated as the worst U.S. city in which to live, based on crime, poverty, income inequality and housing costs that far exceed the national median.
Miami International Airport and PortMiami are among the nation's busiest ports of entry, especially for cargo from South America and the Caribbean. The Port of Miami is the world's busiest cruise port, and MIA is the busiest airport in Florida, and the largest gateway between the United States and Latin America. Additionally, the city has among the largest concentration of international banks in the country, primarily along Brickell Avenue in Brickell, Miami's financial district. Due to its strength in international business, finance and trade, many international banks have offices in Downtown such as Espírito Santo Financial Group, which has its U.S. headquarters in Miami. Miami was also the host city of the 2003 Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations.
Miami is the home to the National Hurricane Center and the headquarters of the United States Southern Command, responsible for military operations in Central and South America. In addition to these roles, Miami is also an industrial center, especially for stone quarrying and warehousing. These industries are centered largely on the western fringes of the city near Doral and Hialeah.
According to the U.S. Census Bureau, in 2004, Miami had the third highest incidence of family incomes below the federal poverty line in the United States, making it the third poorest city in the US, behind only Detroit, Michigan (ranked #1) and El Paso, Texas (ranked #2). Miami is also one of the very few cities where its local government went bankrupt, in 2001. On the other hand, Miami has won accolades for its environmental policies: in 2008, it was ranked as "America's Cleanest City" according to Forbes for its year-round good air quality, vast green spaces, clean drinking water, clean streets and citywide recycling programs.
Miami is home to one of the largest ports in the United States, the PortMiami. It is the largest cruise ship port in the world. The port is often called the "Cruise Capital of the World" and the "Cargo Gateway of the Americas". It has retained its status as the number one cruise/passenger port in the world for well over a decade accommodating the largest cruise ships and the major cruise lines. In 2017, the port served 5,340,559 cruise passengers. Additionally, the port is one of the nation's busiest cargo ports, importing 9,162,340 tons of cargo in 2017. Among North American ports, it ranks second to the Port of South Louisiana in New Orleans in terms of cargo tonnage imported/exported from Latin America. The port is on 518 acres (2 km2) and has 7 passenger terminals. China is the port's number one import country and number one export country. Miami has the world's largest amount of cruise line headquarters, home to: Carnival Cruise Lines, Celebrity Cruises, Norwegian Cruise Line, Oceania Cruises, and Royal Caribbean International. In 2014, the Port of Miami Tunnel was completed and is serving PortMiami.
Tourism and conventionsEdit
Tourism is one of the city's largest private-sector industries, accounting for more than 144,800 jobs in Miami-Dade County. Tourism is one of the city's largest industries. The city's frequent portrayal in music, film, and popular culture has made the city and its landmarks recognizable worldwide. In 2016, it attracted the second-highest number of foreign tourists of any city in the United States, and is one of the top-20 destination cities worldwide by international visitor spending. More than 15.9 million visitors arrived in Miami in 2017, adding US$26.1 billion to the economy. With a large hotel infrastructure and a world-class convention facility in the newly renovated Miami Beach Convention Center, Miami is a popular destination for annual conventions and conferences.
Some of the most popular tourist destinations in Miami include the beaches, South Beach, Lincoln Road, Bayside Marketplace and Downtown Miami. The Art Deco District in South Beach, is reputed as one of the most glamorous in the world for its nightclubs, beaches, historical buildings, and shopping. Annual events such as the Sony Ericsson Open, Art Basel, Winter Music Conference, South Beach Wine & Food Festival, and Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Miami attract millions to the metropolis every year.
The Vizcaya Museum and Gardens is a National Historic Landmark set on 28 acres in Coral Gables. It is early 20th century estate that includes extensive Italian Renaissance gardens, native woodland landscape, and a historic village outbuildings compound. The landscape and architecture were influenced by Veneto and Tuscan Italian Renaissance models and designed in the Mediterranean Revival architecture style, with Baroque elements.
Culture and contemporary lifeEdit
Miami enjoys a vibrant culture that is influenced by a diverse population from all around the world. Miami is known as the "Magic City" for seemingly popping up overnight due to its young age and massive growth. It is also nicknamed the "Capital of Latin America" because of its high population of Spanish-speakers.
Miami is featured in numerous films and television shows, and video games. The video game Scarface: The World Is Yours takes place in Miami. The game is based on and is a quasi-sequel to the 1983 motion picture Scarface starring Al Pacino reprising his role as Tony Montana, with André Sogliuzzo providing Montana's voice. The game begins in the film's final scene, with Tony Montana's mansion being raided by Alejandro Sosa's (Robert Davi) assassins. Burn Notice, a television series airing from 2007 to 2013 took place in Miami. A fictionalized version of Miami—Vice City—is the setting for the video game Grand Theft Auto: Vice City.
Entertainment and performing artsEdit
In addition to such annual festivals like Calle Ocho Festival and Carnaval Miami, Miami is home to many entertainment venues, theaters, museums, parks and performing arts centers. The newest addition to the Miami arts scene is the Adrienne Arsht Center for the Performing Arts, the second-largest performing arts center in the United States after the Lincoln Center in New York City, and is the home of the Florida Grand Opera. Within it are the Ziff Ballet Opera House, the center's largest venue, the Knight Concert Hall, the Carnival Studio Theater and the Peacock Rehearsal Studio. The center attracts many large-scale operas, ballets, concerts, and musicals from around the world and is Florida's grandest performing arts center. Other performing arts venues in Miami include the Gusman Center for the Performing Arts, Coconut Grove Playhouse, Colony Theatre, Lincoln Theatre, Actor's Playhouse at the Miracle Theatre Manuel Artime Theater, Playground Theatre, Wertheim Performing Arts Center, the Fair Expo Center and the Bayfront Park Amphitheater for outdoor music events.
