Fraternities and sororities
Fraternities and sororities, or Greek letter organizations (GLOs) (collectively referred to as "Greek life") are social organizations at colleges and universities. A form of the social fraternity, they are prominent in the United States, with small numbers of mostly non-residential fraternities existing in France, Canada, and the Philippines. Similar organizations exist in other countries as well, including the Studentenverbindungen of German-speaking countries.
Similar, but much less common, organizations also exist for secondary school students, as do fraternal orders for other adults. In modern usage, "Greek letter organization" is often synonymous with the terms "fraternity" and "sorority". Two additional types of fraternities, professional fraternities and honor societies, incorporate some limited elements of traditional fraternity organization, but are generally considered a different type of association. Traditional fraternities of the type described in this article are often called "social fraternities".
Generally, membership in a fraternity or sorority is obtained as an undergraduate student but continues, thereafter, for life. Some of these organizations can accept graduate students as well as undergraduates, per constitutional provisions.
Individual fraternities and sororities vary in organization and purpose, but most share five common elements:
- Single-sex membership
- Selection of new members on the basis of a two-part vetting and probationary process known as rushing and pledging
- Ownership and occupancy of a residential property where undergraduate members live
- A set of complex identification symbols that may include Greek letters, armorial achievements, ciphers, badges, grips, hand signs, passwords, flowers, and colors
Fraternities and sororities engage in philanthropic activities; host parties; provide "finishing" training for new members, such as instruction on etiquette, dress, and manners; and create networking opportunities for their newly graduated members.
Establishment and early historyEdit
The first fraternity in North America to incorporate most of the elements of modern fraternities was Phi Beta Kappa, founded at the College of William and Mary in 1775. The founding of Phi Beta Kappa followed the earlier establishment of two other secret student societies that had existed at that campus as early as 1750. In 1779 Phi Beta Kappa expanded to include chapters at Harvard and Yale. By the early 19th century, the organization transformed itself into a scholastic honor society and abandoned secrecy.
In 1825 Kappa Alpha Society, the oldest extant fraternity to retain its social characteristic, was established at Union College. In 1827, Sigma Phi and Delta Phi were also founded at the same institution, creating the Union Triad. The further birthing of Psi Upsilon (1833), Chi Psi (1841) and Theta Delta Chi (1847) collectively established Union College as the Mother of Fraternities.
Fraternities represented the intersection between dining clubs, literary societies, and secret initiatory orders such as Freemasonry. Their early growth was widely opposed by university administrators, though the increasing influence of fraternity alumni, as well as several high-profile court cases, succeeded in largely muting opposition by the 1880s. The first fraternity meeting hall or lodge seems to have been that of the Alpha Epsilon chapter of Chi Psi at the University of Michigan in 1845, leading to a tradition in that fraternity to name its buildings "lodges". As fraternity membership was punishable by expulsion at many colleges at this time, the house was located deep in the woods. The first residential chapter home built by a fraternity is believed to have been Alpha Delta Phi's chapter at Cornell, with groundbreaking dated to 1878. Alpha Tau Omega became the first fraternity to own a residential house in the South when, in 1880, its chapter at the University of the South acquired one. Chapters of many fraternities followed suit, purchasing and less often, building them with support of alumni. Phi Sigma Kappa's chapter home at Cornell, completed in 1902, is the oldest such house still occupied by its fraternal builders.
Sororities (originally termed "women's fraternities") began to develop in 1851 with the formation of the Adelphean Society Alpha Delta Pi, though fraternity-like organizations for women didn't take their current form until the establishment of Pi Beta Phi in 1867 and Kappa Alpha Theta in 1870. The term "sorority" was invented by a professor of Latin who felt the word "fraternity" was inappropriate for a group of ladies. The first organization to use the term "sorority" was Gamma Phi Beta, established in 1874.
The development of "fraternities for women" during this time was a major accomplishment in the way of women's rights and equality. By mere existence these organizations were defying the odds; the founding women were able to advance their organizations despite many factors working against them. The first "Women's Fraternities" not only had to overcome "restrictive social customs, unequal status under the law and the underlying presumption that they were less able than men" but at the same time had to deal with the same challenges as fraternities with college administrations. Today, both social and multicultural sororities are present on more than 650 college campuses across the United States and Canada. The National Panhellenic Conference (NPC) serves as the "umbrella organization" for 26 (inter)national sororities. Founded in 1902, the NPC is one of the oldest and largest women's membership organizations, representing more than 4 million women at 655 college/university campuses and 4,500 local alumnae chapters in the U.S. and Canada.
In 1867 the Chi Phi fraternity established its Theta chapter at the University of Edinburgh in Scotland, marking the first foray of the American social fraternity outside the borders of the United States. At the time, many students from the American south were moving to Europe to study because of the disrepair southern universities fell into during the American Civil War. One such group of Americans organized Chi Phi at Edinburgh, however, during the Theta chapter's existence, it initiated no non-American members. With declining American enrollment at European universities, Chi Phi at Edinburgh shuttered in 1870.
