Harry Andrew Blackmun (November 12, 1908 – March 4, 1999) was an American lawyer and jurist who served as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1970 until 1994. Appointed by Republican President Richard Nixon, Blackmun ultimately became one of the most liberal justices on the Court. He is best known as the author of the Court's opinion in Roe v. Wade, which prohibits many state and federal restrictions on abortion.
|Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States|
May 14, 1970 – August 3, 1994
|Nominated by||Richard Nixon|
|Preceded by||Abe Fortas|
|Succeeded by||Stephen Breyer|
|Judge of the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit|
September 21, 1959 – June 8, 1970
|Nominated by||Dwight D. Eisenhower|
|Preceded by||John B. Sanborn Jr.|
|Succeeded by||Donald Roe Ross|
Harry Andrew Blackmun
November 12, 1908
Nashville, Illinois, U.S.
|Died||March 4, 1999 (aged 90)|
Arlington County, Virginia, U.S.
|Resting place||Arlington National Cemetery|
|Education||Harvard University (AB, LLB)|
Raised in Saint Paul, Minnesota, Blackmun graduated from Harvard Law School in 1932. He practiced law in the Twin Cities, representing clients such as the Mayo Clinic. In 1959, President Dwight D. Eisenhower appointed him to the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit. After the defeat of two previous nominees, President Richard Nixon successfully nominated Blackmun to the Supreme Court to replace Associate Justice Abe Fortas. Blackmun and his close friend, Chief Justice Warren Burger, were often called the "Minnesota Twins", but Blackmun drifted away from Burger during their tenure on the court. He retired from the Court during President Bill Clinton's administration and was succeeded by Stephen Breyer.
Aside from Roe v. Wade, notable majority opinions by Blackmun include Bates v. State Bar of Arizona, Bigelow v. Commonwealth of Virginia, and Stanton v. Stanton. He joined part of Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's opinion in Planned Parenthood v. Casey but also filed a separate opinion, warning that Roe was in jeopardy. He wrote dissenting opinions in notable cases such as Furman v. Georgia, Bowers v. Hardwick, and DeShaney v. Winnebago County.
Early years and professional careerEdit
Harry Blackmun was born on November 12, 1908, in Nashville, Illinois, to Theo Huegely (Reuter) and Corwin Manning Blackmun. Three years after his birth, his baby brother, Corwin Manning Blackmun, Jr., died soon after birth; his sister Betty was born in 1917. Blackmun grew up in Dayton's Bluff, a working-class neighborhood in Saint Paul, Minnesota, where his father owned a small store. He attended the same grade school as future Chief Justice Warren E. Burger.
Blackmun attended Mechanic Arts High School in Saint Paul, where he graduated fourth in his class of 450 in 1925. He expected to attend the University of Minnesota but received a scholarship to attend Harvard University, from which he graduated summa cum laude and Phi Beta Kappa with an Artium Baccalaureus degree in mathematics in 1929. At Harvard, Blackmun joined Lambda Chi Alpha fraternity and sang with the Harvard Glee Club (with which he performed for President Herbert Hoover in 1929, Blackmun's first visit to Washington). He attended Harvard Law School (where future Associate Justice Felix Frankfurter was among his professors), graduating with a Bachelor of Laws in 1932. After graduating from law school, Blackmun returned to Minnesota, where he served in a variety of positions including private counsel, law clerk, and adjunct faculty at the University of Minnesota Law School and William Mitchell College of Law (then the St. Paul College of Law). Blackmun's practice as an attorney at the law firm now known as Dorsey & Whitney focused in its early years on taxation, trusts and estates, and civil litigation. He married Dorothy Clark in 1941 and they had three daughters. Between 1950 and 1959, Blackmun served as resident counsel for the Mayo Clinic in Rochester, Minnesota. He later called his time at Mayo "his happiest time" (while describing his later work on the judiciary as when he "performed his duty").