Another celebrated event is the Miami International Film Festival, taking place every year around the first week of March for 10 days during which independent international and American films are screened in the multiple theaters across the city. Miami has over a half dozen independent film theaters.
The city attracts a large number of musicians, singers, actors, dancers, and orchestral players. Miami has numerous orchestras, symphonies and performing art conservatories. Some of these include the Florida Grand Opera, FIU School of Music, Frost School of Music, Miami Wind Symphony, New World School of the Arts, as well as the music, theater and art schools of the city's many universities and schools.
Miami is also a major fashion center, home to models and some of the top modeling agencies in the world. Miami is also host to many fashion shows and events, including the annual Miami Fashion Week and the Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week Miami held in the Wynwood Art District.
Museums and visual artsEdit
Some of the museums in Miami include the Frost Art Museum, Frost Museum of Science, Institute of Contemporary Art, Miami Children's Museum, Vizcaya Museum and Gardens, as well as HistoryMiami and Pérez Art Museums, both located in the Miami-Dade Cultural Center which also houses the Miami main library.
The cuisine of Miami is a reflection of its diverse population, with a heavy influence especially from Caribbean cuisine and from Latin American cuisine. By combining the two with American cuisine, it has spawned a unique South Florida style of cooking known as Floribbean cuisine. Floribbean cuisine is widely available throughout Miami and South Florida, and can be found in restaurant chains such as Pollo Tropical.
Cuban immigrants in the 1960s brought the Cuban sandwich, medianoche, Cuban espresso, and croquetas, all of which have grown in popularity to all Miamians, and have become symbols of the city's varied cuisine. Today, these are part of the local culture, and can be found throughout the city in window cafés, particularly outside of supermarkets and restaurants. Restaurants such as Versailles restaurant in Little Havana are landmark eateries of Miami. Located on the Atlantic Ocean, and with a long history as a seaport, Miami is also known for its seafood, with many seafood restaurants located along the Miami River, and in and around Biscayne Bay. Miami is also the home of restaurant chains such as Burger King, Tony Roma's and Benihana.
The Miami area has a unique dialect (commonly called the "Miami accent") that is widely spoken. The dialect developed among second- or third-generation Hispanics, including Cuban-Americans, whose first language was English (though some non-Hispanic white, black, and other races who were born and raised in the Miami area tend to adopt it as well). It is based on a fairly standard American accent but with some changes very similar to dialects in the Mid-Atlantic (especially the New York area dialect, Northern New Jersey English, and New York Latino English). Unlike Virginia Piedmont, Coastal Southern American, and Northeast American dialects and Florida Cracker dialect, "Miami accent" is rhotic; it also incorporates a rhythm and pronunciation heavily influenced by Spanish (wherein rhythm is syllable-timed). However, this is a native dialect of English, not learner English or interlanguage; it is possible to differentiate this variety from an interlanguage spoken by second-language speakers in that "Miami accent" does not generally display the following features: there is no addition of /ɛ/ before initial consonant clusters with /s/, speakers do not confuse of /dʒ/ with /j/, (e.g., Yale with jail), and /r/ and /rr/ are pronounced as alveolar approximant [ɹ] instead of alveolar tap [ɾ] or alveolar trill [r] in Spanish.
Miami's main four sports teams are the Miami Dolphins of the National Football League, the Miami Heat of the National Basketball Association, the Miami Marlins of Major League Baseball, and the Florida Panthers of the National Hockey League. As well as having all four major professional teams, Miami is also home to the Inter Miami CF of the Major League Soccer led by David Beckham, Simon Fuller, and Marcelo Claure. Miami Open, an annual tennis tournament, was previously held in Key Biscayne, an island town off the coast of Miami. It is now held at Hard Rock Stadium after the tournament was purchased by Miami Dolphins owner Stephen Ross. The city is home to numerous greyhound racing tracks, marinas, jai alai venues, and golf courses. The city streets has hosted professional auto races, the Miami Indy Challenge and later the Grand Prix Americas. The Homestead-Miami Speedway oval hosts NASCAR national races.
The Heat and the Marlins play within Miami's city limits. The Heat play at the American Airlines Arena in Downtown Miami. The Miami Marlins home ballpark is Marlins Park, located in Little Havana on the site of the old Orange Bowl stadium.
The Miami Dolphins play at Hard Rock Stadium in suburban Miami Gardens. The Florida Panthers play in nearby Sunrise at the BB&T Center. Miami is also home to Paso Fino horses, where competitions are held at Tropical Park Equestrian Center.
The Orange Bowl, a member of the Bowl Championship Series, hosts their college football championship games at Hard Rock Stadium. The stadium has also hosted the Super Bowl; the Miami metro area has hosted the game a total of ten times (five Super Bowls at the current Hard Rock Stadium, including Super Bowl XLI and five at the Miami Orange Bowl), tying New Orleans for the most games.
Miami is also the home of many college sports teams. The two largest are the University of Miami Hurricanes, whose football team plays at Hard Rock Stadium, and Florida International University Panthers whose football team plays at FIU Stadium.
The following table shows the Miami area major professional teams and Division I teams with an average attendance of more than 10,000:
|Club||Sport||League||Venue (Capacity)||Attendance||League Championships|
|Miami Dolphins||Football||National Football League||Hard Rock Stadium (64,767)||70,035||Super Bowl (2) — 1972, 1973|
|Miami Hurricanes||Football||NCAA D-I (ACC)||Hard Rock Stadium (64,767)||53,837||National titles (5) — 1983, 1987, 1989, 1991, 2001|
|Miami Marlins||Baseball||Major League Baseball||Marlins Park (36,742)||21,386||World Series (2) — 1997, 2003|
|Miami Heat||Basketball||National Basketball Association||American Airlines Arena (19,600)||19,710||NBA Finals (3) — 2006, 2012, 2013|
|FIU Panthers||Football||NCAA D-I (Conference USA)||FIU Stadium (23,500)||15,453||None|
|Florida Panthers||Hockey||National Hockey League||BB&T Center (19,250)||10,250||None|
|Inter Miami CF||Soccer||Major League Soccer||Miami MLS Stadium||None||None|
Beaches and parksEdit
The City of Miami has various lands operated by the National Park Service, the Florida Division of Recreation and Parks, and the City of Miami Department of Parks and Recreation.