Nine years following Chi Phi's abortive colonization of the University of Edinburgh, a second attempt was made to transplant the fraternity system outside the United States. In 1879 Zeta Psi established a chapter at the University of Toronto. Zeta Psi's success at Toronto prompted it to open a second Canadian chapter at McGill University, which it chartered in 1883. Other early foundations were Kappa Alpha Society at Toronto in 1892 and at McGill in 1899, and Alpha Delta Phi at Toronto in 1893 and at McGill in 1897. The first sorority, Kappa Alpha Theta, was established at Toronto in 1887. By 1927 there were 42 fraternity and sorority chapters at the University of Toronto and of 23 at McGill University. A few chapters were also reported at the University of British Columbia, Carleton University, Dalhousie University, University of Manitoba, Queen's University, University of Western Ontario Wilfrid Laurier University, University of Waterloo and Brock University.
The arrival of the fraternity system in Asia accompanied the introduction of the American educational system in the Philippines. The first fraternities were established in the University of the Philippines. The now defunct Patriotic and Progressive Rizal Center Academic Brotherhood (Rizal Center Fraternity), a brotherhood of Jose Rizal followers, was founded in 1913. This was followed by the Rizal Center Sorority. The first Greek-letter organization and fraternity in Asia, the Upsilon Sigma Phi, was founded in 1918. The first Greek-letter sorority, UP Sigma Beta Sorority, was recognized in 1932.
Many early fraternities made reference to Christian principles or to a Supreme Being in general, as is characteristic of fraternal orders. Some, such as Alpha Chi Rho (1895) Alpha Kappa Lambda (1907) only admitted Christians, while others, such as Beta Sigma Psi (1925), catered to students belonging with certain denominations of Christianity, such as Lutheranism.
Due to their exclusion from Christian fraternities in the United States, Jewish students began to establish their own fraternities in the period of 1895 and 1920, with the first one being Zeta Beta Tau (1903).
Although many of the religion-specific requirements for many fraternities and sororities have been relaxed or removed, there are some today that continue to rally around their faith as a focal point, such as Beta Upsilon Chi (1985) and Sigma Alpha Omega (1998).
Numerous Greek organizations in the past have enacted formal and informal prohibitions on pledging individuals of different races and cultural backgrounds. While these limitations have since been abolished by both the Interfraternity Conference and the National Pan-Hellenic Council, students of various ethnicities have come together to form a council of multicultural Greek organizations. The Multicultural Greek Council, officially formed in 1998, is a coordinating body of 19 Greek organizations, including nine fraternities, and ten sororities with cultural affiliations.
The first multicultural sorority, Mu Sigma Upsilon was established in November 1981 at Rutgers University. The formation of this Greek organization allowed for the emergence of a multicultural fraternity and sorority movement, giving birth to a multicultural movement.
Structure and organizationEdit
Fraternities and sororities traditionally have been single-sex organizations, with fraternities consisting exclusively of men and sororities consisting exclusively of women. In the United States, fraternities and sororities enjoy a statutory exemption from Title IX legislation prohibiting this type of gender exclusion within student groups, and organizations such as the Fraternity and Sorority Political Action Committee work to maintain this status quo in federal law.
Since the mid-20th century a small number of fraternities, such as Alpha Theta and Lambda Lambda Lambda, have opted to become co-educational and admit female members. However, these generally represent a minority of Greek-letter organizations and no such fraternity is currently a member of the North American Interfraternity Conference, the largest international association of fraternities. The first coed fraternity was Pi Alpha Tau (1963–1991) at the University of Illinois at Chicago.
Much more commonly, coed fraternities exist in the form of "service" fraternities such as Alpha Phi Omega, Epsilon Sigma Alpha, Alpha Tau Mu, and others. These organizations are similar to "social" fraternities and sororities, with the exception of being coed and non-residential.
Individual chapters of fraternities and sororities are largely self-governed by their active (student) members; however, alumni members may retain legal ownership of the fraternity or sorority's property through an alumni chapter or alumni corporation. All of a single fraternity or sorority's chapters are generally grouped together in a national or international organization that sets standards, regulates insignia and ritual, publishes a journal or magazine for all of the chapters of the organization, and has the power to grant and revoke charters to chapters. These federal structures are largely governed by alumni members of the fraternity, though with some input from the active (student) members.
