Roberts v. United States Jaycees
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Roberts v. United States Jaycees, 468 U.S. 609 (1984), was an opinion of the Supreme Court of the United States overturning the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit's application of a Minnesota antidiscrimination law. The Eighth Circuit had concluded that, by requiring the United States Jaycees to admit women as full voting members, the Minnesota Human Rights Act violated the First and Fourteenth Amendment rights of the organization's members.
|Roberts v. United States Jaycees|
|Argued April 18, 1984|
Decided July 3, 1984
|Full case name||Kathryn R. Roberts, Acting Commissioner, Minnesota Department of Human Rights, et al. v. United States Jaycees.|
468 U.S. 609 (more)|
104 S. Ct. 3244, 82 L. Ed. 2d 462, 1984 U.S. LEXIS 146
|Subsequent history||709 F.2d 1560, reversed and remanded|
|Minnesota's state antidiscrimination law prohibiting a private organization from excluding a person from membership based on sex is constitutional, because the state had a compelling interest in prohibiting discrimination which outweighed the First Amendment right of freedom of association.|
|Majority||Brennan, joined by White, Marshall, Powell, Stevens; O'Connor (parts I and III)|
|Concurrence||Rehnquist (in judgment)|
|Burger and Blackmun took no part in the consideration or decision of the case.|
|U.S. Const. amends. I, XIV|
In an opinion authored by Justice Brennan, the Court held:
- Application of the Minnesota Human Rights Act to compel the Jaycees to accept women as regular members did not abridge either male members' freedom of intimate association or their freedom of expressive association.
- The Act was not unconstitutionally vague and overbroad. Several features of the Jaycees, including its large size, unselective membership, and purpose, placed it outside the sphere of relationships protected by the First Amendment. The Court ruled that the State's compelling interest in combating gender discrimination justified the law's impact on the Jaycees' First Amendment rights.
- Freedom of association
- Gender equality
- List of gender equality lawsuits
- List of United States Supreme Court cases, volume 468