Miami's tropical weather allows for year-round outdoor activities. The city has numerous marinas, rivers, bays, canals, and the Atlantic Ocean, which make boating, sailing, and fishing popular outdoor activities. Biscayne Bay has numerous coral reefs that make snorkeling and scuba diving popular. There are over 80 parks and gardens in the city. The largest and most popular parks are Bayfront Park and Museum Park (located in the heart of Downtown and the location of the American Airlines Arena and Bayside Marketplace), Tropical Park, Peacock Park, Morningside Park, Virginia Key, and Watson Island.
Other popular cultural destinations in or near Miami include Zoo Miami, Jungle Island, Miami Seaquarium, Monkey Jungle, Coral Castle, St. Bernard de Clairvaux Church, Charles Deering Estate, Fairchild Botanical Gardens, and Key Biscayne.
In its 2018 ParkScore ranking, The Trust for Public Land reported that the park system in the City of Miami was the 50th best park system among the 100 most populous US cities, down slightly from 48th place in the 2017 ranking. ParkScore ranks urban park systems by a formula that analyzes median park size, park acres as percent of city area, the percent of city residents within a half-mile of a park, spending of park services per resident, and the number of playgrounds per 10,000 residents.
Law and governmentEdit
The government of the City of Miami uses the mayor-commissioner type of system. The city commission consists of five commissioners that are elected from single member districts. The city commission constitutes the governing body with powers to pass ordinances, adopt regulations, and exercise all powers conferred upon the city in the city charter. The mayor is elected at large and appoints a city manager. The City of Miami is governed by Mayor Francis X. Suarez and 5 city commissioners that oversee the five districts in the city. The commission's regular meetings are held at Miami City Hall, which is located at 3500 Pan American Drive on Dinner Key in the neighborhood of Coconut Grove.
- Ken Russell – Miami Commissioner, District 2 (Vice-Chairman)
- Joe Carollo – Miami Commissioner, District 3
- Manolo Reyes – Miami Commissioner, District 4
- Keon Hardemon – Miami Commissioner, District 5 (Chairman)
- Emilio T. Gonzalez, PhD – City Manager
- Victoria Méndez – City Attorney
- Todd B. Hannon – City Clerk
Colleges and universitiesEdit
Miami has over 200,000 students enrolled in local colleges and universities, placing it seventh in the nation in per capita university enrollment. In 2010, the city's four largest colleges and universities (MDC, FIU, UM, and Barry) graduated 28,000 students.
Miami is also home to both for-profit and nonprofit organizations that offer a range of professional training and other, related educational programs. Per Scholas, for example is a nonprofit organization that offers free professional certification training directed towards successfully passing CompTIA A+ and Network+ certification exams as a route to securing jobs and building careers.
Colleges and universities in and around Miami:
- Barry University (private)
- Carlos Albizu University (private)
- Florida International University (FIU) (public)
- Florida Memorial University (private)
- Johnson and Wales University (private)
- Keiser University (private)
- Manchester Business School (satellite location, UK public)
- Miami Culinary Institute (public)
- Miami Dade College (public)
- Miami International University of Art & Design (private)
- Nova Southeastern University (private)
- St. Thomas University (private)
- Talmudic University (private)
- University of Miami (private)
Primary and secondary schoolsEdit
Public schools in Miami are governed by Miami-Dade County Public Schools, which is the largest school district in Florida and the fourth-largest in the United States. As of September 2008 it has a student enrollment of 385,655 and over 392 schools and centers. The district is also the largest minority public school system in the country, with 60% of its students being of Hispanic origin, 28% Black or West Indian American, 10% White (non-Hispanic) and 2% non-white of other minorities.
Miami is home to some of the nation's best high schools, such as Design and Architecture High School, ranked the nation's best magnet school, MAST Academy, Coral Reef High School, ranked 20th-best public high school in the U.S., Miami Palmetto High School, and the New World School of the Arts. M-DCPS is also one of a few public school districts in the United States to offer optional bilingual education in Spanish, French, German, Haitian Creole, and Mandarin Chinese.
Miami is home to several well-known Roman Catholic, Jewish and non-denominational private schools. The Archdiocese of Miami operates the city's Catholic private schools, which include St. Hugh Catholic School, St. Agatha Catholic School, St. Theresa School, Immaculata-Lasalle High School, Monsignor Edward Pace High School, Archbishop Curley-Notre Dame High School, St. Brendan High School, among numerous other Catholic elementary and high schools.
Catholic preparatory schools operated by religious orders are Christopher Columbus High School and Belen Jesuit Preparatory School for boys and Carrollton School of the Sacred Heart and Our Lady of Lourdes Academy for girls.
Non-denominational private schools in Miami are Ransom Everglades, Gulliver Preparatory School, and Miami Country Day School. Other schools in the area include Samuel Scheck Hillel Community Day School, Dade Christian School, Palmer Trinity School, Westminster Christian School, and Riviera Schools.
Miami has one of the largest television markets in the nation and the second largest in the state of Florida. Miami has several major newspapers, the main and largest newspaper being The Miami Herald. El Nuevo Herald is the major and largest Spanish-language newspaper. The Miami Herald and El Nuevo Herald are Miami's and South Florida's main, major and largest newspapers. The papers left their longtime home in downtown Miami in 2013. The newspapers are now headquartered at the former home of U.S. Southern Command in Doral.