Court of AppealsEdit
In the late 1950s, Blackmun's close friend Warren E. Burger, then an appellate judge on the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, repeatedly encouraged Blackmun to seek a judgeship. Judge John B. Sanborn Jr. of the Eighth Circuit, whom Blackmun had clerked for after graduating from Harvard, told Blackmun of his plans to assume senior status. He said that he would recommend Blackmun to the Eisenhower administration if Blackmun wished to succeed him. After much urging by Sanborn and Burger, Blackmun agreed to accept the nomination, duly offered by Eisenhower and members of the Justice Department. On August 18, 1959, Eisenhower nominated Blackmun to the seat on the United States Court of Appeals for the Eighth Circuit vacated by Sanborn. The American Bar Association Standing Committee on the Federal Judiciary gave Blackmun a rating of "exceptionally well qualified", and he was confirmed by the United States Senate on September 14, 1959, and received his commission on September 21. Over the next decade, Blackmun wrote 217 opinions for the Eighth Circuit. His service on the Court of Appeals ended on June 8, 1970, due to his appointment to the Supreme Court.
President Richard Nixon nominated Blackmun to the Supreme Court on April 14, 1970, and the Senate confirmed him on May 12 by a 94–0 vote. He received his commission on May 14 and took the oath of office on June 9. Blackmun was Nixon's third choice to fill the vacancy created by the resignation of Abe Fortas on May 14, 1969. His confirmation followed contentious battles over two previous, failed nominations forwarded by Nixon in 1969–1970, those of Clement Haynsworth and G. Harrold Carswell. Nixon's original choice, Lewis F. Powell Jr., turned him down but later joined the Court in 1972. Blackmun served as Circuit Justice for the Eighth Circuit from June 9, 1970, to August 2, 1994, and for the First Circuit from August 7, 1990, to October 8, 1990.
Early years on the Supreme CourtEdit
Blackmun, a lifelong Republican, was expected to adhere to a conservative interpretation of the Constitution. The Court's Chief Justice at the time, Warren Burger, a longtime friend of Blackmun's and best man at his wedding, had recommended Blackmun for the job to Nixon. The two were often called the "Minnesota Twins" (a reference to the baseball team, the Minnesota Twins, in turn named after the "Twin Cities" of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota) because of their common history in Minnesota and because they so often voted together. Indeed, Blackmun voted with Burger in 87.5% of the closely divided cases during his first five terms (1970 to 1975), and with William J. Brennan, the Court's leading liberal, in only 13%. In 1972, Blackmun joined Burger and Nixon's other two appointees in dissenting from Furman v. Georgia, the decision that invalidated all capital punishment laws then in force in the United States, and in 1976, he voted to reinstate the death penalty in Gregg v. Georgia, even the mandatory death penalty statutes. In both instances Blackmun indicated his personal opinion of the death penalty's shortcomings as a policy, but insisted his political opinions should have no bearing on the death penalty's constitutionality.
That began to change, however, between 1975 and 1980, by which time Blackmun was joining Brennan in 54.5% of the divided cases, and Burger in 45.5%. Shortly after Blackmun dissented in Rizzo v. Goode (1976), William Kunstler embraced him and "welcom[ed] him to the company of the 'liberals and the enlightened.'"
From 1981 to 1986, when Burger retired, the two men voted together in only 32.4% of close cases, whereas Blackmun joined Brennan in 70.6% of the close cases.
In 1973, Blackmun authored the Court's opinion in Roe v. Wade, invalidating a Texas statute making it a felony to administer an abortion in most circumstances. The Court's judgment in the companion case Doe v. Bolton held a less restrictive Georgia law to be unconstitutional also. Both decisions were based on the right to privacy announced in Griswold v. Connecticut (1965) and remain the primary basis for the constitutional right to abortion. Roe caused an immediate uproar, and Blackmun's opinion made him a target for criticism by opponents of abortion, receiving voluminous negative mail and death threats over the case.
Blackmun became a passionate advocate for abortion rights, often delivering speeches and lectures promoting Roe v. Wade as essential to women's equality and criticizing Roe's critics. Defending abortion, in Thornburgh v. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists Blackmun wrote:
Few decisions are more personal and intimate, more properly private, or more basic to individual dignity and autonomy, than a woman's decision – with the guidance of her physician and within the limits specified in Roe – whether to end her pregnancy. A woman's right to make that choice freely is fundamental ...