Rushing and pledging (recruitment and new member periods)Edit
Most Greek letter organizations select potential members through a two-part process of vetting and probation, called rushing and pledging, respectively, though the terms recruitment and new member period are preferred today. During rush (recruitment), students attend designated social events, and sometimes formal interviews, hosted by the chapters of fraternities and sororities in which they have particular interest. Usually, after a potential new member has attended several such events, officers or current members meet privately to vote on whether or not to extend an invitation (known as a "bid") to the prospective applicant. Those applicants who receive a bid, and choose to accept it, are considered to have "pledged" the fraternity or sorority, thus beginning the pledge period (new member period). Students participating in rush are known as "rushees" (Potential New Members "PNMs") while students who have accepted a bid to a specific fraternity or sorority are known as "new members" or in some cases "pledges".
A new member period may last anywhere from one weekend to several months. During this time new members might participate in almost all aspects of the life of the fraternity or sorority, but most likely not be permitted to hold office in the organization. At the conclusion of the new member period a second vote of members may sometimes be taken, often, but not always, using a blackball system. New members who pass this second vote are invited to a formal and secret ritual of initiation into the organization, advancing them to full membership.
Many Greek-letter organizations give preferential consideration for pledging to candidates whose parent or sibling was a member of the same fraternity or sorority. Such prospective candidates are known as "legacies".
Membership in more than one fraternity or sorority is almost always prohibited. Recently, some Greek-letter organizations have replaced the term "pledge" with that of "associate member" or "new member". Sigma Alpha Epsilon, in 2014, abolished pledging altogether. Potential members are now immediately initiated into the fraternity upon accepting a bid.
Unique among most campus organizations, members of social Greek letter organizations often live together in a large house (generally privately owned by the fraternity itself, or by the fraternity's alumni association) or a distinct part of the university dormitories. A single undergraduate fraternity chapter may be composed of anywhere between 20 and more than 100 students, though clarification needed] Often fraternities and sorority houses (called lodges or chapter houses) are located on the same street or in close quarters within the same neighborhood, which may be colloquially known as "Greek row" or "frat row". At some, often small, colleges, fraternities and sororities occupy a specific section of university-owned housing provided to them. Some fraternities and sororities are un-housed, with members providing for their own accommodations. In many of these cases, the fraternity or sorority own or rent a non-residential clubhouse to use for meetings and other activities.[
Secrecy and ritualEdit
With a few exceptions, most fraternities and sororities are secret societies. While the identity of members or officers is rarely concealed, fraternities and sororities initiate members following the pledge period through sometimes elaborate private rituals, frequently drawn or adopted from Masonic ritual practice or that of the Greek mysteries.
At the conclusion of an initiation ritual, the organization's secret motto, secret purpose, and secret identification signs, such as handshakes and passwords, are usually revealed to its new members. Some fraternities also teach initiates an identity search device used to confirm fellow fraternity members.
I was initiated into a college secret society—a couple of hours of grotesque and good-humored rodomontade and horseplay, in which I cooperated as in a kind of pleasant nightmare, confident, even when branded with a red-hot iron or doused head-over heels in boiling oil, that it would come out all right. The neophyte is effectively blindfolded during the proceedings, and at last, still sightless, I was led down flights of steps into a silent crypt, and helped into a coffin, where I was to stay until the Resurrection...Thus it was that just as my father passed from this earth, I was lying in a coffin during my initiation into Delta Kappa Epsilon.
Meetings and rituals are sometimes conducted in what is known as a "chapter room" located inside the fraternity's house. Entry into chapter rooms is often prohibited to all but the initiated. In one extreme case, the response of firefighters to a blaze signaled by an automated alarm at the Sigma Phi chapter house at the University of Wisconsin in 2003 was hampered in part because fraternity members refused to disclose the location of the hidden chapter room, where the conflagration had erupted, to emergency responders.
According to Assistant Professor Caroline Rolland-Diamond of the Paris West University Nanterre La Défense, in one ritual popular in the 1960s, born out of frustration to the ubiquitous nascent counterculture, "The men were stripped to their underpants, tied up to a tree, and covered in a nasty mix of food and leaves, remaining there until their fiancées came to free them with a kiss."
Symbols and naming conventionsEdit
The fraternity or sorority badge is an enduring symbol of membership in a Greek letter organization. Most fraternities also have assumed heraldic achievements. Members of fraternities and sororities address members of the same organization as "brother" (in the case of fraternities) or "sister" (in the case of sororities). The names of almost all fraternities and sororities consist of a sequence of two or three Greek letters, for instance, Delta Delta Delta, Sigma Chi, Chi Omega, or Psi Upsilon. There are a few exceptions to this general rule, as in the case of the fraternities Triangle, Acacia, and Seal and Serpent.
There are approximately 9 million student and alumni members of fraternities and sororities in North America, or about 3 percent of the total population. Roughly 750,000 of the current fraternity and sorority members are students who belong to an undergraduate chapter.
A 2007 survey conducted at Princeton University showed that white and higher income Princeton students are much more likely than other Princeton students to be in fraternities and sororities. Senior surveys from the classes of 2009 and 2010 showed that 77 percent of sorority members and 73 percent of fraternity members were white.