Other major newspapers include Miami Today, headquartered in Brickell, Miami New Times, headquartered in Midtown, Miami Sun Post, South Florida Business Journal, Miami Times, and Biscayne Boulevard Times. An additional Spanish-language newspapers, Diario Las Americas also serve Miami. The Miami Herald is Miami's primary newspaper with over a million readers and is headquartered in Downtown in Herald Plaza. Several other student newspapers from the local universities, such as the oldest, the University of Miami's The Miami Hurricane, Florida International University's The Beacon, Miami-Dade College's The Metropolis, Barry University's The Buccaneer, amongst others. Many neighborhoods and neighboring areas also have their own local newspapers such as the Aventura News, Coral Gables Tribune, Biscayne Bay Tribune, and the Palmetto Bay News.
A number of magazines circulate throughout the greater Miami area, including Miami Monthly, Southeast Florida's only city/regional; Ocean Drive, a hot-spot social scene glossy; and South Florida Business Leader.
Miami is also the headquarters and main production city of many of the world's largest television networks, record label companies, broadcasting companies and production facilities, such as Telemundo, TeleFutura, Galavisión, Mega TV, Univisión, Univision Communications, Inc., Universal Music Latin Entertainment, RCTV International and Sunbeam Television. In 2009, Univisión announced plans to build a new production studio in Miami, dubbed Univisión Studios. Univisión Studios is currently headquartered in Miami, and will produce programming for all of Univisión Communications' television networks.
Miami is the twelfth largest radio market and the seventeenth largest television market in the United States. Television stations serving the Miami area include WAMI (Telefutura), WBFS (My Network TV), WSFL (The CW), WFOR (CBS), WHFT (TBN), WLTV (Univision), WPLG (ABC), WPXM (Ion), WSCV (Telemundo), WSVN (Fox), WTVJ (NBC), WPBT (PBS), and WLRN (also PBS).
According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 72.3% of working city of Miami residents commuted by driving alone, 8.7% carpooled, 9% used public transportation, and 3.7% walked. About 1.8% used all other forms of transportation, including taxicab, motorcycle, and bicycle. About 4.5% of working city of Miami residents worked at home. In 2015, 19.9% of city of Miami households were without a car, which decreased to 18.6% in 2016. The national average was 8.7 percent in 2016. Miami averaged 1.24 cars per household in 2016, compared to a national average of 1.8 per household.
Freeways and roadsEdit
Miami's road system is based along the numerical Miami grid where Flagler Street forms the east-west baseline and Miami Avenue forms the north-south meridian. The corner of Flagler Street and Miami Avenue is in the middle of Downtown in front of the Downtown Macy's (formerly the Burdine's headquarters). The Miami grid is primarily numerical so that, for example, all street addresses north of Flagler Street and west of Miami Avenue have "NW" in their address. Because its point of origin is in Downtown, which is close to the coast, the "NW" and "SW" quadrants are much larger than the "SE" and "NE" quadrants. Many roads, especially major ones, are also named (e.g., Tamiami Trail/SW 8th St), although, with exceptions, the number is in more common usage among locals.
With few exceptions, within this grid north/south roads are designated as Courts, Roads, Avenues or Places (often remembered by their acronym), while east/west roads are Streets, Terraces, Drives or occasionally Ways. Major roads in each direction are located at one mile intervals. There are 16 blocks to each mile on north/south avenues, and 10 blocks to each mile on east/west streets. Major north/south avenues generally end in "7" – e.g., 17th, 27th, 37th/Douglas Aves., 57th/Red Rd., 67th/Ludlam, 87th/Galloway, etc., all the way west beyond 177th/Krome Avenue. (One prominent exception is 42nd Avenue, LeJeune Road, located at the half-mile point instead.) Major east/west streets to the south of downtown are multiples of 16, though the beginning point of this system is at SW 8th St, one half mile south of Flagler ("zeroth") Street. Thus, major streets are at 8th St., 24th St./Coral Way, 40th St./Bird, 56th/Miller, 72nd/ Sunset, 88th/N. Kendall, 104th (originally S. Kendall), 120th/Montgomery, 136th/Howard, 152nd/Coral Reef, 168th/Richmond, 184th/Eureka, 200th/Quail Roost, 216th/Hainlin Mill, 232nd/Silver Palm, 248th/Coconut Palm, etc., well into the 300s. Within the grid, odd-numbered addresses are generally on the north or east side, and even-numbered addresses are on the south or west side.
All streets and avenues in Miami-Dade County follow the Miami grid, with a few exceptions, most notably in Coral Gables, Hialeah, Coconut Grove and Miami Beach. One neighborhood, The Roads, is named as such because its streets run off the Miami grid at a 45-degree angle, and therefore are all named roads.
Some of the major Florida State Roads (and their common names) serving Miami are:
- SR 112 (Airport Expressway): Interstate 95 to MIA
- Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike (SR 821): Florida's Turnpike mainline (SR 91)/Miami Gardens to U.S. Route 1/Florida City
- SR 826 (Palmetto Expressway): Golden Glades Interchange to U.S. Route 1/Pinecrest
- SR 836 (Dolphin Expressway): Downtown to SW 137th Ave via MIA
- SR 874 (Don Shula Expressway): 826/Bird Road to Homestead Extension of Florida's Turnpike/Kendall
- SR 878 (Snapper Creek Expressway): SR 874/Kendall to U.S. Route 1/Pinecrest & South Miami
- SR 924 (Gratigny Parkway) Miami Lakes to Opa-locka
|Rickenbacker Causeway||Brickell and Key Biscayne||1947|
|Venetian Causeway||Downtown and South Beach||1912–1925|
|MacArthur Causeway||Downtown and South Beach||1920|
|Julia Tuttle Causeway||Wynwood/Edgewater and Miami Beach||1959|
|79th Street Causeway||Upper East Side and North Beach||1929|
|Broad Causeway||North Miami and Bal Harbour||1951|
Miami has six major causeways that span over Biscayne Bay connecting the western mainland, with the eastern barrier islands along the Atlantic Ocean. The Rickenbacker Causeway is the southernmost causeway and connects Brickell to Virginia Key and Key Biscayne. The Venetian Causeway and MacArthur Causeway connect Downtown with South Beach. The Julia Tuttle Causeway connects Midtown and Miami Beach. The 79th Street Causeway connects the Upper East Side with North Beach. The northernmost causeway, the Broad Causeway, is the smallest of Miami's six causeways and connects North Miami with Bal Harbour.