Blackmun filed separate opinions in 1989's Webster v. Reproductive Health Services and 1992's Planned Parenthood v. Casey, warning that Roe was in jeopardy: "I am 83 years old. I cannot remain on this Court forever, and when I do step down, the confirmation process for my successor well may focus on the issue before us today. That, I regret, may be exactly where the choice between the two worlds will be made."
Ancillary to the primary right to abortion, Blackmun extended First Amendment protection to commercial speech in Bigelow v. Commonwealth of Virginia, a case where the Supreme Court overturned the conviction of an editor who ran an advertisement for an abortion referral service.
Split with BurgerEdit
After Roe, Blackmun began to drift away from Burger's influence to increasingly side with Brennan in finding constitutional protection for unenumerated individual rights. For example, Blackmun wrote a dissent to the Court's opinion in 1986's Bowers v. Hardwick. The Court's ruling in this case denied constitutional protection to homosexual sodomy. Burger's opinion in Bowers read: "To hold that the act of homosexual sodomy is somehow protected as a fundamental right would be to cast aside millennia of moral teaching." In his dissent, Blackmun responded by quoting Oliver Wendell Holmes: "[i]t is revolting to have no better reason for a rule of law than that so it was laid down in the time of Henry IV. It is still more revolting if the grounds upon which it was laid down have vanished long since, and the rule simply persists from blind imitation of the past." Burger and Blackmun drifted apart, and as the years passed, their lifelong friendship degenerated into a hostile and contentious relationship.
From the 1981 term through the 1985 term, Blackmun voted with Brennan 77.6% of the time, and with Thurgood Marshall 76.1%. From 1986 to 1990, his rate of agreement with the two most liberal justices was 97.1% and 95.8%.
Blackmun's judicial philosophy increasingly seemed guided by Roe, even in areas where Roe was not apparently directly applicable. His concurring opinion in 1981's Michael M. v. Superior Court of Sonoma County, a case that upheld statutory rape laws that applied only to men, did not directly implicate Roe, but because the laws were justified on the basis that women would be subject to the "risk" of pregnancy, Blackmun had cause to discuss Roe further in his opinion.
Later years on the benchEdit
Despite his stated personal "abhorrence" of the death penalty in Furman v. Georgia, he voted to uphold mandatory death penalty statutes at issue in 1976's Roberts v. Louisiana and Woodson v. North Carolina, even though these laws would have automatically imposed the death penalty on anyone found guilty of first-degree murder. But on February 22, 1994, less than two months before announcing his retirement, Blackmun announced that he now saw the death penalty as always and in all circumstances unconstitutional by issuing a dissent from the Court's refusal to hear a routine death penalty case (Callins v. Collins), declaring that "[f]rom this day forward, I no longer shall tinker with the machinery of death." Subsequently, adopting the practice begun by Justices Brennan and Marshall, he issued a dissent from denial of certiorari in every death penalty case, citing and reiterating his Callins dissent. As Linda Greenhouse and others have reported, Blackmun's law clerks prepared what would become the Callins dissent well in advance of the case coming before the Court; Blackmun's papers indicate that work began on the dissent in the summer of 1993, and in a memo preserved in Blackmun's papers, the clerk writing the dissent wrote Blackmun that:
[t]his is a very personal dissent, and I have struggled to adopt your 'voice' to the best of my ability. I have tried to put myself in your shoes and write a dissent that would reflect the wisdom you have gained, and the frustration you have endured, as a result of twenty years of enforcing the death penalty on this Court.
Blackmun and his clerks then sought an appropriate case to serve as a "vehicle for [the] dissent," and settled on Callins. That the case found the dissent, rather than the more traditional relationship of the dissent relating to the case, is underscored by the opinion's almost total omission of reference to the case it ostensibly addressed: Callins is relegated to a supernumerary in his own appeal, being mentioned but five times in a 42-paragraph opinion – three times within the first two paragraphs, and twice in footnote 2.
In his emotional dissent in 1989's DeShaney v. Winnebago County, rejecting the constitutional liability of the state of Wisconsin for four-year-old Joshua DeShaney, who was beaten until brain-damaged by his abusive father, Blackmun famously opined, "Poor Joshua!" In his dissent in 1993's Herrera v. Collins, where the Court refused to find a constitutional right for convicted prisoners to introduce new evidence of "actual innocence" for purposes of obtaining federal relief, Blackmun argued in a section joined by no other justice that "The execution of a person who can show that he is innocent comes perilously close to simple murder."