Notable fraternity and sorority membersEdit
Since 1900, 63 percent of members of the United States cabinet have been members of fraternities and sororities, and the current chief executive officers of five of the ten largest Fortune 500 companies are members of fraternities and sororities. In addition, 85 percent of all justices of the U.S. Supreme Court since 1910 have been members of fraternities. U.S. presidents since World War II who have been initiated into fraternities are George W. Bush, George H.W. Bush, Ronald Reagan, Gerald Ford, and Franklin Roosevelt. Three Prime Ministers of Canada have been members of fraternities.
Actress Sophia Bush was a member of Kappa Kappa Gamma at the University of Southern California and has since gone on to further her career in television and receive the Human Rights Campaign's Ally for Equality Award. Other notable sorority women include Mariska Hargitay, who is an actress and founder of the Joyful Heart Foundation.
Studies have found that university graduation rates are 20% higher among members of Greek-letter organizations than among non-members and students who are members of fraternities and sororities typically have higher-than-average grade point averages. One reason for this is many chapters require their members to maintain a certain academic standard.[dubious ]
There is a high representation of former Greek life members among certain elites in the United States. Greek members "are more likely to be thriving in their well-being and engaged at work than college graduates who did not go Greek," according to a study done by Gallup and Purdue University.
A 2014 Gallup survey of 30,000 university alumni found that persons who said they had been members of Greek-letter organizations while undergraduates reported having a greater sense of purpose, as well as better social and physical well-being, than those who had not.
Homogeneous membership and elitismEdit
Greek letter organizations have often been characterized as elitist or exclusionary associations, organized for the benefit of a largely white, upper-class membership base. Members of fraternities and sororities disproportionately come from certain socio-economic demographics, which perpetuates an unhealthy divisiveness within the student body based on ethnicity and income and a perpetuation of patterns of exclusivity and privilege. Fraternities specifically have been criticized for what is perceived as their promotion of an excessively alcohol-fueled, party-focused lifestyle.
New York Times columnist Frank Bruni questioned the existence of exclusive clubs on campuses that are meant to facilitate independence, writing: "[Colleges] should be cultivating the kind of sensibility that makes you a better citizen of a diverse and distressingly fractious society. How is that served by retreating into an exclusionary clique of people just like you?"
Some colleges and universities have banned Greek letter organizations on the grounds that they are, by their very nature and structure, elitist and exclusionary. The oldest ban was at Princeton (Leitch 1978), though Princeton has now had fraternities since the 1980s. Oberlin College banned "secret societies" (fraternities and sororities) in 1847, and the prohibition continues to the present. Quaker universities such as Guilford College and Earlham College often ban fraternities and sororities because they are seen as a violation of the Quaker principle of equality. Brandeis University has never permitted fraternities or sororities as it maintains a policy that all student organizations have membership open to all.
Fraternity members are "much more likely to abuse alcohol and drugs than their non-Greek affiliated peers". One Harvard University study found that "4 out of 5 fraternity and sorority members are binge drinkers. In comparison, other research suggests 2 out of 5 college students overall are regular binge drinkers." There is also a high rate of alcohol-related death among fraternities, which has recently resulted in several lawsuits against various GLOs.
Fraternities, and to a much lesser extent sororities, have been criticized for hazing sometimes committed by active undergraduate members against their chapter's pledges. Hazing during the pledge period can sometimes culminate in an event commonly known as "Hell Week" in which a week-long series of physical and mental torments are inflicted on pledges. Common hazing practices include sleep deprivation, sensory deprivation, paddling and other types of spanking, use of stress positions, forced runs, busy work, forced drinking, and mind games. Rarer incidents involving branding, enemas, urination on pledges, and the forced consumption of spoiled food have been reported. Hazing in many cases has been reported and has led to the permanent disposal of particular chapters of fraternities and sororities across the country.
Supporters of fraternities note that hazing is almost universally prohibited by national fraternity organizations, and the occurrence of hazing in undergraduate fraternity chapters goes against official policy. Supporters of fraternities also note that hazing is not unique to Greek-letter organizations and is often reported in other student organizations, such as athletic teams.
In 2007, an anti-hazing hotline was set up to report incidents of hazing on college campuses. Currently, 46 national fraternity and sorority organizations support the toll-free number, which generates automatic email messages regarding hazing and sends them to the national headquarters directly from the National Anti-Hazing Hotline. Every year during the last week of September is considered to be National Hazing Prevention Week (NHPW). From hazingprevention.org, "NHPW is an opportunity for campuses, schools, communities, organizations and individuals to raise awareness about the problem of hazing, educating others about hazing, and promoting the prevention of hazing. HazingPrevention.Org™ is the organizer of National Hazing Prevention Week (NHPW)."
