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Miami Gardens, Florida

Miami Gardens is a city located in north-central Miami-Dade County, Florida. Its boundaries stretch from I-95 and NE 2nd Avenue on the east, to NW 47th and NW 57th Avenues on the west, and from the Broward County line on the north, to 151st Street on the south.[5] The city name comes from one of the major roadways through the area, Miami Gardens Drive. According to the 2017 estimate from the US Census Bureau, the city had a population of 113,750, and it is the largest city in Florida that has a majority African American population.[6] It is a principal city of the Miami metropolitan area, which was home to an estimated 6,012,331 people at the 2015 census.

Miami Gardens, Florida
The Sunshine State Arch of Miami Gardens
The Sunshine State Arch of Miami Gardens
Official seal of Miami Gardens, Florida
Seal
Location in Miami-Dade and the state of Florida.
Location in Miami-Dade and the state of Florida.
Coordinates: 25°56′31.64″N 80°16′11.71″W / 25.9421222°N 80.2699194°W / 25.9421222; -80.2699194Coordinates: 25°56′31.64″N 80°16′11.71″W / 25.9421222°N 80.2699194°W / 25.9421222; -80.2699194
Country United States of America
State Florida
County Miami-Dade
IncorporatedMay 13, 2003
Government
 • TypeCouncil-Manager
 • MayorOliver G. Gilbert III
 • Vice MayorRodney Harris
 • CouncilmembersLisa C. Davis, Rodney Harris, Dr. Erhabor Ighodaro, Lillie Q. Odom, Felicia Robinson, and David Williams Jr.
 • City ManagerCameron Benson
 • City ClerkMario Bataille
Area
 • City19.02 sq mi (49.25 km2)
 • Land18.24 sq mi (47.24 km2)
 • Water0.78 sq mi (2.02 km2)
Elevation
7 ft (2 m)
Population
 • City107,167
 • Estimate 
(2017)[2]
113,750
 • Density6,199.03/sq mi (2,393.45/km2)
 • Metro
5,564,635
Time zoneUTC-5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC-4 (EDT)
Zip code(s)
33014, 33054, 33055, 33056, 33152, 33169
Area code(s)305, 786
FIPS code12-45050[3]
GNIS feature ID1989951[4]
Websitemiamigardens-fl.gov

Contents

HistoryEdit

In the wake of the construction of I-95 in the late 1960s, many middle- and upper-income African American and West Indian American families migrated from Miami neighborhoods like Liberty City to what became Miami Gardens (also called Carol City, Norland or Norwood) as race-based covenants were outlawed with the Fair Housing Act, and mostly lower income blacks moved into the Liberty City and Little Haiti neighborhoods surrounding Liberty Square and Edison Courts.

Miami Gardens was incorporated on May 13, 2003.[5] The city's neighborhoods of Andover, Bunche Park, Carol City, Lake Lucerne, Norland, Opa-locka North, and Scott Lake were previously unincorporated areas within Miami-Dade County.

In 2007, Mayor Shirley Gibson said that the city would no longer allow any low-income housing developments; many residents blamed the developments for spreading crime and recreational drugs throughout the city. Around that time, the city's tax revenues dropped to the third-lowest in Miami-Dade County.[7]

In 2012, Oliver Gilbert, only the second mayor the city has had, proposed forming a community redevelopment agency (CRA).[8] CRAs are formed to remove "slum and blight", to improve the physical environment of the city and to combat the social and economic problems typical of slum areas. CRAs are funded with property tax increases, which funds are used, in part, to stimulate private investment in the rehabilitation of the community.[8]

Police misconduct against Earl Sampson, who was repeatedly questioned, detained, jailed, and/or arrested for trespassing at his own workplace, against the wishes of his boss, occurred from 2008 until roughly 2013.[9]

DemographicsEdit

Census Pop.
2000124,656
2010107,167−14.0%
Est. 2017113,750[2]6.1%
U.S. Decennial Census[10]