In Stanton v. Stanton (1975), a case striking down a state's definitions of adulthood (males reaching it at 21, women at 18), Blackmun wrote:
A child, male or female, is still a child ... No longer is the female destined solely for the home and the rearing of the family, and only the male for the marketplace and the world of ideas ... If a specified age of minority is required for the boy in order to assure him parental support while he attains his education and training, so, too, is it for the girl.
Relationship with law clerksEdit
Compared to other justices, Blackmun gave his law clerks great latitude in drafting opinions, such as his opinion in Planned Parenthood v. Casey, which was written by Stephanie Dangel, then one of Blackmun's clerks and now a lawyer in Pennsylvania. Blackmun's Casey opinion draft included sharp criticism of Chief Justice William Rehnquist, which included, according to Dangel, a sarcastic reference to Rehnquist as "The Chief" rather than Chief Justice because "I have my doubts as to whether he deserves to be called 'justice' on this one." Dangel changed it to "Chief Justice" at Justice Anthony Kennedy's urging.
Blackmun also revealed in a 1995 oral history with Harold Koh that his dissent in Bowers v. Hardwick was written by a clerk, Pam Karlan. Blackmun said of the dissent, "[K]arlan did a lot of very effective writing, and I owe a lot to her and her ability in getting that dissent out. She felt very strongly about it, and I think is correct in her approach to it. I think the dissent is correct."
Relationship with other justicesEdit
When Blackmun's papers were released at the Library of Congress, his sometimes negative notations regarding fellow Justice Clarence Thomas came to light. But Thomas spoke positively of Blackmun when he appeared in 2001 at the dedication of the Harry A. Blackmun Rotunda at the St. Louis federal courthouse, mentioning that Blackmun drove a blue Volkswagen Beetle and would tell fast food patrons that he was "Harry. I work for the government."
Blackmun and Justice Potter Stewart both followed baseball obsessively. In one oral argument on October 10, 1973, Stewart passed Blackmun a note that read, "V.P. AGNEW JUST RESIGNED!! METS 2 REDS 0." (The game in question was the fifth and deciding game of the 1973 National League Championship Series, and the Mets won it 7-2, sending them to the 1973 World Series.)
Blackmun announced his retirement from the Supreme Court in April 1994, four months before he officially left the bench, assuming retired status on August 3, 1994. By then, he had become the court's most liberal justice. In his place, President Bill Clinton nominated Stephen Breyer, whom the Senate confirmed, 87–9.
On February 22, 1999, Blackmun fell in his home and broke his hip. The next day, he underwent hip replacement surgery at Arlington Hospital in Arlington, Virginia, but he never fully recovered. Ten days later, on March 4, at the age of 90, he died at 1:00 A.M. from complications from the procedure. He lay in repose in the Great Hall of the United States Supreme Court Building, and was buried five days later at Arlington National Cemetery. His wife died seven years later on July 13, 2006, at the age of 95, and was buried next to him.
|After Words interview with Linda Greenhouse on Becoming Justice Blackmun, May 1, 2005, C-SPAN|
In 2004 the Library of Congress released Blackmun's voluminous files. He had kept all the documents from every case, notes the justices passed between themselves, 10% of the mail he received, and numerous other documents. After Blackmun announced his retirement from the Court, he recorded a 38-hour oral history with one of his former law clerks, former Yale Law School dean Harold Koh, which was also released. In it, he discusses his thoughts on everything from his important Court cases to the Supreme Court piano, though some Supreme Court experts such as David Garrow have cast doubt on the accuracy of some of Blackmun's recollections, especially his thoughts on the Court's deliberations on Roe v. Wade.
Based on these papers, Linda Greenhouse of The New York Times wrote Becoming Justice Blackmun: Harry Blackmun's Supreme Court Journey. Jan Crawford's Supreme Conflict also draws heavily from the papers.
- List of justices of the Supreme Court of the United States
- List of law clerks of the Supreme Court of the United States
- List of United States Supreme Court justices by time in office
- United States Supreme Court cases during the Burger Court
- United States Supreme Court cases during the Rehnquist Court
- Greenhouse 2005, p. 250.