Nepotism and networkingEdit
Critics of Greek-letter organizations assert that they create a culture of nepotism in later life, while supporters have applauded them for creating networking opportunities for members after graduation. A 2013 report by Bloomberg found that fraternity connections are influential in obtaining lucrative employment positions at top Wall Street brokerages. According to the report, recent graduates have been known to exchange the secret handshakes of their fraternities with executives whom they know are also members to obtaining access to competitive appointments.
Sexism and sexual assaultEdit
Studies show that fraternity men are three times more likely to commit rape than other men on college campuses. Fraternity pledges are at a higher likelihood to commit rape or sexual assault because of the pressure to meet the hyper-masculine standards that fraternities expect of their members. Overall, fraternity men are shown to have more rape-supportive attitudes than non-fraternity men. Fraternities have often been accused of fostering rape-supportive attitudes by promoting male dominance and brotherhood, and fraternity affiliation has been found to be a significant predictor of sexually predatory behavior in retrospective research. Sexual assault is such a common occurrence among fraternity organizations that one fraternity, Sigma Alpha Epsilon, is commonly referred to by the nickname "Sexual Assault Expected". Attitudes towards women learned in fraternity life can perpetuate fraternity men's life long attitudes, leading to the potential to commit sexual assault and rape after college life. Furthermore, studies show that women in sororities are almost twice as likely to experience rape than other college women.
Nicholas Syrett, a professor of history at the University of Northern Colorado, has been a vocal critic of the evolution of fraternities in the 20th century. Syrett has stated that "fraternal masculinity has, for at least 80 years, valorized athletics, alcohol abuse and sex with women." Time magazine columnist Jessica Bennett has denounced fraternities as breeding "sexism and misogyny that lasts long after college". In her column, Bennett recounts that, while she was an undergraduate student at the University of Southern California, doormen at fraternity parties "often ranked women on a scale of one to 10, with only 'sixes' and up granted entry to a party".
Racism and racist incidentsEdit
Researchers such as Matthew W. Hughey has linked racism in Greek life to persons experiencing microaggressions, fewer opportunities to use the networking system built into Greek life, and the use of harmful stereotypes. In response to experiencing racism and exclusion from solely or predominantly white GLOs, black and multicultural GLOs were founded in the early 1920s.
- Active – an initiated, undergraduate student member of a fraternity or sorority
- Alumna/Alumnus – a member of a sorority or fraternity who is no longer an undergraduate student and no longer resides in the house
- An auxiliary group (also "sweetheart" or "little brother/sister" group) is an unofficial, unsanctioned partner organization to a fraternity or sorority, usually for members of the opposite sex. The two largest Greek umbrella organizations for social fraternities and sororities, the North-American Interfraternity Conference and the National Panhellenic Conference ban the formation of or discourage membership in auxiliary groups. Some fraternities and sororities outside of these conferences also ban auxiliaries, including Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia and Sigma Alpha Iota. Part of the rationale behind banning auxiliary groups is that such groups could jeopardize the host organizations' Title IX exemptions, citing the United States Supreme Court's ruling in Roberts v. United States Jaycees.
- Bid – an offer to become a pledge (see below) of a fraternity or sorority
- Chapter room – a room inside a fraternity house, often secret or hidden, where meetings of actives occur and where rituals are performed
- Colony – a newly established chapter of a national/international fraternity or sorority in the process of organization
- Legacy – a rushee who is related to a member of the same fraternity or sorority they are rushing is almost always offered a bid. Traditionally a legacy has a parent or sibling that is a member, but some organizations have expanded on their definition of a legacy's relation to members.
- Local – a fraternity or sorority with only one chapter
- National / International – a fraternity or sorority with two or more chapters, both of which are in the same nation (in the case of a national), or at least one of which is in a different nation from the others (in the case of an international)
- Pledge – a probationary member of a fraternity or sorority, sometimes also called "associate member"
- Pledge pin – a pin worn by pledges for the duration of the pledging period, usually during all times not considered dangerous to do so (during sports, etc.). It is usually given to a pledge following a ceremony when they are first offered membership in the organization and can be worn until their initiation. In some Greek systems, pledge pins may be the target of informal 'theft' from other groups as a means of promoting interaction between each other on campus. In some fraternities, especially those who no longer have a pledge process, it may be called a new member pin. Women's fraternities usually only require new members to wear pins when active members must wear theirs, usually for formal meetings and ritual ceremonies.
- Potential New Member – Abbreviated PNM, one who is in the process of seeking a bid
- Rush – the process of recruitment to a fraternity or sorority
- Rushee – one who is in the process of seeking a bid
In popular cultureEdit
- The 1951 drama film Take Care of My Little Girl portrayed the first year of a popular freshman pledge to the fictitious Tri-U sorority, and her revelations about the sorority's values.
- The 1978 comedy movie National Lampoon's Animal House portrayed members of a fictitious fraternity (Delta Tau Chi) at a fictitious college.