In 2007, Miami was identified as having the rudest drivers in the United States, the second year in a row to have been cited, in a poll commissioned by automobile club AutoVantage. Miami is also consistently ranked as one of the most dangerous cities in the United States for pedestrians.
Public transportation in Miami is operated by Miami-Dade Transit and SFRTA, and includes commuter rail (Tri-Rail), heavy-rail rapid transit (Metrorail), an elevated people mover (Metromover), and buses (Metrobus). Miami has Florida's highest transit ridership as about 17% of Miamians use transit on a daily basis. The average Miami public transit commute on weekdays is 90 minutes, while 39% of public transit riders commute for more than 2 hours a day. The average wait time at a public transit stop or station is 18 minutes, while 37% of riders wait for more than 20 minutes on average every day. The average single trip distance with public transit is 7.46 mi (12 km), while 38% travel more than 8.08 mi (13 km) in each direction.
Miami's heavy-rail rapid transit system, Metrorail, is an elevated system comprising two lines and 23 stations on a 24.4-mile (39.3 km)-long line. Metrorail connects the urban western suburbs of Hialeah, Medley, and inner-city Miami with suburban The Roads, Coconut Grove, Coral Gables, South Miami and urban Kendall via the central business districts of Miami International Airport, the Civic Center, and Downtown. A free, elevated people mover, Metromover, operates 21 stations on three different lines in greater Downtown Miami, with a station at roughly every two blocks of Downtown and Brickell. Several expansion projects are being funded by a transit development sales tax surcharge throughout Miami-Dade County.
Tri-Rail, a commuter rail system operated by the South Florida Regional Transportation Authority (SFRTA), runs from Miami International Airport northward to West Palm Beach, making eighteen stops throughout Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach counties.
The Miami Intermodal Center is a massive transportation hub servicing Metrorail, Amtrak, Tri-Rail, Metrobus, Greyhound Lines, taxis, rental cars, MIA Mover, private automobiles, bicycles and pedestrians adjacent to Miami International Airport. Miami Intermodal Center was completed in 2010, and is serving about 150,000 commuters and travelers in the Miami area. Phase I of Miami Central Station was completed in 2012, and the Tri-Rail part of Phase II was completed in 2015, but the construction of the Amtrak part remains delayed.
Two new light rail systems, Baylink and the Miami Streetcar, have been proposed and are currently in the planning stage. BayLink would connect Downtown with South Beach, and the Miami Streetcar would connect Downtown with Midtown.
Miami is the southern terminus of Amtrak's Atlantic Coast services, running two lines, the Silver Meteor and the Silver Star, both terminating in New York City. The Miami Amtrak Station is located in the suburb of Hialeah near the Tri-Rail/Metrorail Station on NW 79 St and NW 38 Ave. Current construction of the Miami Central Station will move all Amtrak operations from its current out-of-the-way location to a centralized location with Metrorail, MIA Mover, Tri-Rail, Miami International Airport, and the Miami Intermodal Center all within the same station closer to Downtown. The station was expected to be completed by 2012, but experienced several delays and was later expected to be completed in late 2014, again pushed back to early 2015.
Miami International Airport serves as the primary international airport of the Greater Miami Area. One of the busiest international airports in the world, Miami International Airport caters to over 35 million passengers a year. The airport is a major hub and the largest international gateway for American Airlines. Miami International is the busiest airport in Florida, the United States' second-largest international port of entry for foreign air passengers behind New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport, and the seventh-largest such gateway in the world. The airport's extensive international route network includes non-stop flights to over seventy international cities in North and South America, Europe, Asia, and the Middle East.
Alternatively, nearby Fort Lauderdale-Hollywood International Airport also serves commercial traffic in the Miami area. Miami-Opa Locka Executive Airport in Opa-locka and Miami Executive Airport in an unincorporated area southwest of Miami serve general aviation traffic in the Miami area.
Cycling and walkingEdit
The city government under former mayor Manny Diaz took an ambitious stance in support of bicycling in Miami for both recreation and commuting. Every month, the city hosts "Bike Miami", where major streets in Downtown and Brickell are closed to automobiles, but left open for pedestrians and bicyclists. The event began in November 2008, and has doubled in popularity from 1,500 participants to about 3,000 in the October 2009 Bike Miami. This is the longest-running such event in the US. In October 2009, the city also approved an extensive 20-year plan for bike routes and paths around the city. The city has begun construction of bike routes as of late 2009, and ordinances requiring bike parking in all future construction in the city became mandatory as of October 2009.
A 2011 study by Walk Score ranked Miami the eighth-most walkable of the fifty largest cities in the United States, but a 2013 survey by Travel + Leisure ranked Miami 34th for "public transportation and pedestrian friendliness".
Twin and sister citiesEdit
- Bogotá, Colombia (since 1971)
- Buenos Aires, Argentina (since 1979)
- Kagoshima, Japan (since 1990)
- Gisborne, New Zealand (since 2001)
- Lima, Peru (since 1977)
- Madrid, Spain (since 2014)
- Port-au-Prince, Haiti (since 1991)
- Qingdao, China (since 2005)
- Salvador da Bahia, Brazil (since 2006)
- Santiago, Chile (since 1986)
- Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic (since 1987)
- Palermo, Italy (since 2015)
- Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1981 to 2010.