- Roberts, Gary B.; Dearborn, David Curtis; Brayton, John Anderson; Brenneman, Richard E.; New England Historic Genealogical Society (June 1, 1997). Notable Kin: An Anthology of Columns First Published in the Nehgs Nexus, 1986-1995. Carl Boyer. ISBN 9780936124179. Retrieved March 15, 2018 – via Google Books.
- Greenhouse 2005, p. 3.
- Woodward, Bob (1979). The Brethren. Avon. p. 97. ISBN 0-380-52183-0.
- Greenhouse 2005, pp. 2–18.
- Greenhouse 2005, p. 249.
- Greenhouse 2005, pp. 25–29.
- See Warren Weaver Jr., Blackmun Approved, 94-0; Nixon Hails Vote by Senate in The New York Times, May 13, 1970, page 1.
- "Justices 1789 to Present". supremecourt.gov.
- "Members of the Supreme Court of the United States". Supreme Court of the United States. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
- Greenhouse 2005, p. 186.
- Woodward & Armstrong, The Brethren 506 (2005).
- Greenhouse 2005, p. 185.
- Greenhouse 2005, pp. 186–187.
- Greenhouse 2005, p. 235.
- "BLACKMUN, J., Concurring Opinion in Michael M. v. Superior Court". Law.cornell.edu. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- Greenhouse 2005, pp. 177–178.
- Garrow, David J. "Legal Affairs". Legal Affairs. Archived from the original on October 15, 2009. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- "Callins v. Collins, 510 U.S. 1141 (1994)". Supct.law.cornell.edu. Retrieved December 13, 2011.
- Greenhouse 2005, p. 218
- "Blackmun Clerks Had Too Much Power, Says Historian". Law.com. Retrieved May 4, 2011.[dead link]
- Mauro, Tony (March 5, 2004). "Blackmun Papers Are a Window on Court's Daily Life". Law.com. Retrieved May 4, 2011.[dead link]
- "The Volokh Conspiracy". Volokh.com. Retrieved May 4, 2011.
- Liptak, Adam (June 8, 2013). "Exhibit A for a Major Shift: Justices' Gay Clerks". The New York Times (discussing Karlan's authorship of Justice Blackmun's dissent in Bowers).}}
- "StackPath". fedsoc.org. Retrieved August 15, 2020.
- "Clinical Faculty and Staff (Federal Legislation Clinic)". Georgetown Law. Georgetown University. Archived from the original on October 14, 2011. Retrieved October 23, 2020.
- Merida, Kevin; Fletcher, Michael A. (October 10, 2004). "Thomas v. Blackmun". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 19, 2008.
- Biskupic, Joan (December 25, 2007). "Ginsburg, Scalia Strike a Balance". USA Today. Retrieved August 24, 2009.
- "National". jeffersonawards.org. Jefferson Awards Foundation. Archived from the original on November 24, 2010. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
- Greenhouse 2005, p. 247.
- Greenhouse 2005, pp. 247–248
- Clinton, Bill (2005). My Life. Vintage. ISBN 1-4000-3003-X.
- Woodward, Robert and Armstrong, Scott. The Brethren: Inside the Supreme Court (1979). ISBN 978-0-380-52183-8; ISBN 0-380-52183-0. ISBN 978-0-671-24110-0; ISBN 0-671-24110-9; ISBN 0-7432-7402-4; ISBN 978-0-7432-7402-9.
- Wrightsman, Lawrence S., and Justin R. La Mort (2005). Why Do Supreme Court Justices Succeed or Fail? Harry Blackmun as an Example. Missouri Law Review 70.
- Yarbrough, Tinsley. Harry A. Blackmun: The Outsider Justice. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-514123-7.
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Harry Blackmun|
|Wikisource has original works written by or about:|
- Excerpt from Blackmun's Callins opinion, and Justice Scalia's response
- NPR series on Justice Blackmun's Files
- Blackmun's Papers at the Library of Congress
- Justice Blackmun Receives Honorary Doctorate from DePauw University; May 22, 1971
- Transcript: The Justice Harry A. Blackmun Oral History Project
- Harry Blackmun at IMDb
- Arlington National Cemetery
- Appearances on C-SPAN