- The 1984 comedy movie Revenge of the Nerds portrayed 'rejected' fraternity members taking revenge on popular fraternities (in part, by setting up their own chapter of the fictional black fraternity Lambda Lambda Lambda) and the change in power from the jocks and cheerleaders to the nerds. The co-ed fraternity Lambda Lambda Lambda takes their name from the fraternity in this movie.
- The 1988 film School Daze depicts fraternity and sorority life at a historically black college.
- The 1994 comedy movie PCU also portrays members of a student group at a fictitious college where fraternities have been prohibited.
- The 2001 comedy movie Legally Blonde and its 2007 musical adaption include the fictional sorority Delta Nu, of which the protagonist, Elle Woods, is president.
- The 2003 comedy movie Old School portrays a fictional fraternity created by aging men at their alma mater.
- The 2006 film Stomp the Yard depicts African American Greek life centered around the tradition of stepping, made popular by Black Greek Letter Organizations.
- The 2006 film Accepted includes a fictional fraternity, Beta Kappa Epsilon, which Sherman Schrader attempts to join because his father is a member.
- The 2007–2011 ABC Family television series Greek depicts students of the fictional Cyprus-Rhodes University (CRU) who participate in the school's Greek system.
- The 2007 film American Pie Presents: Beta House where new college freshmen try to gain eligibility to the Beta House fraternity.
- The 2007 film Sydney White uses the sorority system and how it affects social dynamics to tell the classic fairy tale of Snow White in the modern day.
- The 2009 slasher film Sorority Row features the sorority 'Theta Pi' in which Audrina Patridge's character was one of their members.
- The 2009 movie Sorority Wars revolves around sorority experience in college.
- The 2010 television series Glory Daze depicts students of the fictional Hayes University who participate in the school's Greek system.
- The 2010 film Brotherhood directed by Will Canon depicts hazing that gets out of hand.
- The main plot point of the 2013 movie Monsters University is a competition between fictitious fraternities and sororities to determine the best scarers.
- The 2014 film Neighbors pitches a fraternity house against a young family in a battle of hearts and minds. Its 2016 sequel Neighbors 2: Sorority Rising saw the family go up against a newly formed sorority.
- The 2015 Fox television series Scream Queens is centered on a series of murders involving the Kappa Kappa Tau sorority and the Dickie Dollar Scholars fraternity.
- Whipple, Edward G.; Sullivan, Eileen G. (1998-03-01). "Greek Letter Organizations: Communities of Learners?". New Directions for Student Services. 1998 (81): 7–17. doi:10.1002/ss.8101. ISSN 1536-0695.
- For example, Phi Kappa Tau and Alpha Xi Delta both have provisions in their respective Constitutions that they can accept graduate students as well as undergraduates
- Alpha Xi Delta
- Whalen, Richard (1967). Handbook of Secret Organizations. Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Company. pp. 43–45.
- Birdseye, Clarence Frank (1907), Individual Training in Our Colleges, New York: The McMillan Company, p. 211, retrieved 2008-06-20
- Chapter History Archived 2016-08-26 at the Wayback Machine., accessed 16 October 2015. The chapter has since moved to larger quarters.
- "ATO Facts & Firsts". Retrieved 21 August 2012.
- Gamma Chapter history, accessed 16 October 2015.
- Wesleyan Female College (originally Georgia Female College and now simply Wesleyan College), was the birthplace of the first two sororities, both the Adelphean Society and the Philomathean Society. The Adelphean, founded in 1851 eventually became Alpha Delta Pi, while The Philomathean, begun in 1852, eventually became Phi Mu. Together, these sororities are known as the "Macon Magnolias". Several other unrelated "Philomathean Societies" emerged during the 19th Century, most notably a literary society at UPenn and another, unrelated, at NYU.
- Anson, Jack (1991). Baird's Manual of American College Fraternities (20th Edition). Bairds Manual Foundation. p. III-32. ISBN 0963715909.
- "Adventure in Friendship: A History of The National Panhellenic Conference" (PDF). National Panhellenic Conference. National Panhellenic Conference. Retrieved October 12, 2015.
- "National Panhellenic Conference". National Panhellenic Conference. Retrieved 2010-01-01.
- "Fraternities in Canada". The Encyclopedia of Canada, Vol. II. University Associates of Canada. 1948. Retrieved 2010-08-19.
- "XIAO TIME, 18 June 2013: Ika-105 na Anibersaryo ng Unibersidad ng Pilipinas". Retrieved 2018-08-09.
- "History of Philippine Fraternities". Retrieved 2018-08-09.
- "History of Philippine Fraternities". Retrieved 2018-08-09.
- Brown, Tamara L.; Parks, Gregory S.; Phillips, Clarenda M. (1 January 2012). African American Fraternities and Sororities: The Legacy and the Vision. University Press of Kentucky. p. 53. ISBN 9780813136622.
