Florida Atlantic University
Florida Atlantic University (FAU or Florida Atlantic) is a public university in Boca Raton, Florida, with five satellite campuses in the Florida cities of Dania Beach, Davie, Fort Lauderdale, Jupiter, and in Fort Pierce at the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution. FAU belongs to the 12-campus State University System of Florida and serves South Florida, which has more than five million people and spans more than 100 miles (160 km) of coastline. Florida Atlantic University is classified by the Carnegie Foundation as a research university with high research activity. The university offers more than 170 undergraduate and graduate degree programs within its 10 colleges. Programs of study cover arts and humanities, the sciences, medicine, nursing, accounting, business, education, public administration, social work, architecture, engineering, and computer science.
|Motto||"Where Tomorrow Begins"|
|President||John W. Kelly|
777 Glades Road, 33431,
850 acres (3.5 km²)
6 other satellite campuses
|Colors||FAU Blue & FAU Red|
|Athletics||NCAA Division I – C-USA|
19 varsity teams
NSGCFP, SACS, SUSF
|Mascot||Owlsley the Owl|
Florida Atlantic opened in 1964 as the first public university in southeast Florida, offering only upper-division and graduate level courses. Initial enrollment was only 867 students, increasing in 1984 when the university admitted its first lower-division undergraduate students. As of 2018[update], enrollment has grown to over 30,000 students representing 140 countries, 50 states, and the District of Columbia. Since its inception, Florida Atlantic has awarded more than 110,000 degrees to nearly 153,160 alumni.
In recent years, FAU has undertaken an effort to increase its academic and research standings while also evolving into a more traditional university. The university has raised admissions standards, increased research funding, built new facilities, and established notable partnerships with major research institutions. Changes include an on-campus stadium, additional on-campus housing, and the establishment of a College of Medicine in 2010.
- 1 History
- 2 Academics
- 3 Campus
- 3.1 Palm Beach County campuses
- 3.2 Broward County campuses
- 3.3 St. Lucie County campuses
- 3.4 Former Campuses
- 4 Athletics
- 5 Student life
- 6 Alumni
- 7 References
- 8 External links
On July 15, 1961, to meet the burgeoning educational demands of South Florida, the state legislature passed an act authorizing the establishment of a new university in the City of Boca Raton. Florida Atlantic University was built on Boca Raton Army Airfield, a 1940s-era army airbase. During World War II, the airfield served as the Army Air Corps' sole radar training facility. The base was built on the existing Boca Raton Airport and on 5,860 acres (23.7 km²) of adjacent land. A majority of the land was acquired from Japanese-American farmers from the failing Yamato Colony. The land was seized through eminent domain, leaving many Japanese-Americans little recourse in the early days of World War II.
The airbase was used for radar training, anti-submarine patrols along the coast, and as a stop-over point for planes being ferried to Africa and Europe via South America. The airfield was composed of four runways, still visible on the Boca Campus today and mainly used for parking.
By early 1947, the military decided to transfer future radar training operations to Keesler Air Force Base in Mississippi. The departure of the air force in 1947 would leave Boca Raton Army Airfield essentially abandoned.
Expansion and growthEdit
Florida Atlantic University opened on September 14, 1964, with an initial student body of 867 students in five colleges. The first degree awarded was an honorary doctorate given to President Lyndon B. Johnson on October 25, 1964, at the dedication and opening of the university. At the time of its opening, there were 350 employees, of which 120 were faculty . On-campus housing for students was first added in September 1965, when Algonquin Hall opened.
Florida Atlantic's history is one of continuing expansion as the university's service population has grown. The university originally served only upper-division and graduate level students, because Florida intended the institution "to complement the state's community college system, accepting students who had earned their associate degrees from those institutions."
Florida Atlantic began its expansion beyond a one-campus university in 1971, when it opened its Commercial Boulevard campus in Fort Lauderdale. Due to a rapidly expanding population in South Florida, in 1984 Florida Atlantic opened its doors to lower-division undergraduate students. The following year, the university added its third campus, in downtown Fort Lauderdale on Las Olas Boulevard.
In 1989, the Florida Legislature recognized demands for higher education in South Florida by designating Florida Atlantic as the lead state university serving Broward County. To fill this role, the university would establish a campus in Dania Beach in 1997 and another campus in the City of Davie in western Broward County in 1990. Florida Atlantic later purchased 50 acres (20 ha) of land in Port St. Lucie in 1994 to establish a campus on the Treasure Coast. This would be the institution's fifth campus. The university continued its expansion in 1999 when it opened its Jupiter Campus, named for the late John D. MacArthur. This campus houses the university's honors college.
Florida Atlantic University and the University of Miami's Miller School of Medicine established a medical training program within the Charles E. Schmidt College of Biomedical Science in 2004. Plans originally called for the construction of a new teaching hospital in coordination with Boca Raton Community Hospital on the main campus. Following successive budgets deficits in 2007, the hospital delayed its participation indefinitely. However, Florida Atlantic later established its own College of Medicine in 2010. The Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution (HBOI) also joined the university in 2007, creating Florida Atlantic's seventh campus. To bring HBOI into the university family the Florida Legislature allocated $44 million to Florida Atlantic to acquire the institution.
Florida Atlantic has changed dramatically since its opening in 1964. As of 2013[update], there were more than 30,000 students attending classes on seven campuses spread across 120 miles (193 km). The university consists of ten colleges and employs more than 3,200 faculty and staff. The university's endowment decreased from $182 million in June 2008 to $142 million in January 2009 due to a worsening economy. However, with the national economic recovery the endowment has increased to $179 million by the end of 2012.
Since its founding, the university has been led by seven presidents. The university's immediate past president is Mary Jane Saunders. She was named president on March 3, 2010, then resigned on May 15, 2013. Her appointment followed the resignation of Frank Brogan. Brogan, a former Lieutenant Governor of Florida, left the university in late 2009 to become Chancellor of the State University System of Florida. Past university presidents also included Anthony J. Catanese, Helen Popovich, Glenwood Creech, and Kenneth Rast Williams. On January 17, 2014, the Board of Trustees announced the selection of John W. Kelly, formerly a vice president of Clemson University, to be the seventh president of the university with a starting date of March 1, 2014.