- Official records for Miami were kept at the Lemon City from September 1895 to November 1900, the Miami COOP from December 1900 to May 1911, the Weather Bureau Office from June 1911 to February 1937, at various locations in and around the city from March 1937 to July 1942, and at Miami Int'l since August 1942. For more information, see ThreadEx.
- "Miami: the Capital of Latin America". Time. December 2, 1993.
- "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
- "American Factfinder, Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010". US Census Bureau. Archived from the original on March 5, 2014. Retrieved October 21, 2011.
- "Miami Urbanized Area (2008 estimate)". American Community Survey. Archived from the original on October 28, 2011.
- "Population Estimates". Archived from the original on June 29, 2015. Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- "2009 City Estimates". US Census Bureau. 2009. Archived from the original on March 9, 2016.
- "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2017". factfinder.census.gov. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- "Population Estimates for Florida Municipalities". Retrieved April 20, 2016.
- "Table 1. Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2010 to July 1, 2012". 2012 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 2013. Archived from the original (CSV) on April 1, 2013. Retrieved March 17, 2013.
- Demographia: World Urban Areas.
- "The World According to GaWC 2008". Globalization and World Cities Study Group and Network, Loughborough University. Retrieved March 3, 2009.
- "Inventory of World Cities". Globalization and World Cities (GaWC) Study Group and Network. Archived from the original on October 14, 2013. Retrieved December 1, 2007.
- "Gross Domestic Product by Metropolitan Area, 2017" (PDF). Bea.gov. Retrieved October 23, 2018.
- "GaWC – The World According to GaWC 2012". Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- "The Global Cities Index 2010". Archived from the original on December 2, 2014. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
- Larson, Christina (August 25, 2010). "Global Cities Index Methodology: How we compiled the 2010 Index". Archived from the original on February 7, 2017. Retrieved August 2, 2017.
- Van Riper, Tom (March 17, 2008). "America's cleanest cities". Forbes. Archived from the original on May 29, 2010. Retrieved February 23, 2008.
- "City Mayors: World's richest cities by purchasing power". City Mayors. Retrieved September 19, 2009.
- U.S. Census, 2010 (Ethnicity) and Census American Community Survey 2008 (language).
- Nest Seekers International. Nestseekers.com. Retrieved on September 5, 2015.
- "Brickell Downtown Miami, Florida". Madduxco.com. Archived from the original on January 13, 2016. Retrieved October 8, 2012.
- "Port of Miami". Miamidade.gov. Archived from the original on September 18, 2012. Retrieved October 8, 2012.
- "Cruise lines departing from the Port of Miami". Gomiami.about.com. April 10, 2012. Archived from the original on June 28, 2015. Retrieved October 8, 2012.
- "Miami Is The Second Most Popular Destination For International Visitors (And Growing Fast)". TheNextMiami.com. Retrieved November 5, 2016.
- Smith, Matt (February 4, 2014). "Questions of preservation after ancient village found in downtown Miami". CNN. Retrieved February 4, 2014.
- Henry, Brian (Summer 1995). "Miami Centennial Trivia". South Florida History. 23 (3): 33.
- "The Day in St. Augustine — The Hack Line to Biscayne Bay". The Florida Times-Union. January 10, 1893.
- "A Trip to Biscayne Bay". The Tropical Sun. March 9, 1893.
- Muir, Helen (1953), Miami, USA, Henry Holt and Company, p. 55
- Weiner, Jacqueline (April 1, 2010), "Statue of Miami's First Lady, Julia Tuttle, may be birthday present", Miami Today
- Williams, Linda K. & George, Paul S. "South Florida: A Brief History". Historical Museum of South Florida. Archived from the original on April 29, 2010. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
- "Name Origins of Florida – City Name Origins I-P". FLHeritage.com. Florida Department of State. Retrieved December 17, 2013.
- Connolly, Nathan (2014). A World More Concrete: Real Estate and the Remaking of Jim Crow South Florida. University of Chicago Press.
- "Miami-Dade County – Information Center". Miami-Dade County. Archived from the original on February 25, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Miami Environment". Advameg. Retrieved July 19, 2007.
- "Miami, Florida metropolitan area as seen from STS-62". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Archived from the original on December 1, 2007. Retrieved August 19, 2007.
- Dean Whitman (September 1997). "Notes on the geology and Water Resources of South Florida". Notes on Florida Geology. Florida International University. Retrieved January 11, 2011.
- "Miami Geology". miami-americabeach.com. Archived from the original on March 14, 2017. Retrieved April 3, 2019.
- "USGS Ground Water Atlas of the United States". United States Geological Survey. Retrieved February 19, 2006.
- "Neighborhoods in Miami". miami-americabeach.com. Archived from the original on March 14, 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- Gazaleh, Mark. "Coconut Grove – West Grove tree canopy variations over time".
- "Weather: Miami, Florida". Weatherbase. Retrieved March 30, 2015.
- "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification" (PDF).
- "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved April 13, 2016.
- "Climate Data". National Weather Service.
- "Maine shivers at −29: Snow falls in Florida". Associated Press. The Baltimore Sun. January 20, 1977. p. A1. "Temperatures dipped into the 30s in southern Florida, with snow flurries reported even in Miami Beach."
- Lardner Jr., George; Meyers, Robert. "Miami Is Hit by First Recorded Snow: State of Emergency Is Eyed for Virginia Thousands Idled as Cold Closes Factories, Businesses". The Washington Post. January 20, 1977. p. A1. The meandering jet stream in the upper atmosphere sent flurries of genuine snow onto Miami's palm trees. ... It was the farthest south that snow has been reported in the United States since the record books were started in the 19th century. ... The snow flurries in Miami will be only an asterisk in the record books since they didn't fall on any of the National Weather Service's recording stations in the area, but they were genuine."