- Barnett, George A. (8 September 2011). Encyclopedia of Social Networks. SAGE. p. 298. ISBN 9781412979115.
- "History of MGC". Multicultural Greek Council. Multicultural Greek Council. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- "EMERGENCE OF MULTICULTURAL FRATERNAL ORGANIZATIONS". National Multicultural Greek Council. National Multicultural Greek Council. Retrieved 12 October 2015.
- "Why One School Decided To Make All Of Its Fraternities And Sororities Co-Ed". Business Insider. 9 October 2014.
- "Fraternities Lobby Against Campus Rape Investigations". Bloomberg. 24 March 2015.
- "Pi Alpha Tau Papers, 1963–1991, UIC Archives" (PDF). uic.edu. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- "GOVERNANCE OF UNDERGRADUATE SOCIAL FRATERNITIES AND SORORITIES". upenn.edu. University of Pennsylvania. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "ERM, ORSA and Corporate Governance: The Small Company Challenges". firstconsulting.com. First Consulting.
- "Manual of Information" (PDF). National Panhellenic Conference. Jan 2018. Retrieved 2018-06-17.
- "Rush and Pledging Problems". The Fraternity Advisor. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- "Glossary of Greek Life Terms". gmu.edu. George Mason University Interfraternity Council. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- "Fraternity Legacies". thefraternityadvisor.com. The Fraternity Advisor. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- "Deadliest U.S. Fraternity Abolishes Pledging for New Members". Bloomberg (7 March 2014).
- Dundes, Allan (1993). Folklore Matters. University of Tennessee Press. p. 31. ISBN 0870497766.
- "Books: Hawthorne's Line". Time. April 25, 1938. Retrieved 2010-08-17.
- Matthews, Jack (August 15, 2010). "Nathaniel Hawthorne's Untold Tale". Excerpts from Julian Hawthorne's Memoirs. The Chronicle Review. Retrieved 2010-08-17.
- Matthews, Jack (August 15, 2010). "Nathaniel Hawthorne's Untold Tale". The Chronicle Review. Retrieved 2010-08-17.
This was, of course, all very collegiate for that long-ago time, and—with the exception of the "red-hot iron" and "boiling oil" references, if taken too literally—quite typical.
- "Bizarre fire burns frat house; blaze startedin secret room". Journal Times. 27 September 2003. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- Rolland-Diamond, Caroline (2016). "Another Side of the Sixties: Festive Practices on College Campuses and the Making of a Conservative Youth Movement". Revue française d’études américaines. 1 (146): 39–53. Retrieved October 24, 2016 – via Cairn.info. (Registration required (help)).
- "Fraternities & Sororities". Princeton University Reports. Retrieved 25 July 2016.
- Borislow, Jared (20 February 2017). "Here's A List Of Every U.S. President Who Was In A Fraternity". Total Frat Move. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- "Fraternity Statistics". nicindy.org. North American Interfraternity Conference. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- "Prominent Pi Gamma Mu Members". Pi Gamma Mu. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- "Famous Betas of Achievement". Beta Theta Pi. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- Kerr, Peter (August 1, 2009). "Paul Martin – life after politics". The Montrealer. Retrieved October 21, 2014.
- Kingkade, Tyler (25 July 2013). "FratPAC Lobbies Congress For Tax Breaks, To Stop Anti-Hazing Law". Huffington Post. Retrieved 9 December 2014.
- "Kappa Kappa Gamma | Famous Fraternity Brothers & Sorority Sisters | XFINITY". my.xfinity.com. Retrieved 2015-10-12.
- "Sophia Bush x Joe Fresh Exclusively for HRC". Human Rights Campaign. Retrieved 2015-10-12.
- "Our Story". Joyful Heart Foundation. Retrieved 2015-10-12.
- Jacobs, Peter (8 January 2014). "Don't Ban Fraternities". Business Insider. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- "Fraternity and Sorority Membership Linked to Higher Well-Being for College Grads". Gallup.com. Retrieved 2015-10-12.
- Nelson, Libby (28 May 2014). "Sorry, nerds: Fraternity brothers have more fulfilling lives later on". Vox. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- Bruni, Frank (2 December 2014). "A Pox on Campus Life". New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- "Princeton's Fraternities Growing". New York Times. November 28, 1993. pp. Section 1 Page 56. Retrieved May 31, 2009.
- Fletcher, Robert Samuel (1943). A History of Oberlin College from Its Foundation Through the Civil War. Oberlin College. "Revised codes were issued every few years, but not many important changes were made in them. Provisions with regard to the hours of 'athletic exercises and sport' were added in 1847. In the same revision there appeared for the first time the 'peculiar' Oberlin rule against secret societies. 'No student,' it runs, 'is permitted to join any secret society, or military company.'"