As of fall 2013, the university's student body consists of 24,686 undergraduates, 4,666 graduate and professional students, 256 medical students, and 1,451 unclassified students. As of 2013[update], the undergraduate student body contains 47% ethnic minorities and includes students from more than 180 countries, 49 states, and the District of Columbia. For the undergraduate class of 2012, the acceptance rate was 35% for first-time-in-college students. In 2016 advance registration begins.
The university has ten colleges which altogether offer over 180 different bachelor's, master's and doctoral degree programs: the Charles E. Schmidt College of Science, Charles E. Schmidt College of Medicine, Christine E. Lynn College of Nursing, College for Design and Social Inquiry, College of Business, College of Education, College of Engineering and Computer Science, Dorothy F. Schmidt College of Arts and Letters, Harriet L. Wilkes Honors College, and the Graduate College.
The university offers two honors options: the Harriet L. Wilkes Honors College and a University Scholars Program. The Wilkes Honors College is located on the John D. MacArthur campus in Jupiter, Florida. It offers a liberal arts education in the platform of a public university, yet is comparable to a private liberal arts college. The Boca Raton campus houses the University Scholars Program, which offers special honors seminars, forums, courses, and advanced course substitution for freshmen.
In recent years, FAU has increased its admission requirements for prospective freshmen. The fall 2013 freshmen profile for the mid-50% includes 3.38–3.98 high school GPA, a 22–26 ACT composite score, and a 1520–1740 SAT total score. Following a surge in the university's popularity, in early 2009, the university created its first wait-list for undergraduate enrollment. After February 15, 2009, applicants for admission in the 2009–2010 academic year were required to have a 3.5 GPA or an SAT score of 1600 to be considered for admission.
The average class size at FAU for undergraduates is 33 students, and for graduate classes, 12 students. The student-to-faculty ratio is 20:1. The top three undergraduate majors by enrollment are elementary education, accounting, and management, respectively. The top three graduate majors by enrollment are business administration, educational leadership, and accounting, respectively. The average age for first-year students is 18; however, the average age for all undergraduates is 24 and the average age for graduate students is 33. The average 4-year graduation rate for first-time, non-transfer students is 14% while the 6-year graduation rate is 39%.
Florida Atlantic University has long ranked as the most racially, ethnically and culturally diverse institution in Florida's State University System. U.S. News & World Report has ranked FAU the 27th most diverse university in the nation. Florida Atlantic University students come from all 50 states, every county in Florida, and more than 180 countries. Enrichment opportunities include internships, hands-on research, study abroad experiences, and 310 clubs and campus organizations.
The Lifelong Learning Society operates programs that serve the educational interests of more than 19,000 senior citizens by providing classes focusing on subjects of specific interest, and audit options for regular university classes. Under the university's Commercial Music Program, Hoot/Wisdom Recordings was created in 2002, enabling students to work in all creative and business aspects of the music industry. This program generated music that landed a Top 10 spot on the Billboard's Hot R&B/Hip-Hop Singles Sales Chart during its first week of release. The university's two-story trading room simulator, located in the College of Business, provides hands-on financial education using 25 dual-monitor computers and can accommodate 50 people at one time. A second lab provides full audio/visual connectivity and 25 additional workstations. Florida Atlantic allows local financial businesses to use the Trading Room for training.
|U.S. News & World Report||281|
|U.S. News & World Report||924|
USNWR graduate school rankings
USNWR departmental rankings
For 2019, Florida Atlantic University was classified as a second-tier university by the U.S. News & World Report's rankings of "Best Colleges." U.S. News ranks universities into one of two tiers, with one being the highest, based on how they compare with other colleges in a peer assessment, retention rates, student selectivity, faculty resources, financial resources, graduation rates, and the amount of alumni giving. The university was named one of the 146 "Best Southeastern Colleges" in the United States by the Princeton Review. Princeton Review also recognized FAU's business program by naming the College of Business to their list of "Best 296 Business Schools" for 2009. For 2011, Florida Atlantic was ranked 249th in the nation by Washington Monthly. The magazine based its rankings on the following three criteria: "how well a university performs as an engine of social mobility (ideally helping the poor to get rich rather than the very rich to get very, very rich), how well a university does in fostering scientific and humanistic research, and how well a university promotes an ethic of service to country." The university was also ranked 28th in the United States and fourth in Florida by The Hispanic Outlook in Higher Education magazine for awarding 738 bachelor's degrees to Hispanic students during the 2006–2007 academic year.
Florida Atlantic is classified by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching as a research university with high research activity. The university has established notable partnerships with major research institutions such as the Scripps Research Institute, the Torrey Pines Institute for Molecular Studies, and the Max Planck Society.
The university is the home of two centers of excellence: the Center of Excellence in Biomedical and Marine Biotechnology and the Center for Ocean Energy Technology. These centers have been selected by Florida's Emerging Technology Commission to receive grants to continue and increase their operations. Florida Atlantic beat out some of Florida's top research universities, including the University of Florida and Florida State University, for the initial money from the state.
Since receiving its startup funding, Florida Atlantic has secured additional funds from other sources, including federal and private research grants. As a result, both centers have engaged in academic and industry partnerships, combining expertise in ocean engineering, marine biotechnology, functional genomics, proteomics, and bioinformatics. Researchers, scientists, and students at the centers are designing technologies to explore the sea, harvest renewable energy, discover new medicines, and develop new therapeutics to combat agents of bioterrorism. As a result of this research, in 2007 the university and Lockheed Martin announced an exclusive licensing agreement to develop and produce a rapidly deployable and autonomous mooring buoy system for military and scientific uses.
In 2010, the United States Department of Energy designated FAU as one of three national centers for ocean energy research and development. The Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center joins centers in the Pacific Northwest (University of Washington and Oregon State University) and in Hawaii (University of Hawaii). The Southeast National Marine Renewable Energy Center is undertaking research and development of technologies capable of generating renewable power from ocean currents and ocean thermal energy.