- Khiss, Peter. "New York High is 26 as the South Shivers: Florida Snow Causes Emergency Gas Shortage Widespread". The New York Times. January 20, 1977. p. 1. "Florida officially recorded snow for the first time yesterday in Palm Beach County, 65 miles north of Miami, and even that city had flurries, although not at the official stations at its airport or nearby Coral Gables."
- Kleinberg, Howard (December 30, 1989). "The Great Miami Snow Job". The Dispatch. Retrieved September 23, 2010.
- "Vulnerable cities: Miami, Florida". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on April 27, 2006. Retrieved February 19, 2006.
- "Irma spared America, but still had a big effect on it". The Economist. Retrieved September 26, 2017.
- "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- "Station Name: FL MIAMI INTL AP". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 19, 2018.
- "WMO Climate Normals for Miami, FL 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved October 31, 2013.
- "Monthly Averages for Miami International Airport". The Weather Channel. Retrieved October 12, 2013.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
- "Annual Estimates of the Population of Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2009" (XLS). 2009 Population Estimates. United States Census Bureau, Population Division. March 19, 2010. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
- "Table A.12. Population of urban agglomerations with 750,000 inhabitants or more in 2005, by country, 1950–2015" (PDF). World Urbanization Prospects: The 2005 Revision. United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs/Population Division. Retrieved January 1, 2008.
- "Demographic Profile, Miami-Dade County, Florida 1960–2000 " (PDF). Miamidade.gov.
- "Florida – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2012.
- "Race and Hispanic or Latino Origin: 2010 – 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder. US Census Bureau. Retrieved August 18, 2014.
- "Miami, Florida FIRST ANCESTRY REPORTED Universe: Total population – 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 29, 2015.
- "Miami, Florida Profile of General Population and Housing Characteristics: 2010 – 2010 Demographic Profile Data". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- "Miami, Florida: SELECTED SOCIAL CHARACTERISTICS IN THE UNITED STATES – 2006–2010 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates". factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- Shaping Florida: The Effects of Immigration, 1970–2020|Center for Immigration Studies. Cis.org. Retrieved on October 8, 2012.
- "Florida – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Large Cities and Other Places" (PDF). Retrieved April 20, 2016.
- Major U.S. metropolitan areas differ in their religious profiles, Pew Research Center
- "America's Changing Religious Landscape". Pew Research Center: Religion & Public Life. May 12, 2015.
- Crown Princess Opens Seamen's Church in Miami. Norwaypost.no (November 21, 2011). Retrieved on August 3, 2013.
- "Retrieved August 23, 2018.
- "QuickFacts Miami city, Florida". census.gov. U.S. Census Bureau. 2017. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- "Miami, Florida: Age Groups and Sex: 2010 – 2010 Census Summary File 1". factfinder.census.gov. Archived from the original on November 29, 2014. Retrieved October 25, 2015.
- "Miami city, Florida – Census 2010:". USA Today. Retrieved January 12, 2012.
- "The World According to GaWC 2012". Lboro.ac.uk (September 14, 2011). Retrieved on October 8, 2012.
- "Which are the largest city economies in the world and how might this change by 2025?". PricewaterhouseCoopers UK. Archived from the original on May 31, 2013. Retrieved November 20, 2009.
- "Gross Metropolitan Product". Greyhill Advisors. Retrieved September 29, 2011.
- "Walmart Latinoamérica Opens New Regional Office in South Florida, Introduces New Regional President and CEO Eduardo Solórzano". Walmartstores.com. February 23, 2010. Archived from the original on March 4, 2010. Retrieved September 5, 2015.
- Telemundo plans to tape 1,100 hours of telenovelas in Miami. Miamitodaynews.com (June 23, 2011). Retrieved on October 8, 2012.
- Miami: High rise buildings–All. Emporis. Retrieved August 25, 2007.
- Gramsbergen, Egbert & Paul Kazmierczak. "The World's Best Skylines". Archived from the original on February 4, 2008. Retrieved May 10, 2008.
- "Miami:High rise buildings–Completed". Emporis. Retrieved August 19, 2007.
- Bell, Maya (August 27, 2007). "Boom of condo crash loudest in Miami". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on September 1, 2007. Retrieved August 30, 2007.
- Badenhausen, Kurt. "America's Most Miserable Cities (2012)". Forbes. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- Werner, Raleigh. "Moving to Miami, FL: Relocating Tips & Advice". Jumpshell.
- Kaufmanmkaufman, Michelle (June 28, 2016). "Miami was rated Worst American City to Live In by website 24/7 Wall St". Miami Herald. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
- "New figures show PortMiami retained No. 1 cruise port ranking". Business Journal. Retrieved March 31, 2013.
- Cohen, Adam (June 24, 2001), "Gloom over Miami", Time, retrieved September 2, 2007
- "Port of Miami". Miami-Dade County. Retrieved October 28, 2008.
- "2017-18 Port Report" (PDF). PortMiami.
- Cordle, Ina Paiva (May 28, 2014). "The new PortMiami tunnel's opening is delayed until mid-June". The Miami Herald. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- Jordan, John (May 2, 2018). "Greater Miami Tourism Industry Setting Records". globest.com. GlobeSt. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- Herrera, Chabeli (May 1, 2018). "Despite Irma, Miami tourism grew in 2017. Will Asia flights make 2018 even better?". miamiherald.com. Miami Herald. Retrieved April 1, 2019.
- "Scarface: The World is Yours". Blueprint: Review. September 1, 2010.
- "On TV: 'Burn Notice' amply fills the fun void on TV this summer". seattlepi.com. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
- Staff, Gamespot (September 27, 2002). "Grand Theft Auto: Vice City Graphics Q&A". GameSpot. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
- Tommasini, Anthony (February 4, 2007). "Carnival Center for the Performing Arts - Miami - Music". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved May 29, 2018.
- "Miami Fashion Week". Miami Fashion Week. Archived from the original on May 11, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- "Institute of Contemporary Art, Miami (ICA Miami) - Opening Dec 1, 2017". Institute of Contemporary Art Miami.