- Student Regulations, Policies, and Procedures, Oberlin College 2011–2012 (PDF). Oberlin College. 2011. p. 34. D. Secret Societies: "No secret society is allowed at Oberlin, and no other societies or self-perpetuating organizations are allowed among students, except by permission of the faculty. This is to be understood to include social and rooming-house clubs."
- "Community Life". earlham.edu.
- "2007–2008 Rights & Responsibilities Handbook, Appendix B: University Policy on Fraternities and Sororities". Brandeis University. Retrieved 2008-03-17.
- "Binge Drinking in Greek Organizations". addictioncenter.com. Addiction Center. Retrieved 2 September 2015.
- "Hazing deaths on American college campuses remain far too common". The Economist. Retrieved 2018-08-09.
- "Why Colleges Should Get Rid of Fraternities for Good". Time. Retrieved 2018-08-09.
- "Fraternal Law » Anti-Hazing Hotline". fraternallaw.com. Retrieved 2015-10-04.
- "National Hazing Prevention Week | Hazing Prevention". hazingprevention.org. Retrieved 2015-10-04.
- Abelson, Max; Faux, Zeke (22 December 2013). "Secret Handshakes Greet Frat Brothers on Wall Street". Bloomberg. Retrieved 28 December 2014.
- Bennett, Jessica (3 December 2014). "The Problem With Frats Isn't Just Rape. It's Power". Time. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- Foubert, John (9 October 2013). "'Rapebait' e-mail reveals dark side of frat culture". CNN.com. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- Foubert, John; Newberry, Johnathan; Tatum, Jerry (2007). "Behavior differences seven months later: Effects of a rape prevention program on first-year men who join fraternities". NASPA Journal. 44 (4): 728–749. doi:10.2202/1949-6605.1866. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- Loh, Catherine; Gidycz, Christine; Lobo, Tracy; Luthra, Rohini (2005). "A Prospective Analysis of Sexual Assault Perpetration: Risk Factors Related to Perpetrator Characteristics" (PDF). Journal of Interpersonal Violence. 20 (10): 1325–1348. doi:10.1177/0886260505278528. Retrieved 23 July 2016.
- Bohmer, Carol; Parrot, Andrea (1993). Sexual assault on campus: The problem and the solution. New York: Lexington Books. ISBN 0029037158.
- Bleecker, Timothy E.; Murnen, Sarah K. (Oct 2005). "Fraternity Membership, the Display of Degrading Sexual Images of Women, and Rape Myth Acceptance". Sex Roles. 53 (7–8): 487–493.
- Lackie, Leandra; de Man, Anton (1997). "Correlates of Sexual Aggression Among Male University Students". Sex Roles. 37 (5/6): 451–457. doi:10.1023/A:1025613725757. Retrieved 24 July 2016.
- "Legal view with Ashleigh Banfield". CNN. March 10, 2015.
- Auster, Carol J; Leone, Janel M (2001). "Late adolescents' perspectives on marital rape: The impact of gender and fraternity/sorority membership". Adolescence. 36 (141): 141–152.
- Minow, Jacqueline; Einolf, Christopher (2009). "Sorority Participation and Sexual Assault Risk" (PDF). Violence Against Women. SAGE Publications. 15 (7): 835–851. doi:10.1177/1077801209334472. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Dowdall, George; Koss, Mary; Wechsler, Henry (2004). "Correlates of rape while intoxicated in a national sample of college women" (PDF). Journal of Studies on Alcohol. Harvard School of Public Health. 65 (1): 37–45. doi:10.15288/jsa.2004.65.37. PMID 15000502. Retrieved 13 August 2016.
- Syrett, Nicholas (6 May 2011). "Colleges Condone Fraternities' Sexist Behavior". The New York Times. Retrieved 30 December 2014.
- W. Hughey, Matthew (2010). "A Paradox of Participation: Nonwhites in White Sororities and Fraternities". Social Problems. 57 (4): 653–679. doi:10.1525/sp.2010.57.4.653. JSTOR 10.1525/sp.2010.57.4.653.
- "Greek Terminology". fit.edu. Florida Institute of Technology. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Fraternity/Sorority Terms". elon.edu. Elon University. Retrieved 4 September 2015.
- "Constitution and Bylaws". North-American Interfraternity Conference. April 23, 2012. Retrieved January 4, 2013.
- National Panhellenic Conference (2012). "Protecting the Right of NPC Members to Remain Women-Only Organizations". Unanimous Agreements (PDF) (17th ed.). pp. 37–8.
- Phi Mu Alpha Sinfonia (2011). "Policy on Sweethearts/Little Sisters/Auxiliary Groups". Risk Management Policies (PDF). p. 7.
- Sigma Alpha Iota International Music Fraternity (2010). "Current Policies and Position Statements". In Nieburg, Janet T. Chapter Procedures Manual (PDF) (3rd ed.). p. A-3.
- Caitlin Flanagan, "The Dark Power of Fraternities," The Atlantic, March, 2014, pp. 72–91.