The university houses both an Imaging Technology Center and a NASA Imaging Technology Space Center. Located in the College of Engineering and Computer Science, the centers specialize in digital imaging research and development for use in both government and commercial applications in the areas of medical technology, surveillance, communications, education, inspection, scientific observation, manufacturing, visual recognition and identification, and motion picture and digital video. The Florida Atlantic Imaging Technology Center is developing a curriculum for digital imaging and processing, thereby establishing Florida Atlantic as the only university in the nation to offer this technical concentration. The NASA Imaging Technology Center is one of 12 NASA Research Partnership Centers throughout the nation which develop dual-use research and development with the participation of NASA and other related industries in the US. The center occupies two sets of laboratories and administrative offices, one on Florida Atlantic's main campus in Boca Raton, the other at the Fort Lauderdale campus.
Florida Atlantic is affiliated to the Research Park at Florida Atlantic University, with properties in Deerfield Beach and Boca Raton. The Research Park provides outside research facilities for companies which enable them to interact with the university community and its facilities, resources, and expertise. The Research Park operates the Technology Business Incubator; The incubator works to foster the start-up and growth of technology-based businesses, seeking to scale them and build relationships for them with the university. The Boca Raton campus is also home to the Center for Complex Systems and Brain Sciences, which includes the Machine Perception and Cognitive Robotics Laboratory
Florida Atlantic University is a distributed university located on seven campuses spread across Palm Beach, Broward, and St. Lucie counties. The region is home to more than three million people. The university's main campus is located in the City of Boca Raton in Palm Beach County. The county is also home to the John D. MacArthur Campus located in the City of Jupiter. In addition to its campuses in Palm Beach County, the university operates three campuses in the Broward County cities of Dania Beach, Davie, and Fort Lauderdale. Florida Atlantic University also operates two campuses in the St. Lucie County cities of Port St. Lucie and Fort Pierce. In addition to students who attend classes on the universities campuses, there are 1,612 distance learning students who conduct their studies over the internet or through other means. These students account for 6% of the university's student body.
Florida Atlantic is a signatory of the American College & University presidents Climate Commitment Association for the Advancement of Sustainability in Higher Education. This commits the institution to ensuring all new construction projects meet the U.S. Green Building Council's Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver standards. In 2011, the College of Engineering and Computer Science Building was LEED Platinum certified.
Palm Beach County campusesEdit
Florida Atlantic University's main campus in Boca Raton was established on the remnants of a World War II American Army airbase in 1964. Spanning 850 acres (3.5 km²), the site is located between the cities of Palm Beach and Fort Lauderdale. The campus was designated a burrowing owl sanctuary in 1971 by the Audubon Society. The owls find the campus appealing because there are few predators, due to the university's proximity to the Boca Raton Airport, and because the campus was originally cleared of vegetation when operating as an airbase during World War II. "The feisty bird, traditionally associated with wisdom and determination, serves as the university's mascot."
The Boca Raton campus is home to a wide variety of university programs and facilities. These facilities are labs and classrooms, housing for students, a 6,000-gallon shark tank for aquatic research, a movie theater, athletic and recreational facilities, and the student-run record label Hoot/Wisdom Recordings. In addition to academic and cultural programs, the campus also houses Florida Atlantic's Division I athletics program. The main campus serves approximately 19,077 students, or 70% of the university's student body, offering a number of academic programs, activities, and services.
The Boca Raton campus also houses a number of other institutions, including the A. D. Henderson University School, FAU High School, one of two Florida Atlantic University Research Parks, and the Lifelong Learning Society.
Jupiter–John D. MacArthur CampusEdit
In addition to the Boca Raton campus in southern Palm Beach County, Florida Atlantic University operates a campus in northern Palm Beach County, in Jupiter. The John D. MacArthur Campus, named after businessman and philanthropist John D. MacArthur, was established in 1999 to serve residents of central and northern Palm Beach and southern Martin counties. The MacArthur Campus occupies 45 acres (0.18 km²), upon which are eight classroom and office buildings, a library, a 500-seat auditorium, two residence halls, a dining hall, museum building, and utility plant. The MacArthur Campus also houses the Harriet L. Wilkes Honors College, Scripps Florida, FAU Brain Institute, and the Max Planck Florida Institute for Neuroscience. The campus serves approximately 1,262 students, or 4% of the university's student body.
Broward County campusesEdit
The Dania Beach Campus, also known as SeaTech, was founded in 1997 as a state-funded Type II research center. The institute is part of Florida Atlantic's Department of Ocean Engineering which was founded in 1965 as the first ocean engineering undergraduate program in the nation. The campus is located on 8 acres (0.03 km²) of land between the Atlantic Ocean and the Intracoastal Waterway. SeaTech is home to university faculty and students engaged in sponsored ocean engineering research and development in the areas of acoustics, marine vehicles, hydrodynamics and physical oceanography, marine materials and nanocomposites. The Dania Beach Campus serves approximately 70 students, roughly 1% of the university's total student body.
The Davie Campus of Florida Atlantic University was established in 1990 on 38 acres (0.15 km²) of land in western Broward County. The campus serves approximately 3,488 students, or 13% of the Florida Atlantic student body, making it the university's second largest campus by enrollment. The campus features a multi-story student union with offices for student government and student organizations, a multipurpose area and student lounge, a bookstore, and cafeteria. The union also contains a student health center that provides medical services and health counseling. Davie is also the home of "environmental research initiatives focused on Everglades restoration." FAU colleges offering courses at the FAU Davie campus include Design and Social Inquiry; Arts and Letters; Business; Education; Nursing; and Science. The campus is located on Broward College's Central Campus. Students may enter BC as freshmen and graduate from FAU with undergraduate degrees in over 14 disciplines. More than 315,000 square feet of carefully designed classrooms, laboratories and faculty, staff and student offices are located on this campus along with a shared-use, 112,000 square-foot FAU/BC library designed for the 21st century.