The city was incorporated in 2003, but various parts of the city appear as census designated places in the 2000 census and previous censuses. They now make up the neighborhoods of Andover, Bunche Park, Carol City, Lake Lucerne, Norwood, Opa-locka North, and Scott Lake. The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of Miami Gardens was 112,514 on July 1, 2016, a 6.5% increase since the 2010 census.[11]

Miami Gardens Demographics
American Community Survey Miami Gardens Miami-Dade County Florida
Total population 112,514 2,664,418 19,934,451
Population density 6169/sq mi 1403/sq mi 371/sq mi
White or Caucasian (including White Hispanic) 23.1% 75.6% 75.9%
(Non-Hispanic White or Caucasian) 3.3% 14.5% 55.6%
Black or African-American 73.3% 18.4% 16.1%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race) 25.1% 66.4% 24.1%
Asian 0.7% 1.6% 2.6%
Native American or Native Alaskan 0.1% 0.1% 0.3%
Pacific Islander or Native Hawaiian 0.1% 0.0% 0.1%
Two or more races (Multiracial) 1.1% 1.5% 2.5%
Some other race 1.5% 2.8% 2.5%
# 2010-2014 Hispanic population of Miami Gardens[12] Percentage
1 Cuban 43.94%
2 Central American 17.78%
3 Puerto Rican 11.96%
4 South American 8.25%
5 Mexican 3.06%

In 2010, there were 34,284 housing units of which 6.0% are vacant.[10] As of 2016, the age distribution was 5.6% under the age of 5, 6.7% from 5 to 9, 6.5% from 10 to 14, 15.5% from 15 to 24, 14.6% from 25 to 34, 12.7% 35 to 44, 13.1% 45 to 54, 12.6% 55 to 64, and 12.7% who are 65 years of age or older. The population is 46.9% male and 53.1% female. Families made up 72% of households, while 28% were non-families. The average household size was 3.52 members, and the city covered 20 square miles (52 km2).[11]

As of 2000, the Bunche Park neighborhood of Miami Gardens had the ninth highest percentage of African-American and black residents in the US, with 96.5% of the populace.[13] It also was the most Bahamian place in the United States,[14] as well as having the highest percentage of British West Indians in the US, at 1.8% (which tied with Brentwood, Maryland.)[15] It was also home to the fifty-third highest percentage of Haitians in the US, at 2.8% of all residents (which also tied with Sunrise, Lake Alfred and Brentwood, New York.)[15]

As of 2000, the Carol City section of Miami Gardens had the twenty-seventh highest percentage of Cuban residents in the US, with 18.75% of the populace.[16] It had the nineteenth highest percentage of Jamaican residents in the US, at 5.80% (which tied with Lake Park, Florida,)[17] and the thirty-ninth highest percentage of Dominican residents in the US, at 3% of its population.[18] It also had the fifty-sixth most Haitians in the US, at 2.50% (tied with five other areas in the US, including Plantation and Taft, Florida)[19] while it had the twentieth highest percentage of Nicaraguans, at 2.20% of all residents.[20] The Carol City neighborhood of Miami Gardens is also home to the seventieth highest percentage of Colombian residents in the US, at 2.15% of the population.[21]

As of 2000, before being annexed to Miami Gardens, the Andover neighborhood had English as a first language accounted for 74.96% of all residents, while Spanish accounted for 17.91%, French Creole accounted for 4.61%, French made up 1.58%, West African Niger-Congo languages (Kru, Igbo and Yoruba) were at 0.52%, and Yiddish was the mother tongue for 0.39% of the population.[22]

As of 2000, before being annexed to Miami Gardens, the Bunche Park neighborhood had English as a first language accounted for 95.97% of all residents, while Spanish was at 3.07%, and French Creole as a mother tongue made up 0.94% of the population.[23]

As of 2000, before being annexed to Miami Gardens, the Carol City neighborhood had English as a first language accounted for 53.73% of all residents, while Spanish accounted for 43.16%, and French Creole as a mother tongue made up 2.15% of the population.[24]