- Cuban Sandwich, History of Cuban Sandwich, History of Cubano Sandwich. Whatscookingamerica.net. Retrieved on October 8, 2012.
- Local Cuisine in Miami at Frommer's. Frommers.com. Retrieved on October 8, 2012.
- "Miami Cuisine: Seafood Restaurants Guide – Miami Dining Guide". Miami New Times. Archived from the original on July 20, 2012. Retrieved October 8, 2012.
- "Miami Accents: Why Locals Embrace That Heavy "L" Or Not". WLRN (WLRN-TV and WLRN-FM). Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- "'Miami Accent' Takes Speakers By Surprise". Articles – Sun-Sentinel.com. June 13, 2004. Retrieved October 8, 2012.
- "Miami Accents: How 'Miamah' Turned Into A Different Sort Of Twang". WLRN (WLRN-TV & WLRN-FM). Retrieved September 1, 2013.
- Patience Haggin. "Miami Accents: Why Locals Embrace That Heavy "L" Or Not". Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- Gabriella Watts. "Miami Accents: How 'Miamah' Turned Into A Different Sort Of Twang". Retrieved August 10, 2015.
- Haggin, Patience (September 16, 2013). "English in the 305 has its own distinct Miami sound". Miami Herald. Archived from the original on December 3, 2013.
- "Miami parks". Miamigov.com. Archived from the original on August 20, 2008. Retrieved June 27, 2009.
- "ParkScore 2018: Ranking Analysis". parkscore.tpl.org. The Trust for Public Land. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
- "ParkScore Rankings 2017". parkscore.tpl.org. The Trust for Public Land. Retrieved November 8, 2018.
- "Jobs, education and Miami-Dades future". The Miami Herald. Archived from the original on September 8, 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2012.
- Olson, Elizabeth (November 10, 2010). "Helping Veterans Find Civilian Jobs". The New York Times.
- "Training Workers for Good Jobs" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 20, 2008.
- "Building a Career Path Where There Was Just a Dead End" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on July 20, 2008.
- "Miami-Dade County Public Schools" (PDF). The Broad Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on April 13, 2008. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Gold Medal Schools". US News and World Report. November 12, 2007. Retrieved April 18, 2008.
- "Local Television Market Universe Estimates" (PDF). nielsen.
- "It's Moving Day for Miami Herald Staff, Reporters". CBSMiami. May 16, 2013. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- "Univision Announces Launch of Univision Studios". Business Wire. December 7, 2009. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
- "Top 50 Radio Markets Ranked By Metro 12+ Population, Spring 2005". Northwestern University Media Management Center. Archived from the original on April 19, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- "Top 50 TV markets ranked by households". Northwestern University Media Management Center. Archived from the original on April 19, 2008. Retrieved April 20, 2008.
- "Means of Transportation to Work by Age". Census Reporter. Archived from the original on May 19, 2018.
- "Car Ownership in U.S. Cities Data and Map". Governing. Retrieved May 18, 2018.
- Reaney, Patricia (May 15, 2007). "Miami drivers named the rudest". Reuters. Retrieved September 2, 2007.
- "Dangerous Pedestrian Cities". CBS News. Associated Press. December 2, 2004. Retrieved September 2, 2007.
- "American Community Survey". Census.gov. Retrieved June 27, 2009.
- "Facts and usage statistics about public transit in Miami, US". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- "Projects: Miami Central Station". Miami Intermodal Center. Micdot.com. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
- "Miami airport transit hub on the way to bringing planes, trains, automobiles under one roof". Miami Herald. Retrieved August 28, 2014.
- Turnbell, Michael (October 15, 2014). "Tri-Rail station at Miami airport delayed until January". Sun Sentinel. Retrieved October 30, 2014.
- "Southwest Airlines Cities." Southwest Airlines. Retrieved October 30, 2008.
- "Cycling and walking". miamiherald.com. Miami Herald. Retrieved October 7, 2009.
- South Florida Business Journal (April 6, 2010). "Miami becoming more bike friendly | South Florida Business Journal". Southflorida.bizjournals.com. Retrieved October 30, 2010.
- "2011 City and Neighborhood Rankings". Walk Score. 2011. Retrieved August 28, 2011.
- "Public Transportation and Pedestrian Friendliness". Travel + Leisure. 2013. Archived from the original on June 28, 2013. Retrieved January 7, 2013.
- "Mayor's International Council Sister Cities Program". City of Miami. Archived from the original on May 26, 2007. Retrieved July 13, 2007.
- 姉妹・友好・兄弟都市 [Twin cities] (in Japanese). Kagoshima International Affairs Division. Archived from the original on June 2, 2013. Retrieved August 8, 2013.
- "Madrid and Miami sign up as twin towns". latino foxnews. June 23, 2014. Archived from the original on July 14, 2014. Retrieved July 13, 2014.
- "Sister Cities:Miami Florida, Palermo Italy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on April 2, 2015. Retrieved February 28, 2015.
- "Lisboa – Geminações de Cidades e Vilas" [Lisbon – Twinning of Cities and Towns] (in Portuguese). Associação Nacional de Municípios Portugueses [National Association of Portuguese Municipalities]. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- "Acordos de Geminação, de Cooperação e/ou Amizade da Cidade de Lisboa" [Lisbon – Twinning Agreements, Cooperation and Friendship] (in Portuguese). Camara Municipal de Lisboa. Archived from the original on October 31, 2013. Retrieved August 23, 2013.
- "Miami-Yerucham Partnership". Greater Miami Jewish Federation. Retrieved January 7, 2018.
- Elizabeth M. Aranda, Sallie Hughes, and Elena Sabogal, Making a Life in Multiethnic Miami: Immigration and the Rise of a Global City. Boulder, Colorado: Renner, 2014.