Other support facilities include a shared Childcare Center, a student Wellness Center and a multi-service Student Union. The campus also offers a rich and varied program of student activities provided by the Division of Student Affairs. Students have all of the services they require for career counseling, wellness, testing and evaluation, tutoring, health services, student government and financial aid, among others. Like a small college within a large university, the Davie Campus is seen as a "model" branch campus for the state of Florida and the nation.
The university has two buildings in downtown Fort Lauderdale, both of which are considered part of one Fort Lauderdale campus. The Askew Tower (AT) and the Higher Education Complex (HEC) on Las Olas Boulevard. The campus offers courses in communication, graphic design, architecture, and urban and regional planning. The campus is home to approximately 900 students or 3.2% of the university's student body.
St. Lucie County campusesEdit
Fort Pierce–Harbor Branch Oceanographic InstitutionEdit
In addition to the Treasure Coast Campus, Florida Atlantic University operates a campus in Fort Pierce at the Harbor Branch Oceanographic Institution. Harbor Branch merged with the university in 2007 to become the HBOI at FAU. The Florida Legislature allocated $44 million for the university to acquire the institution and its 600-acre (2.4 km²) campus.
Port St. Lucie–Treasure Coast CampusEdit
Treasure Coast Campus of Florida Atlantic University operated through a partnership with Indian River State College (IRSC). Florida Atlantic purchased 50 acres (0.2 km²) of land in Port St. Lucie in 1994. At the end of Spring 2012 class term, Florida Atlantic University ended offering classes at the Port St. Lucie campus.
Florida Atlantic's 18 varsity sports teams, the Owls, compete in NCAA's Division I. The Owls recently joined Conference USA for the 2013–14 season. The university's athletics program began in 1979, when Florida Atlantic first started sponsoring intercollegiate teams. Since then, the university has worked to expand the quality of its intercollegiate program by attracting coaches such as Howard Schnellenberger, Matt Doherty, Rex Walters, Lane Kiffin, and Mike Jarvis. In 2006, the athletic department was ranked 79th in the nation by the National Association of Collegiate Directors of Athletics (NACDA). Along with USA Today and the United States Sports Academy, NACDA recognized the university for its Division I athletic programs and accomplishments." This ranking placed Florida Atlantic in the top 24% of 326 NCAA Division I universities. The university's colors are FAU Blue, FAU Red, and FAU Silver.
In 2008, the Florida Atlantic football team finished six wins and six losses in regular season play and was invited to the Motor City Bowl. The Owls defeated Central Michigan University 24–21, increasing their bowl record to two wins and zero losses. During the previous season, the football team beat Troy University in the final game of regular season play to become Sun Belt Co-Champions and receive an invitation to the New Orleans Bowl. In just the seventh year of the football program's history, and the third year playing in Division I, Florida Atlantic set NCAA records by both becoming the youngest program ever to receive an invitation to, and win, a bowl game. As a result of the New Orleans Bowl the university has seen a surge in school spirit.
In past seasons the Owls have garnered a number of accolades for their accomplishments. During the 2006–2007 season, the men's basketball team was noted as "one of the Sun Belt Conference's top offensive teams," with a "scary offense" that earned it the reputation of the "best shooting team in the conference". In 2010, the men's basketball team defeated its first-ever Southeastern Conference opponent Mississippi State University 61–59 as well as Big East opponent the University of South Florida 50–42 en route to a 21–9 overall record and claimed the Sun Belt Conference title.
The baseball team was also recognized by the NCAA as ranking in the Top 10 in five team categories. The team was also ranked third in the nation in home runs per game (1.66) and in slugging percentage (.563). In 2010, the Owls baseball team was 37–24 (21–9) and claimed their first Sun Belt Conference regular-season title.
Florida Atlantic University is home to a number of sports-related traditions and school spirit organizations.
Every fall before the first football game of the season, FAU's Student Government Association sponsors the "Annual Football Kick-Off Bonfire" wherein the opposing team's mascot is burned in effigy. Also in football, Florida Atlantic challenges its rival Florida International (FIU) is the annual Shula Bowl. This intercollegiate football game is named after legendary coach Don Shula; so named because at the time of its inception, both head coaches, Florida Atlantic's Howard Schnellenberger and Florida International coach Don Strock, had worked under Shula at some point during their careers. Even though both universities have since moved on to new head coaches, the Shula Bowl is still played. As a home game, the competition takes place at university's own stadium; as an away game, the bowl is played at FIU Stadium in Miami.
For basketball, Florida Atlantic celebrates a "Midnight Madness" pep rally that introduces fans to the team and coaches as well as inspires a number of basketball-related contests such as 3-point shoot-outs and slam dunk competitions. During the regular season, the "Bury the Burrow in Red" event calls for Florida Atlantic students to wear as much red as possible and fill the Burrow, the university's multi-purpose arena, during the annual basketball rivalry game between Florida Atlantic and Florida International University.
The official spirit group supporting Florida Atlantic athletics is the "prOWLers". The group began in February 2002 to support the men's basketball program during the team's run for the Atlantic Sun Conference Championship. The group is funded by the Student Alumni Association, and can now be found at most sporting events cheering for Florida Atlantic. The prOWLers are joined by the Owl Rangers, a fan group that paints their bodies in the Florida Atlantic school colors. The hOWLetts are a student club that attend gameday events and assist in recruiting athletes.
Since 2002, Florida Atlantic students have been using Owl Fingers (the "OK" hand sign) to show school pride and wish the athletic teams luck during football point after attempts (PATs) and basketball free throws. The Florida Atlantic University Athletics Department has chosen to use Owl Fingers as part of its "Salute the Hoot" 2012 marketing campaign that encourages students to "proudly raise the hand salute that depicts the eyes of the owl, FAU's mascot."
Residential housing at Florida Atlantic University is available on the Boca Raton and John D. MacArthur campuses. "All full-time freshmen are required to reside in university housing," however, "exemptions from this policy are made for students who: are 21 or older by the first day of class, reside with parent(s) or legal guardian(s) within a 50-mile (80 km) radius of the Boca Raton campus, or are married." As of 2011[update], 4,555 students live on-campus in Boca Raton. The Wilkes Honors College on the MacArthur Campus requires all students live on-campus within its two residence halls, however, exceptions are made for students who are 26 years of age, married, or have dependent children. As of 2011[update], there are 231 students residing on-campus at the honors college.