As of 2000, before being annexed to Miami Gardens, the Lake Lucerne neighborhood had English as a first language accounted for 82.27% of all residents, while Spanish accounted for 14.16%, French Creole was at 2.55%, and French as a mother tongue made up 1.00% of the population.[25]

As of 2000, before being annexed to Miami Gardens, the Norland neighborhood had English as a first language accounted for 74.87% of all residents, while French Creole accounted for 12.92%, Spanish was at 10.19%, and French as a mother tongue made up 1.02% of the population.[26]

As of 2000, before being annexed to Miami Gardens, the Opa-Locka North neighborhood had English as a first language accounted for 75.24% of all residents, while Spanish was spoken by 21.04%, French Creole was at 3.27%, and Jamaican Creole as a mother tongue made up 0.44% of the population.[27]

As of 2000, before being annexed to Miami Gardens, the Scott Lake neighborhood had English as a first language accounted for 85.76% of all residents, while 6.81% spoke Spanish, French Creole accounted for 5.83%, French was at 0.93%, and Jamaican Creole as a mother tongue made up 0.64% of the population.[28]

Crime ratesEdit

According to City Rating, Miami Gardens crime statistics have decreased in the past 13 years. The crimes that have decreased the most are property crimes and violent crimes. The crime rate for Miami Gardens for 2018 is expected to be lower than in 2016. Miami Garden's 2016 violent crime rate was 63.64% higher than the national violent crime rate, and the property crime rate was 30.99% higher than the national property crime rate.[29]

In 2016, Miami Gardens' violent crime rate was higher than that in Florida by 50.99%, and the property crime rate was 19.49% higher.[29]

In 2016, there were 432 reported cases of aggravated assault, 22 reported cases of arson, 509 reported cases of burglary, 24 cases of forcible rape, 2,743 cases of larceny and theft, 419 reported cases of motor vehicle theft, 22 reported cases of murder and manslaughter, and 265 cases of robbery.[29]

The projected 2018 crime data is as follows: 286 reported cases of aggravated assault, 26 reported cases of arson, 435 reported cases of burglary, 7 cases reported of forcible rape, 2,139 cases reported of larceny and theft, 205 cases reported of motor vehicle theft, 18 reported cases of murder and manslaughter, and 102 reported cases of robbery.[30]

Community centersEdit

The Calder Race Course opened in 1971.

Miami Gardens is home to the Miami Dolphins, who play in Hard Rock Stadium on land that was part of the Lake Lucerne CDP. This stadium also hosts the annual Orange Bowl college football game, and is the home field for the University of Miami Hurricanes football team. The Florida Marlins Major League Baseball team shared Hard Rock Stadium with the Dolphins for almost two decades until, in 2012, they relocated to Miami and changed their names to the Miami Marlins.

HealthEdit

MedicalEdit

The city of Miami Gardens has several health care clinics and facilities that offer medical care and support to its residents. Although the city has no hospital directly within its limits, Jackson North Medical Center, Concentra Urgent Care, and, Chen Medical Center provide medical services to the residents of Miami Gardens. Supplementing this, several health care clinics and facilities provide medical services that include general medicine, walk-in/urgent care, dental services, gynecology, physical therapy, chiropractor services, laboratory tests, x-rays, sonograms, osteoporosis screening, vaccinations, and health and exercise programs.[31]

GovernmentEdit

Miami Gardens is governed by a seven-member city council. Members include Mayor Oliver Gilbert (since 2012), and six council members, four elected from districts and two elected citywide. The mayor recommends – and the city council hires – the City Manager, City Attorney, and City Clerk.

These are 17 of the many departments for which the City Manager of Miami Gardens creates a budget.

