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Jamaicans are the citizens of Jamaica and their descendants in the Jamaican diaspora. Most Jamaicans are of African descent, with minorities of Europeans, East Indians, Chinese, Middle Eastern and others or mixed ancestry. The bulk of the Jamaican diaspora resides in other Anglophone countries, namely Australia, Canada, United States and the United Kingdom and, to a lesser extent, other Caribbean countries and Commonwealth realms. Outside of Anglophone countries, the largest Jamaican diaspora community lives in Costa Rica, where Jamaicans make up a significant percentage of the population.

Flag of Jamaica.svg
Total population
c. 4.4 million
2,683,707 (2011 census)[1]
Regions with significant populations
Jamaica   2,881,355[2]
United States800,000+[3]
United Kingdom400,000+[8]
The Bahamas5,572[9]
Trinidad and Tobago15,000[8]

According to the official Jamaica Population Census of 1970, ethnic origins categories in Jamaica include: Black; Chinese; Mixed; East Indian; White; and 'Other' (e.g.: Syrian or Lebanese).[10]

Jamaicans of African or partial African descent made up 89.4% of the working population. Those of non-African mixed race were the second-most prominent labour group, making up 6% of the population.[11][citation needed]

Self-identified ethnic originEdit

Responses of the 2011 census.[12]

Ethnic origin Population Males Females Percentage
Black 2,471,946 1,226,026 1,245,920 92.1%
Chinese 5,228 2,880 2,348
Mixed 162,718 73,293 89,425
East Indian 20,066 10,491 9,575
White 4,365 2,192 2,173 0.16%
Other 1,898 970 928
Not Reported 17,486 8,638 8,848
Total 2,683,707 1,324,490 1,359,217 100.0%
Source: 2011 Jamaica census[13]


Many Jamaicans now live overseas and outside Jamaica, while many have migrated to Anglophone countries, including over 400,000 Jamaicans in the United Kingdom, over 300,000 Canada, 800,000 in the United States.

There are about 30,000 Jamaicans residing in other CARICOM member including the Bahamas (5,600),[citation needed] Cuba (5,000),[citation needed] Antigua & Barbuda, Barbados and Trinidad & Tobago.[14] There are also communities of Jamaican descendants in Central America, particularly Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama. Most of Costa Rica's Afro-Costa Rican and Mulatto population, which combined represents about 7% of the total population, is of Jamaican descent.[15][16]

Notable JamaicansEdit

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ 2011 Census of Population & Housing, Population by sex and Ethnic Origin by Parish (Page: 72) - Jamaica
  2. ^ "World Population Prospects: The 2017 Revision". (custom data acquired via website). United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. Retrieved 10 September 2017.
  3. ^ Results   American Fact Finder (US Census Bureau)
  4. ^ NHS Profile, Canada, 2011, Statistics Canada. Retrieved December 2nd, 2013
  5. ^ Ethnic origins, 2006 counts, for Canada, provinces and territories - 20% sample data, Statistics Canada (2006). Retrieved on August 11, 2008.
  6. ^ Ethnic Origins for Canada - 2001 Census. Retrieved December 6th, 2013
  7. ^ Top 25 Ethnic Origins for Canada - 1996 Census. Retrieved December 6th, 2013
  8. ^ a b c d e "World Migration". 15 January 2015.
  9. ^ "The Nassau Guardian Home - The Nassau Guardian". The Nassau Guardian.
  10. ^ 2011 Census of Population & Housing, Population by sex and Ethnic Origin by Parish (Page: 72) - Jamaica
  11. ^ Jamaica Population Census 1970.
  12. ^ 2011 Census of Population & Housing, Population by sex and Ethnic Origin by Parish (Page: 72) - Jamaica
  13. ^ 2011 Census of Population & Housing, Population by sex and Ethnic Origin by Parish (Page: 72) - Jamaica
  14. ^ "30,000 Jamaicans residing in other CARICOM member states".
  15. ^ Schulman, Bob. "'Little Jamaica' Rocks on the Caribbean Coast of Costa Rica". Huffington Post. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
  16. ^ Koch, Charles W. (1977). "JAMAICAN BLACKS AND THEIR DESCENDANTS IN COSTA RICA". Social and Economic Studies. Jamaica: Sir Arthur Lewis Institute of Social and Economic Studies, University of the West Indies. 26 (3): 339–361. JSTOR 27861669.