Boca Raton's on-campus housing facilities are: Algonquin Hall (opened 1965), Indian River Towers (opened 2001), Heritage Park Towers (opened 2004), Glades Park Towers (opened 2007), Parliament Hall (opened 2013), University Village Apartments (UVA), and Innovation Village Apartments (IVA) (opened 2011). Heritage Park and Glades Park Towers each offer 602 beds with 96 single rooms. UVA and IVA exclusively serve upperclassmen while the other residence halls exclusively serve freshmen students, with Algonquin Hall serving all students. The university also offers upper-division undergraduate and graduate student housing in the Business and Professional Women's Scholarship House for women with a strong academic background.
One of the newest residences on the Boca Raton campus is the Innovation Village Apartments (IVA), consisting of two buildings: IVA North and IVA South. It is a 1,200-bed apartment-style housing facility for upperclassmen, graduate, and medical students. It offers amenities that one would find in a high-rise apartment complex: lounges, retail dining, fitness centers, a pool/cabana, a volleyball court, common areas, and more. The facility opened in fall 2011. FAU's newest residence hall is Parliament Hall, a lakeside freshmen housing facility offering 614 beds, a fitness center, lounges, retail dining, and views of the nearby Atlantic Ocean from top floors.
Within its existing residential life programs, Florida Atlantic offers a number of Learning Communities for freshmen and students with similar interests and concentrations. Participants meet people with similar interests, live on the same floor and take courses with others in their community, while receiving additional guidance related to those interests. The university's Learning Community programs are divided into two categories, Freshman Learning Communities and Living Learning Communities. The freshman program offers 16 different concentrations, including business, nursing, and education. The Living program offers six concentrations for students residing in the Heritage Park Towers dormitory, including engineering, computer science, and a Women's Leadership program.
The university's Department of Housing and Residential Life and the university's fraternities and sororities sponsor a program for freshmen and other students returning to Florida Atlantic in the fall semester. This program, called the "Weeks of Welcome", spans 11 days and all campuses, and works to acclimate students with university life and to build a good on-campus community. On each day, a number of different events are scheduled, including Hall Wars, which are athletic competitions between dormitories, Luaus, and a number of other events. The Weeks of Welcome is the second largest campus-wide event held by Florida Atlantic.
|FAU residence halls||Year opened||Students||Accommodations|
|Algonquin Hall (ALG)||1965||95||All Students|
|Business Professional Women's Scholarship House (BPWSH)||1996||16||Female residence requiring dedicated application|
|Indian River Towers (IRT)||2001||611||Freshmen|
|Heritage Park Towers (HPT)||2004||603||Freshmen|
|Glades Park Towers (GPT)||2007||602||Freshmen|
|Parliament Hall (PAR)||2013||614||Freshmen|
|University Village Apartments (UVA)||1995||524||Upperclassmen|
|Innovation Village Apartments South (IVA-S)||2011||605||Upperclassmen|
|Innovation Village Apartments North (IVA-N)||2011||611||Upperclassmen|
Campus organizations and activitiesEdit
For the 2010–2011 academic year, Florida Atlantic had approximately 300 registered student organizations. Among the groups are academic organizations, honor societies, spiritual/religious organizations, diversity-appreciation organizations, service organizations, personal interest organizations, sports clubs, and student government agencies. These clubs and organizations run the gamut from sailing to Ultimate Frisbee, from varsity and club sports and a jazz group to a pottery guild, from political organizations to chess and video game clubs. These organizations are funded by student tuition, from which $10.00 per credit hour goes toward an activities and service fee fund. This generates approximately $9 million that is then given to student government for allocation to student clubs and organizations. The student government also finances other student life programs, including career fairs, the University Press, OWL TV and Owl Radio, and Homecoming.
Florida Atlantic's homecoming, also known as the "Owl Prowl," is celebrated annually in the fall semester. Events occur mainly on the Boca Raton Campus, but a number of other campuses host their own events as well. In the past, homecoming has had kickoff parties, costumed dances, bonfires, comedy shows, alumni events and dinners, a golf cart parade, and tailgating. Florida Atlantic students have an organized football tailgating area known as the Rat's Mouth. The name references the Spanish translation of Boca Raton.
Florida Atlantic completed an $18.6 million Recreation and Wellness Center in spring 2010. The facility houses an outdoor leisure and lap pool, a cardio equipment and free weight room, two multipurpose rooms, three indoor courts and health club-style locker rooms. In 2011, the facility won the NIRSA Outstanding Sports Facilities Award. Other recreation facilities include a $4.2 million track and field complex, with synthetic turf (opened January 2007), a ropes challenge course and the 6.5 acre Henderson Fields, utilized most often by the FAU Intramural Sports and Club Sports programs.
Florida Atlantic is home to approximately 28 chapters of national fraternities and sororities, encompassing approximately 1,077 members or 5% of the undergraduate population. The highpoint of Greek life at Florida Atlantic is "Greek Week." This event is held annually during the spring semester and showcases a number of themed competitions between the university's Greek organizations. There are currently no on-campus Greek houses. However, a Greek Life Housing task force has been formed to explore various housing models, including the cost of construction, "and make recommendations on how to improve the overall quality of the Greek housing...."
Florida Atlantic University has awarded more than 110,000 degrees to nearly 105,000 alumni worldwide since its opening. Some notable Florida Atlantic alumni are:
- R. David Paulison, former head of the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency
- Charles Ghigna or "Father Goose", children's poet and former nationally syndicated columnist
- Judith Ortiz Cofer, acclaimed Puerto Rican author whose works span a range of literary genres including poetry, short stories, and essays
- Phil Zimmermann, creator of Pretty Good Privacy
- Mary Carey, pornographic actress and former candidate for Governor of California
- Carrot Top, prop comedian
- Steven Swanson, NASA astronaut who went to space aboard Space Shuttle Atlantis during STS-117 in June 2007, and Space Shuttle Discovery during STS-119 in March 2009
- Edith Stern, award winning inventor and child prodigy
- "The Florida Atlantic University Foundation Endowment" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on December 24, 2016. Retrieved December 24, 2016.