# Department City Manager's Budget 2017–2018[32]
1 Legislative Department $969,411
2 Office of City Manager $1,434,310
3 Office of City Manager Public Affairs Office $3,922,843
4 Office of City Clerk $450,730
5 Finance Department $1,109,545
6 Human Resources Department $1,076,395
7 Office of the City Attorney $589,165
8 Planning and Zoning Office $782,854
9 Public Safety Department Police Administration Division $30,891,829
10 Public Safety Police School Crossing Guard Program Division $483,407
11 Public Safety Department Police Investigations Division $67,000
12 Public Safety Police Operations Division $43,800
13 Public Safety Police Support Services Division $265,003
14 Public Safety Cops Grant $1,146,231
15 Public Safety Cops III $1,190,853
15 Public Safety Cops IV $1,050,309
16 Code Compiance Division $1,441,100
17 Parks & Recreation Department Recreation Division $2,268,224

MayorsEdit

  • Shirley Gibson, 2003–2012
  • Oliver G. Gilbert III, 2012–present

PoliceEdit

The Miami Gardens Police Department is the lead law enforcement agency for the 110,000 residents living within the city's 20 square miles (52 km2). The department operates under a unified command structure with its headquarters located at 1020 NW 163 Drive, Miami Gardens, Florida 33169. The department became operational on Sunday, December 16, 2007 with 159 sworn officers. Since then, the department has grown to 259 members consisting of 201 sworn positions with 58 non-sworn support positions.[33]

Police controversyEdit

In 2013, law enforcement abuses were alleged regarding the Miami Gardens Police Department by several news outlets.[34][35][36] The abuses were first uncovered when it became public that a convenience store employee, Earl Sampson was arrested 27 times for trespassing, while working at and around the store at which he was employed. Video evidence was gathered by the owner of the store, Ali Saleh, showing Miami Garden police involved in clear and repeated misconduct involving his employee, and customers. According to the Miami Herald's Julie K. Brown: "The videos show, among other things, cops stopping citizens, questioning them, aggressively searching them and arresting them for trespassing when they have permission to be on the premises". It appeared Sampson had been arrested in this way due to police quotas, a department culture, and that Sampson was easy to arrest. Sampson always pleaded guilty so they would let him out almost immediately, with one exception where he pleaded not guilty, and he was jailed for 20 days. The guilty plea would validate the officers improper arrest and increment their quota, so he became a continuous target.

Volume of stopsEdit

It was reported that, between 2008 and 2013, 99,980 stops occurred in Miami Gardens, involving 56,922 people, over half of the city's population. In the City of Miami, 3,753 stops occurred during the same period, with four times the population. Some stops involved children aged 5 to 7, totaling more than 1,000 children. These numbers were compiled after news regarding Earl Sampson.[37]

Resignation and lawsuitsEdit

Following these reports, the Police Chief resigned.[38] Civil rights lawsuits have been filed against the Miami Gardens Police Department by the store owner and others who were illegally detained and/or arrested.[39][40] A police officer filed a lawsuit claiming that he had been fired for reporting abuses.[41]

EducationEdit

Private schoolsEdit

Public schoolsEdit

# Miami Garden's elementary schools 2012 school grade[42]
1 Brentwood Elementary School C
2 Bunche Park Elementary School A
3 Norwood Elementary School B
4 North County Elementary School C
5 Skyway Elementary School C
# Miami Garden's middle schools 2012 school grade[42]
1 North Dade Middle School A
2 Lake Stevens Middle School C
3 Parkway Middle School D
4 Carol City Middle School D

Norland Middle School, in the Miami Gardens area, has a magnet program in dance, music, theatre and art, which began in 1985. The young actors Alex R. Hibbert and Jaden Piner, who starred in the Oscar-winning film Moonlight, were trained at this school[43]

# Miami Garden's high schools 2012 school grade and graduation rates[42]
1 Miami Carol City Senior High School F, with a 62% graduation rate
2 Miami Norland Senior High School B, with 89% graduation rate

Colleges and universitiesEdit

Public librariesEdit

Miami-Dade Public Library System operates the North Dade Regional Library, which opened in September 1979.[44]