- "2013–2014 Quick Facts". Florida Atlantic University: Office of Institutional Effectiveness & Analysis. Retrieved January 24, 2014.
- "Explore FAU Campuses". Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved August 22, 2006.
- "Florida Atlantic University: Visual Standards Manual Version 2.1 (updated 9/2008)" (PDF). Florida Atlantic University: University Communications and Marketing. Retrieved April 5, 2009.
- "Early Detection of Developmental Disorders in Babies to be a Focus of New Infant Development Laboratory" (Press release). Florida Atlantic University: University Communications and Marketing. September 22, 2005. Retrieved August 22, 2006.
- "Carnegie Classifications | FAU Institution Profile". Indiana University Bloomington's Center for Postsecondary Research. Retrieved April 20, 2018.
- "FAU Points of Pride". Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
- "Explore FAU History: Milestones in FAU History (1955–1969)". Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved August 22, 2006.
- FAU Fact Book http://www.fau.edu/explore/quickfacts.php
- Restrepo, Dan (February 5, 2004). "New admissions standards: good for FAU, bad for Florida". University Press. Retrieved August 23, 2006.
- Travis, Scott (August 17, 2006). "FAU to boost scientific reputation with biomedical science college". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- Travis, Scott (March 5, 2011). "FAU's freshman applications double". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. Archived from the original on February 3, 2013. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
- "The Yamato Colony: Japanese Pioneers in Florida". The Morikami Museum and Japanese Gardens. Retrieved November 4, 2006.
- "Explore FAU History". Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved September 20, 2007.
- Burdick, Bob (September 2007). "All Grown Up: FAU Looks Back and Steps Forward". Legacy: A Magazine for Alumni and Friends of Florida Atlantic University. 5 (1). pp. 14–15.
- "UMSM@FAU". The University of Miami. Archived from the original on April 22, 2007. Retrieved May 26, 2007.
- "UMMSM at FAU Questions". Florida Atlantic University. Archived from the original on February 17, 2009. Retrieved May 26, 2007.
- "Boca Raton Community Hospital Receives $75 Million" (Press release). PNN Online. January 30, 2006. Archived from the original on October 14, 2007. Retrieved October 12, 2007.
- Pensa, Patty (January 5, 2008). "Boca Raton Community Hospital loses $28 million, replaces CEO: Plan to build teaching facility set back". South Florida Sun-Sentinel.
- "Editorial: Harbor Branch swimming downstream with FAU". Scripps Interactive Newspapers Group. December 2, 2007. Retrieved February 22, 2008.
- Travis, Scott (September 23, 2007). "Universities fight to save funding for big projects". South Florida Sun-Sentinel.
- "The Florida Atlantic University Foundation Endowment, 2012 NACUBO – Florida Foundation Comparisons And Discretionary Gifts" (PDF). The Florida Atlantic University Foundation. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 8, 2013. Retrieved June 25, 2013.
- "FAU – Diversity". Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- "Headcount Enrollment by Nation of Origin" (PDF). Florida Atlantic University: Office of Institutional Effectiveness & Analysis. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 10, 2013. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- "Headcount Enrollment by State Residency" (PDF). Florida Atlantic University: Office of Institutional Effectiveness & Analysis. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 10, 2013. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- "Florida Atlantic University Academic Calendar 2015 – 2016" (PDF). Florida Atlantic University.
- "University Characteristics, Fall 2008" (PDF). Florida Atlantic University: Office of Institutional Effectiveness & Analysis. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "Colleges and Degrees". Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved August 5, 2007.
- "General FAQ". Florida Atlantic University: Wilkes Honors College. Retrieved October 10, 2007.
- "FAU – Freshman Requirements". Florida Atlantic University: Office of Undergraduate Admissions. Archived from the original on June 6, 2013. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- Travis, Scott (March 9, 2009). "Florida Atlantic University goes to waiting list for first time as enrollment jumps". "South Florida Sun-Sentinel". Archived from the original on March 12, 2009. Retrieved April 8, 2009.
- Travis, Scott. "Florida universities grow in number of students, but not in faculty, data shows". floridatrend.
- "Fall 2010 Entering Graduate Student Characteristics" (PDF). Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- "IPEDS Data Feedback Report 2009" (PDF). Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System. Retrieved December 7, 2009.
- "FAU Diversity". Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- "FAU – Points of Pride". Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved January 19, 2014.
- Travis, Scott (February 10, 2008). "Florida Atlantic University's Lifelong Learning enrollment surges". South Florida Sun-Sentinel.
- "FAU hits a high note with music studies". Oxendine Publishing. Archived from the original on April 4, 2007. Retrieved May 26, 2007.
- "FAU Graduate's Masters Thesis Produces Billboard Hit" (Press release). Florida Atlantic University: University Communications and Marketing. February 26, 2007. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
- "Students experience Wall Street in FAU's two-story trading room simulator". Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved May 26, 2007.
- "Florida Atlantic University". Forbes. Archived from the original on December 24, 2011. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- "America's Top Colleges 2019". Forbes. Retrieved August 15, 2019.
- "U.S. College Rankings 2020". Wall Street Journal/Times Higher Education. Retrieved September 26, 2019.
- "Best Colleges 2020: National University Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved September 8, 2019.
- "2019 National University Rankings". Washington Monthly. Retrieved August 20, 2019.
- "World University Rankings 2020". THE Education Ltd. Retrieved September 14, 2019.
- "Best Global Universities Rankings: 2020". U.S. News & World Report LP. Retrieved October 22, 2019.
- "Florida Atlantic University – U.S. News Best Grad School Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved June 4, 2017.
- "America's Best Colleges 2013: Florida Atlantic University". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on June 8, 2012. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- Morse, Robert J.; R. Morse; S. Flanigan (August 17, 2007). "America's Best Colleges 2008: How We Do the Rankings". U.S. News & World Report. Archived from the original on October 11, 2007. Retrieved October 17, 2007.
- "Florida Atlantic University". The Princeton Review. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
- "Florida Atlantic University: Rankings & Lists". The Princeton Review. Retrieved October 17, 2007.
- "FAU business school named one of best in U.S." Scripps Interactive Newspapers Group. October 30, 2008. Retrieved December 17, 2008.
- "The Washington Monthly College Rankings". The Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on July 6, 2013. Retrieved October 7, 2011.
- "The Washington Monthly's Annual College Guide". The Washington Monthly. Archived from the original on July 18, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
- Tyko, Kelly (June 9, 2008). "Florida schools top the nation in awarding degrees to Hispanics". Scripps Interactive Newspapers Group. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
- "Boca Raton: FAU awards 738 degrees to Hispanics in 2006–'07". South Florida Sun-Sentinel. July 15, 2008.
- "Florida Atlantic University". The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching. Retrieved September 11, 2013.
- "Message from the Vice President". Florida Atlantic University. Archived from the original on May 18, 2007. Retrieved January 31, 2007.
- Johnston, John (July 25, 2008). "Planck to plant Palm Beach county roots". Boca Raton News. Archived from the original on May 17, 2013. Retrieved August 1, 2008.
- Reed, Charlie (April 2, 2007). "FAU Research Week starts today". Scripps Interactive Newspapers Group.
- "FAU to Receive $5 Million to Establish The Florida Center of Excellence in Ocean Energy Technology" (Press release). Technology Daily News. November 18, 2006.
- "About the Center". Center of Excellence in Biomedical and Marine Biotechnology. Retrieved October 12, 2007.
- "Florida Atlantic University and Lockheed Martin to Develop Autonomous Mooring Buoy System for Military and Scientific Use" (Press release). Lockheed Martin. May 17, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "DOE Designates New National Marine Renewable Energy Center for Ocean Energy Research" (Press release). U.S. Department of Energy. August 3, 2010. Archived from the original on September 9, 2015. Retrieved February 11, 2011.
- "Florida Atlantic University Legislative Budget Request For 2005–06". Florida Atlantic University. July 2, 2003. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "Research Park at Florida Atlantic University: Technology Business Incubator". Florida Atlantic Research & Development Park. Archived from the original on November 12, 2014. Retrieved November 12, 2014.
- "Department of Exercise Science and Health Promotion (ESHP)". Florida Atlantic University: College of Education. Archived from the original on June 29, 2007. Retrieved July 13, 2007.
- "Headcount Enrollment by Campus" (PDF). Florida Atlantic University: Office of Institutional Effectiveness & Analysis. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "Implementation Profile for Florida Atlantic University". American College & University Presidents Climate Commitment Association. November 12, 2010. Archived from the original on July 1, 2012. Retrieved March 5, 2011.
- "FAU Traditions". Florida Atlantic University: Athletics Department. Archived from the original on May 30, 2009. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
- "FAU Boca Raton". Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved April 2, 2009.
- "About FAU at Jupiter". Florida Atlantic University. Archived from the original on June 29, 2007. Retrieved July 8, 2007.
- "Dania Beach Campus". Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved June 24, 2007.
- "Davie Campus". Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved June 24, 2007.
- "FAU Constructs Student Union at Davie Campus" (Press release). Florida Atlantic University: University Communications and Marketing. May 7, 2007. Retrieved July 10, 2007.
- "About FAU in Broward". Florida Atlantic University. Archived from the original on May 22, 2007. Retrieved June 24, 2007.
- "Fort Lauderdale Campus". Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved June 24, 2007.
- Reed, Charlie (May 17, 2007). "Work begins on merger plan for Harbor Branch and FAU". Scripps Interactive Newspapers Group.
- Bierman, Noah (June 18, 2007). "Harbor Branch institute becoming part of Florida Atlantic University". Herald-Tribune. Archived from the original on September 17, 2007. Retrieved July 9, 2007.
- "FAU – Campuses & Maps". fau.edu.
- "FAU Inducts Seven into Inaugural Athletic Hall of Fame" (Press release). Florida Atlantic University: FAU Athletics. October 27, 2006. Retrieved July 12, 2007.
- "University MRI Continues Commitment with FAU Football" (Press release). Florida Atlantic University: University Communications and Marketing. August 2, 2006. Retrieved July 12, 2007.
- Hutton, Ted (December 15, 2008). "FAU loves bowl as a gift". South Florida Sun-Sentinel.
- Hutton, Ted (December 27, 2008). "Owls beat Central Michigan 24–21 in Motor City Bowl". South Florida Sun-Sentinel.
- Hutton, Ted (December 2, 2007). "Owls bowl-bound". South Florida Sun-Sentinel.
- Shain, Jeff (December 1, 2007). "Florida Atlantic secures its first bowl berth". The Kansas City Star.
- Hutton, Ted (December 22, 2007). "FAU storms to victory in New Orleans Bowl". Orlando Sentinel.
- Zinn, Dori (October 16, 2008). "Bleeding Red and Blue: School spirit at FAU remains high despite a losing football season". University Press. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2008.
- Shugart, Kim (February 21, 2007). "Jaguars seek to rebound against high-scoring FAU". Alabama Live LLC.
- "State Cagers Drop Nailbiter To FAU, 61–59". Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "Bulls Drop Defensive Struggle to FAU, 50–42". Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "FAU – Homepage Stories". fau.edu. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "Baseball Ranks High in NCAA Stats". CSTV Networks, Inc. April 11, 2007. Retrieved July 12, 2007.
- "FAU baseball team winning Sun Belt title is our No. 2 Story of the Year". fauowlaccess.com. Archived from the original on July 16, 2010. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "Thursday's Daily Briefing: Blazers beware, FAU's bonfire is tonight". fauowlaccess.com. Archived from the original on April 5, 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Cortes, Ryan. "Fourth annual bonfire postponed". Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "FAU Midnight Madness Thursday at FAU Arena". Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "Friday's Required Reading: Midnight Madness fires up students for hoops season". fauowlaccess.com. Archived from the original on October 23, 2011. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "Support FAU Basketball at 'Bury the Burrow in Red' on Feb. 10" (Press release). Florida Atlantic University: University Communications and Marketing. Archived from the original on June 25, 2009. Retrieved April 7, 2009.