Notable residentsEdit

Surrounding areasEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "2016 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 7, 2017.
  2. ^ a b "American FactFinder". Retrieved June 17, 2018.
  3. ^ "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  4. ^ "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. August 5, 2003. Retrieved 2018-10-22.
  5. ^ a b "Miami Gardens: Demographics".
  6. ^ "American FactFinder - Community Facts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved October 22, 2018.
  7. ^ Garcia-Roberts, Gus. "The Curse." Miami New Times. February 10, 2009. [1]. Retrieved on October 22nd, 2018.
  8. ^ a b "Oliver Gilbert's Issues." Retrieved on October 22, 2018.
  9. ^ Friedersdorf, Conor. "Asking America's Police Officers to Explain Abusive Cops." The Atlantic. February 2, 2015. Retrieved on October 22, 2018.
  10. ^ a b "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  11. ^ a b "2012-2016 American Community Survey 5-Year Estimates." Retrieved on October 22, 2018.}}
  12. ^ "Miami Gardens, FL Population and Races - USA.com™". www.usa.com.
  13. ^ "Ancestry Map of African-American Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  14. ^ "Ancestry Map of Bahamian Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  15. ^ a b "Ancestry Map of British West Indian Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  16. ^ "Ancestry Map of Cuban Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  17. ^ "Ancestry Map of Jamaican Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  18. ^ "Ancestry Map of Dominican Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  19. ^ "Ancestry Map of Haitian Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  20. ^ "Ancestry Map of Nicaraguan Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  21. ^ "Ancestry Map of Colombian Communities". Epodunk.com. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  22. ^ "MLA Data Center Results for Andover, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  23. ^ "MLA Data Center Results of Bunche Park, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  24. ^ "MLA Data Center Results of Carol City, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  25. ^ "MLA Data Center Results for Lake Lucerne, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  26. ^ "MLA Data Center Results for Norland, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  27. ^ "MLA Data Center Results for Opa-locka North, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  28. ^ "MLA Data Center Results for Scott Lake, Florida". Modern Language Association. Retrieved 2015-01-03.
  29. ^ a b c "Miami gardens Crime Statistics." Retrieved on October 22, 2018
  30. ^ "Miami gardens Crime Statistics." Retrieved on November 18, 2012
  31. ^ "Miami Garden's Health System." Retrieved on November 15, 2012.
  32. ^ "Miami Gardens' Budget." Retrieved on October 22nd, 2018.
  33. ^ "Miami Gardens Police." Retrieved on November 18, 2012
  34. ^ Julie K. Brown (November 22, 2013). "In Miami Gardens, store video catches cops in the act". The Miami Herald.
  35. ^ "Black man arrested 62 times for 'trespassing' at his workplace". MSNBC. November 22, 2013.
  36. ^ Eyder Peralta (November 23, 2013). "Miami-Area Police Force Accused Of Rampant Racial Profiling". NPR.
  37. ^ Alice Brennan and Dan Lieberman (May 9, 2014). "Florida city's 'stop and frisk' nabs thousands of kids, finds 5-year-olds 'suspicious'". Fusion.
  38. ^ Brown, Tom. "Florida police chief steps down after civil rights lawsuit".
  39. ^ "False arrest was followed by excessive force, plaintiff asserted - VerdictSearch".
  40. ^ Judge, PATRICIA A. SEITZ, District. "MASON v. CITY OF MIAMI GA - Case No. 14-23908... - 20160602c14- Leagle.com".
  41. ^ "Florida Police Officer Says He Was Fired for Whistleblowing". November 30, 2016.
  42. ^ a b c "Florida's public Schools Grading Archived August 15, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.." Retrieved on November 15, 2012.
  43. ^ Dixon, Lance. "Norland Middle will celebrate magnet program's 30th anniversary " (Archive). Miami Herald. December 15, 2013. Retrieved on January 11, 2016.
  44. ^ "North Dade Regional." Miami-Dade Public Library System. Retrieved on September 28, 2009.

External linksEdit