- "prOWLers – The rowdiest students at FAU". Florida Atlantic University: Athletics Department. Archived from the original on February 28, 2008. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
- "Owl Rangers – Wow, It's Owls". owlrangers.com. Archived from the original on May 19, 2017. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "Owl Central -". fau.collegiatelink.net. Archived from the original on April 26, 2012. Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Cohn-Kleinberg, Jessica. "We have spirit, yes we do, we have spirit…wait, we do?". Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "FAU Launches 'Salute the Hoot' Campaign". Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- Rosa, Rolando. "With added development and expansion, time for FAU, community, to give a hoot". Retrieved May 6, 2017.
- "General Information". Florida Atlantic University: Department of Housing and Residential Life. Archived from the original on April 12, 2009. Retrieved April 2, 2009.
- "On-Campus Housing" (PDF). Florida Atlantic University: Office of Institutional Effectiveness & Analysis. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 10, 2013. Retrieved February 11, 2012.
- "Residential Life". Florida Atlantic University: The Harriet L. Wilkes Honors College. Archived from the original on June 8, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "Your New Home" (PDF). Florida Atlantic University: The Harriet L. Wilkes Honors College. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved October 11, 2007.
- "Joint Audit and Finance/Strategic Planning Committee" (PDF). FAU Board of Trustees. June 13, 2007. Retrieved June 24, 2007.
- "Business & Professional Woman's Scholarship House". Florida Atlantic University: Department of Housing and Residential Life. Archived from the original on March 22, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2009.
- "Our Residence Halls and Apartments". Florida Atlantic University: Department of Housing and Residential Life. Archived from the original on April 12, 2009. Retrieved April 3, 2009.
- "BT-651 Innovation Village Apartments Phase I" (PDF). Florida Atlantic University Architect & Vice President for Facilities. November 20, 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 19, 2008. Retrieved February 25, 2008.
- Persaud, Chris (January 18, 2010). "Building the future: Stadium and apartment buildings construction to begin in April". University Press. Archived from the original on March 1, 2010.
- "FAU opens $46 million Parliament Hall dorm". tribunedigital-sunsentinel.
- "Becoming a Part of the Community: Living Learning Communities" (PDF). Florida Atlantic University: Department of Housing and Residential Life. Archived from the original (PDF) on October 25, 2007. Retrieved July 9, 2007.
- Reil, Quinn (September 11, 2003). "Welcome Weeks at FAU offer fun for new students". University Press. Archived from the original on November 29, 2007. Retrieved July 22, 2007.
- "Weeks of welcome: What's happening on your campus". University Press. August 12, 2004. Archived from the original on October 27, 2007. Retrieved July 22, 2007.
- "FIU Housing". FIU Office of Housing and Residential Life. Archived from the original on September 12, 2008. Retrieved September 16, 2008.
- "FAU Registered Club List". Florida Atlantic University: Student Development & Activities. Archived from the original on July 19, 2011. Retrieved April 3, 2009.
- "Activity and Service (A&S) Fee". Florida Atlantic University: Student Government Accounting and Budget Office. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "Some traditions continued, new ones started". University Press. November 25, 2004. Archived from the original on November 29, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
- Boyet, Michele (October 19, 2006). "Homecoming Listings". University Press.
- "Student Government Page". University Press. November 9, 2006. Archived from the original on November 29, 2007. Retrieved July 15, 2007.
- "Guide to A Successful Rat's Mouth Tailgate" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on November 19, 2011. Retrieved November 26, 2011.
- "FAU – Recreation & Fitness Center". Fau.edu. Archived from the original on December 22, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "FLORIDA ATLANTIC UNIVERSITY Facilities – FLORIDA ATLANTIC University Official Athletic Site". Fausports.com. January 11, 2007. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "FAU – Track & Field Complex". Fau.edu. Archived from the original on November 23, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "FAU – Challenge Course". Fau.edu. Archived from the original on December 18, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "FAU – Henderson Field". Fau.edu. Archived from the original on November 23, 2011. Retrieved December 30, 2011.
- "Fraternity & Sorority Life Community Report – Fall 2011" (PDF). Florida Atlantic University. Retrieved April 14, 2012.
- "Greek Life Community Report Executive Summary" (PDF). Florida Atlantic University" Office of Greek Life. Retrieved February 22, 2010.
- Blanchett, Jordan (January 8, 2007). "Greeks Ask: Where Have all the 'Rushers' Gone?". University Press. Archived from the original on July 17, 2011. Retrieved July 22, 2007.
- "Division of Student Affairs Divisional Committees". Florida Atlantic University: Division of Student Affairs. Archived from the original on May 27, 2010. Retrieved February 22, 2010.
- Hsu, Spencer S.; Lee, Christopher (September 13, 2005). "Paulison Is Skilled at Disasters". The Washington Post. p. A12. Retrieved April 3, 2009.
- "Charles Ghigna Papers". de Grummond Children's Literature Collection. University of Southern Mississippi. Retrieved June 21, 2013.
- "Judith Ortiz Cofer Complete Vita". Judith Ortiz Cofer. Archived from the original on December 20, 2006. Retrieved December 20, 2006.
- Zimmermann, Phil. "Philip Zimmermann's Home Page". Phil Zimmermann & Associates LLC. Retrieved November 25, 2006.
- "Reality TV show to feature porn stars". NBC News. May 4, 2006. 1m:50s. Retrieved October 12, 2007.
- "Entertainer detail: Carrot Top". NationalActs.com. Archived from the original on May 3, 2008. Retrieved January 26, 2008.
- "Astronaut Bio: Steven R. Swanson". NASA. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
- Marschhauser, Brian (December 12, 2012). "Yorktown Engineer, Former Prodigy Wins National Award". Yorktown Daily Voice. Retrieved July 20, 2019.